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argument with an old priest, who vociferated, “ Te-erui made all lands, he made Aitatuki; and after he had made it he gave it its present form, by moulding it with his bands." The teachers answered, that it was pot so; that God alone bad power to create, and that he made Aitutaki, and every other land. The priest continued vociferating upon the greatness of Te-erui, and asserted that he was the first inan. The teachers asked him who was Te-erui's parent. He replied, “ () Tetareva.": They then inquired of him whence Tetareva came; he said, From Avaiki.” They desired to know where Avaiki was; he said, “ It is beneath: Te-tareva climbed up from it; and because he arrived at the top he was called by that name;" whereupon the teachers said, “ This land, then was made before T'e-tareva arrived ? “ Most certainly,” replied the priest. " Then," continued they, “ how can Te-erui be the maker of a Jand, which you say was inade before even his parent Te-tareva came up from beneath ?" This appeared to perplex the priest, and he was silent. They then addressed the assembled muliitude, upon the being of God, affirming, that before any thing was made he only existed, and that he was without beginning, and is without end. From this topic they proceeded to speak of angels, and of one portion of them falling from their original happiness, which was followed by a detailed account of the creation of the world. All this was new to the people; and the interest excited by the announcement appears to have been intense ; for, if the slightest noise was made, there was a general cry of, “Be still, be still, let us hear.” Thus encouraged, the teachers went on to describe the creation of our first parents; their being placed in the garden of Eden; their transgression, with its consequences; and the love of God in giving his dear Son, to die a sacrifice for sinful man. On hearing which, they exclaimed, with one accord, “ Surely this is the truth; ours is all deceit." From that time inany began to listen attentively, and to believe what they heard.-Pp. 65–67.
As at Tabiti, so at Aitutaki the downfal of idolatry was accelerated by ordinary occurrences, in which, however, a Divine agency was too conspicuous to escape observation. So general and powerful was the impression on the minds of the people of Aitutaki, by the circumstances I have narrated, that on the Sabbath day after the death of the chief's daughter, the people of several districts came, cast their idols at the feet of the teachers, and professed themselves worshippers of Jehovah. During the week the rest followed ; so that, by the next Sabbath, not a professed idolater remained in the whole island, On the third Sabbath in December, just about fifteen months after the teachers landed on their shores, they had the delightful satisfaction of seeing the wbole of the inhabitants convened to worship the One living and true God. Having no bouse which would contain so great a number of people, they assembled under the shade of a grove of Barringtonia and mape, or chestnut irees, whose interwoven leaves and thick foliage were at intervals penetrated by the rays of the sun, while the cooling breeze from the ocean swept softly among the branches.
At the conclusion of the services of this memorable day, Papeiba requested the people to attend a general ineering which was to be held on the following morning, when subjects of importance would be brought before them. At the appointed hour, the whole of the inhabitants of the island assembled, and after having spoken to them of the immense labour they formerly bestowed in the erection of their maraes, and in the worship of their false gods, he exhorted them to let their " strength, devotedness, and steadfastness in the service of the true God, far exceed." He then made the two following propositions :-first, " That all the maraes in the island should be burned, and that all the remaining idols should be brought to him, in order that he might forward them to us at Raiatea, that we, with our people, might also rejoice in the triumphs of the word.” The second proposition was, “ That they should commence immediately building a house in which to worship Jehovah." To both of these proposals the assembled multitude yielded their cordial assent. As soon as the meeting broke up, a general conflagration of the maraes took place; and so
complete was the destruction, that, on the following morning, not a single isiol temple remained unmutilated.
The whole population then came in procession, district after district, the chief and priest leading the way, and the people following them, bearing their rejected idols, which they laid at the teachers' feet, and then received from them in return a few copies of the gospels and elementary books. Thus were the labours of two comparatively weak instruments rendered “ mighly through God" in effecting the utter overthrow of an idolatry, dark, debasing, and sanguinary, which had shrouded the by-gone generations of this verdant little island, and held them bound in its fetters.—Pp. 72–74.
Things, however, were not always thus prosperous. At Mangaia, an island only visited once before, by Cook, the Missionaries were nearly destroyed.
Thus our pleasing anticipations were frustrated, and our poor people suffered the " loss of all things," in attempting to introduce the Gospel into this island.
We left the island with feelings of deep regret, but resolved to embrace the first opportunity of sending two single men, who, we had every reason to hope, would suffer no other inconvenience than the loss of their property. A few months after our return to Raiatea, the deputation intending to touch at Mangaia, on their way to New South Wales, it was determined that several teachers should accompany them. Davida and Tiere, two unmarried members of the church at Tahaa, offered their services to carry the Gospel to that island. On arriving at it, these two devoted men, as Papeiha had done before them, leaped into the sea and swam to the shore, taking nothing with them but the light dresses which they wore, and a portion of the New Testament in the Tahitian language, which was carefully wrapt up and tied upon their heads. Contrary to expectation, they were kindly received, an afflicting dispensation of Providence having very much subdued the violent spirit of the people, and prepared the way before them; for soon after our visit, a disease broke out which was exceedingly fatal; the infant and the aged, the chieftain and the peasant, fell alike beneath its deadly influence. Ascribing this calamitous visitation to the vengeance of the “God of the strangers," whom they had ill treated, they collected all the property they had taken from us, and cast it into an immense cavern in one of the mountains; making a vow to“ the God of the strangers," that “ if he would suspend the execution of his vengeance, and conduct his worshippers again to their island, they would receive them kindly, and give them food to eat.”
Thus again we had the pleasing task of recognising the timely interposition of an all-wise and overruling Providence, adapting the means he employs to the circumstances of the people whose minds are to be influenced. And it must be allowed that the event just narrated was calculated to produce as powerful an impression upon the minds of such a people, as if they had been eye-witnesses to a miraculous display of Divine power. -Pp. 80-82.
We have no room for any account of the discovery of Rarotonga; but the following extract from another Missionary's (Mr. Bourne) report about Aitutaki and Rarotonga, will be read with satisfaction.
In reference to Aitutaki, Mr. Bourne says—“They have built a coral pier, six hundred feet in length, and eighteen feet in breadth. The number of plastered houses in the settlement is one hundred and forty-four, in many of which are bedsteads and sofas. The female teachers have taught the women to make good bonnets. They are diligent in learning, and numbers can read. Family and private prayer is very general. Every thing has remained quiet since our last visit; neither war nor rumour of war has been seen or heard, although formerly it was their greatest delight, and the bodies of their slain enemies formed the horrible repast at the conclusion of every engagement.”
Respecting Rarotonga, after having given an account of the large congregations to which he preached, the numbers he baptized, &c., Mr. Bourne observes, -"Much has been said in Europe, &c., concerning the success of the Gospel in Tabiti and the Society Islands, but it is not to be compared with its progress in Rarotonga. In Tahiti, European Missionaries laboured for fifteen long years before the least fruit appeared. But two years ago Rarotonga was hardly known to exist, was not marked in any of the charts, and we spent much time in traversing the ocean in search of it. Two years ago the Rarotongans did not know that there was such good news as the Gospel. And now I scruple not to say, that their attention to the means of grace, their regard to family and private prayer, equals whatever has been witnessed at Tahiti and the neighbouring islands. And when we look at the means, it becomes more astonishing. Two native teachers, not particularly distinguished among their own countrymen for intelligence, have been the instruments of effecting this wonderful change, and that before a single Missionary had set his foot upon the island. I could not help earnestly desiring the presence of my brother Williams, that as we shared in the disappointments experienced in our last voyage, we might share the joy which the change that has since taken place is calculated to produce.”—Pp. 111, 112.
We quote the next extract, in order to confirm an impression made upon us as to the necessity of every Missionary being able to converse in the language of the people whom he visits. This impression is forced on us by the private reports of those who have laboured in the East; and we have little doubt that the same necessity has been experienced elsewhere: and if so, the argument in favour of the plan which the Church of England pursues, in establishing her Colleges, as those of Calcutta and Barbados, is greatly strengthened. Mr. Williams speaks of Rarotonga:
The people were exceedingly kind to us, and diligent in their attendance at the schools, and on all the means of grace. They made, however, but very little progress in reading; and we considered them dull scholars, compared with their sprightly brethren in the Society Islands. Indeed it was to us a matter of astonishment that not a single person in the island could read, although the teachers assured us they had been unremitting in their endeavours to instruct them. It is true they were teaching them in Tahitian, as it was our wish to extend the use of that dialect as far as possible ; but not succeeding, we determined immediately on preparing some books in their own language; and with this view I drew up an elementary work, and translated the Gospel of John and the Epistle to the Galatians, which were printed a few months after; and from the moment the people received books in their own dialect, their progress has been so rapid, that, at the present time, there is a greater number of persons who can read at Rarotonga than at any other of our stations; and I may here add, that I think it a circumstance of very rare occurrence that a religious impression is produced upon the minds of a people, except by addressing them in their mother tongue.- Pp. 121, 122.
(To be continued.)
world were to be converted by such means, we think some greater progress would have been attained than that at which we have hitherto arrived. There is much notwithstanding in this book which is well worthy of the deep consideration of all, and particularly of the Clergy.
Examination Papers for the Use of
Theological students, on the Facts of the Old and New Testaments; the Doctrines and Evidences of Christianity; the History of the Church; Liturgies, Translations of the Bible, &c. By the Author of “ Questions on Adam's Roman Antiquities," 8c. Oxford: Slatter.
1837. 12mo. Pp. vii. 96. THEOLOGICAL students, and those who are preparing for examination by the Bishop's Chaplain, are too frequently left without a sufficient guide either as to the extent of the knowledge which is expected from them, the particular subjects on which they are likely to be questioned, or the mode in which the inquiry will be carried on. Now so comprehensive is this little work, that it will afford the most valuable hints on all these points. It has the merit of enabling a theological student to detect bis own deficiencies, and will put him upon the inquiry as to the sources whence he must look to remedy them. As it is in its comprehensive character—in its being a complete whole-that the excellency of a book of this kind mainly consists, any mere extracts would fail to give an adequate notion of it. The Preface, however, fully explains the design of the work.
The Monthly Visitor, and Friend of
Ireland. To which is added eight
bridge. 1838. This is an agreeable, and a cheap publication, and the poetry and music deserve commendation; and we doubt not will materially aid in extending the love of sacred song through the younger branches of society, for which purpose it is well adapted.
The following quotation from an article on the “Unity of the Church of Rome,” designed to show that there of is much greater difference in that Church than among “the Protestant sects or denominations," presents us with a strange picture indeed; we here extract it, as containing much which is both amusing and instructive on the subject of monkery, with which, happily, in England we are unacquainted. We shall add a few reinarks, however, of our own, which we think are called for by it.
There are in Dublin seven friaries; all these differ one from the other as to orders, also as to many of their rites and ceremonies.
The Calced or Shod Carmelites (an order of friars,) pretend that they were founded long before Christ and his apostles, by Elias the prophet! that they had a friary on Mount Carmel, of which the prophet was general and abbot! The secular priests (who are extremely jealous of the friars) say that this is all a fabrication, and that the Carmelites were founded by one Simon Stock, in the tenth century ; others of the seculars say in the thirteenth century.
Regulars and scculars differ so much in
Young Men; or an Appeal to the
several Classes of Society in their behalf. By Rev. S. Davies, B.C.L. Curate of Bow Brickhill, Bucks.
London : Hatchard. 1838. There is very much which is truly valuable in this book; there is also something which we are doubtful about. The author seems to us to attribute too much to mere statistical details of magistrates and police reports; and, in his alarm at the present aspect of society, to rely, more than we approve,on the human agency of Bible Societies, Mechanics’ Institutes, and other similar means for the reformation of the world. If the
what they call the divine office and mass, hour should be occupied in saying the and their missals and breviaries differ so mass. The old priests who were educated much each from each, that one cannot say in France generally occupy that time, but an office or a mass out of the nissal or the those educated at Maynooth get through breviary of the other. On this great and the mass in twenty minutes, while the important subject, viz. as to the book Carmelites and other friars, by leaving that all should take for their guide, there out some of the parts and hurrying over is no difference whatever among Protes the rest, never occupy more than fifteen tants, wbile the Roman Catholics, in reject- minutes; on account of which expedition ing the Bible as their every-day book, and the laity call the friars' mass “ an hunting as the guide of their lives, are abandoned mass." to distraction and error.
Each of these orders has its nostrum, The seculars, in their confession, con- which it vends for gain, and by which it fess to the Virgin Mary and to all the deceives the ignorant. The scapular is a saints; the Carmelites only to Elias ; the brown belt, which the Carmelites bless and Dominicans say only half the confession, sell; it is thought to produce the greatest and repeat all the saints but Dominick ; emoluments, and as such it is encroached while the laity may be said to differ from on by the other orders; but against this seculars and regulars, not knowing that the Carmelites vehemently object, and there exists any difference among them affirm that they are thereby intruders, and whatever! Here again in another most consequently incur an excommunication. important subject Protestants are most The Discalced or Unshod Carmelites fully agreed, not feeling more convinced are a branch of the Calced Carmelites. of any thing than they are of the impiety The Discalced say that St. Teresa founded and idolatry of praying to, or confessing their order when the Calced Carmelites betheir sins to saints, or to any being save came corrupt--these again are denounced the God of heaven, who is alone the as apostates by the Calced Carmelites. searcher of hearts.
The Franciscans (O. S. F.) pretend to They also differ in what they esteem the have been founded by one St. Francis. most solemn part of the mass, called the They bless the cord of St. Francis. Those canon, in the crosses which are so abundant of this order on the continent differ from in the superstitions of the Romish Church. other friars, and from those of their own The Carmelites and Dominicans make order in Ireland, by not wearing linen, their crosses slow and solemn : the secu but woollen or flannel next their skin. lars and the other orders say this was con. Their chapel is Adam and Eve, Cookdemned at the Council of Trent; and they street. accordingly make their three crosses so The Capuchins (O. C. P.) sprang from quick that they are all finished in about the order of St. Francis ; they pretend to the same space of time that the others are be reformed Franciscans. They delude the making one. At the benediction the friars ignorant by blessing the hood of St. Francis. make three crosses, while the others make Their chapel is in Church-street. but one. Protestants are all agreed in The Dominicans (O. S. D.) pretend rejecting cross-making altogether as super their order was founded in the tenth censlitions and idolatrous.
tury, or according to others in the twelfth. The Carmelites say. “Hail, Holy Queen" Their source of emolument is blessing the in the mass, immediately after the bene white scapular. Their chapel is in Dendiction, whi e all the other orders pro mark-street. nounce them (the Carmelites) accursed for The Augustinians (0. S. A.) pretend thus adding to the primitive mode of saying that their order was founded by St. Authe mass, and that this prayer should only gustine in the third century. They vend be said in the divine office.
the blessing of Augustine's belt, a leathern The Carmelites reckon their Sundays belt with tassels worn round the waist, after Trinity, and all the rest after Pente (but in this kingdom worn under the garcost; the latter say that the former are soments.) They have a chapel in John'sfar like the Protestants. The Dominican lane. leaves out“ Domine, non sum," (Lord, I The Canon Regulars (0. C. R.) pream not worthy) in receiving the Eucharist; tend to be a branch of this order, (the for this the other calls him the “proud Augustinians.) They have no house in Dominican." On putting on the vestment, Dublin ; nor are there many of them in they say different prayers. See Orationes Ireland--one abbot at Cong, in the county ante Missam, also page 88 of the Missal. Mayo, and a few others scattered through
The difference of time of saying mass; the country. the Council of Trent requires that half an The Jesuits (O. R. J.) founded as they