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repaired, so that they may serve for places of defence to the inhabitants, on any pretence, in future times.—Item, the gates, walls, and towers of Dinant shall be pulled down, as well on the opposite side of the Meuse as on this; and the inhabitants shall never rebuild them again. —Item, the inhabitants of the said towns of Thuin, Fosse, Commun and Dinant, or any persons from other towns, shall not rebuild or repair the fortified places between or on the two rivers Sambre and Meuse, on the road to Namur.—Item, one of the gates of Tongres shall also be razed, namely, that which leads to Maestricht, with forty feet of wall on each side of the said gate, without a possibility of its ever being re-erected. The town of Tongres shall likewise, at its own expense, cause to be filled up the trenches they had opened before the said town, when they besieged their lord within it, because they had put the country of Liege under heavy taxes, and had subjugated it. “And whereas it is notorious, that very great losses have attended this subjugation, the aforesaid dukes will, that an aid be levied on this city, and the towns before mentioned, to the amount of two hundred and twenty thousand golden crowns, which shall be raised as soon as may be, being levied in proportion to the comparative riches of each inhabitant.— Item, in case any of the hostages shall die before all the articles of this treaty are completed, the aforesaid lords will, that the town or district whence such hostage or hostages shall have been sent, do instantly furnish others of the same rank and property as those who have died. —Item, they ordain, that when this treaty shall be properly engrossed, the bishop of Liege, his chapter, and the principal inhabitants, shall come to sign it, and engage, that should any

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articles of it be not completed according to the exact tenor of the terms, then for each omission or neglect, the bishop, his successors, the chapter and chief towns, shall forfeit two hundred thousand golden crowns of the coin of the king of France, or other florins of gold of France, of the value of the aforesaid crowns. That is to say, fifty thousand to the then emperor or king of the Romans; to the king of France fifty thousand; and to each of the said dukes the like sum ;-the whole to be levied on the lands and moveables of the said Liegeois, by seizure of their goods and bodies wherever they may be. They are likewise to signify their consent, that should obstacles be thrown in the way by any of the said towns to prevent the articles of the said treaty from being carried into effect, the bishop of Liege, and the archbishop of Cologne for the time being, shall be the arbitrators between such towns,—and their decision shall be final. “When a legal pope shall be elected, and his authority over the whole church of God be acknowledged, then such as make opposition to the execution of the above treaty shall be laid under an interdict, which shall not be taken off, until sufficient reparation be made, and the aforesaid pecuniary forfeitures be paid. Should any of the towns, or their inhabitants, offer any insult, in contradiction to the above treaty, to either of the said dukes or their successors, the bishop of Liege, or his vicar in his absence, the chapter and citizens shall be required to constrain the offenders to make full reparation within one month from the time of complaint being made. And should such reparation not be made within the month, as aforesaid, after the summons to that effect has been delivered, the country shall be liable to the same fines as before mentioned. “The dukes of Burgundy and of Holland order, that all these articles be fairly engrossed, and then sealed with their seals, and then given to the lord bishop of Liege, or to his chapter, with a copy for the city of Liege and one for each principal town. In return, the bishop and the towns shall give to the dukes aforesaid, letters signed with their great seals acknowledging the receipt of the above treaty, and promising obedience to all the articles of it, and binding themselves to the fines therein mentioned. “As many noble persons and others, as well secular as ecclesiastic, have presented many petitions to complain of the great losses they have suffered during the late rebellion, and specifying their particular grievances, the dukes aforesaid, not having had time to examine them with the attention they deserve, will have them examined with all possible speed, and will attend to each of them.” The whole of the above, having been written out fair, was, by the command of the two dukes aforesaid, publicly proclaimed in the great hall at Lille, and in their presence, the 24th day of October, in the year 1408.

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CHAPTER XLVIII.--THE KING OF FRANCE Holds A GRAND COUNCIL AT PARIS, TO CONSIDER ON THE MANNER OF PROCEEDING AGA frusT THE DUEE OF BURGUNDY FOR THE MURDER OF THE DUKE OF ORLEANS.

DURING the expedition of the duke of Burgundy against the Liegeois, a great many of the principal lords were, by the king's orders, assembled at Paris. Among them were, Louis king of Sicily, Charles king of Navarre, the duke of Brittany, the duke of Bourbon, and several others, the greater part of whom were friendly to the duchess-dowager of Orleans and her children in their prosecution of the duke of Burgundy. Many councils were held as to the manner in which the king should proceed against the duke of Burgundy, who was the principal actor in this murder, as has been before explained. It was at length determined in these councils, that a most rigorous prosecution, in conformity to the laws, should be carried on against him; and should he refuse to obey, the king, with all his subjects and vassals, should march, with as great a force as could be raised, against him, to bring him and his abettors to due obedience. At the same time, at the solicitations of the duchess of Orleans and her children, the king annulled all his letters of pardon which he had formerly granted to the duke of Burgundy, and declared them of no weight, in the presence of the queen, the duke of Aquitaine, the princes of the blood, and the whole of the council. The duchess demanded and obtained letters, confirming this renunciation of the pardon; after which, i. and her daughter-in-law, wife to the young duke of Orleans, left Paris, and returned to

O18.

Not long after this, news came to Paris of the great victory which the duke of Burgundy had gained over the Liegeois. This was confirmed by the return of the king's ambassadors, sir Guichard Daulphin and sir William de Tignonville, who, as has been related, were present at the battle, and gave to the king, and the lords then in Paris, a most circumstantial account of it. On hearing this, several who had been most violent against the duke of Burgundy, now hung their heads, and began to be of a contrary opinion to what they had before held, fearing the steadiness, boldness, and power of the duke, who was said to have a mind equal to the support of any misfortunes that should happen to him, and which would encourage him to oppose and conquer all attempts of his adversaries. In short, all the measures that had been adopted against him were dropped, and the men-at-arms were ordered to return to the places whence they had come.

Ambassadors had arrived from England to treat of a peace, or a truce for one year, between the kings of England and of France; which having obtained, they set out on their return, through Amiens and Boulogne, to Calais. On the road, they heard of the grand victory of the duke of Burgundy, which surprised them very much, and they gave him the surname of “Jean sans peur.” The duke of Burgundy was very active in attaching to his party noblemen and warriors from all countries, to strengthen himself against his enemies, of whom he was given to understand that he had many. He held on this subject several consultations with his two brothers and brothers-in-law, namely, duke William of Holland and John of Bavaria, to which were admitted his most trusty friends; and they deliberated long on the manner in which he should now carry himself. It was at length finally concluded, that he should openly oppose all, excepting the king of France and the duke of Aquitaine; and those present promised him aid and support with all the power of their vassals, on these terms.

cHAPTER xLIx.--THE RING OF FRANCE Is CARRIED, BY THE PRINCEs of THE Blood, to TOURS IN TOURAINE.—PEACE IS MADE IN THE TOWN OF CHARTRES.–THE DEATH OF THE DOWAGER DUCEHESS OF ORLEANS.

THE king of France left Paris, accompanied by the kings of Sicily and Navarre, the queen, the duke of Aquitaine, the dukes of Berry and Bourbon, who, with others of the blood-royal, conducted him, under the escort of a large body of men-at-arms, to Tours in Touraine, as his place of residence,—to the great displeasure of the inhabitants of Paris, who were so much troubled thereat that they barricadoed the streets with chains. They hastily sent to inform the duke of Burgundy, at Lille, of the king's departure, giving him to understand that the greater part of those who had carried him away from Paris were not well inclined towards him. This intelligence was not very agreeable to the duke, for he suspected that the king had only been conducted to Tours that his enemies might carry their measures against him more securely; for the lords who had the government knew well that the Parisians loved the duke of Burgundy, and would not that any other should have the government of the kingdom; believing, from the hints he had thrown out, that when in power he would abolish all gabelles, and other taxes which oppressed the people.

The duke of Burgundy first consulted the dukes of Brabant and of Holland, and other steady friends; and then remanded his men-at-arms from Burgundy, who were on their march to their own country from Liege, and assembled another body from various parts. He advanced to Roye, in the Wermandois, where he mustered his men, and then marched them toward Paris. He quartered himself, on the 23d day of November, in the town of St. Denis, and his forces in the adjacent country. On the morrow, as he was advancing with his menat-arms in array toward Paris, two thousand or more combatants sallied out thence, and conducted him, with every mark of honour, to his hôtel of Artois. Many of the Parisians sung carols in the squares, although all rejoicings had been strictly forbidden on his arrival, to avoid increasing the envy of the princes of the blood. Some of the king's servants said to those who were singing carols, “You may otherwise show your joy for his arrival, but you ought not thus to sing.” Notwithstanding this, all the principal citizens, and those in authority, showed him as much honour and respect as if he had been king himself.

WOL. I. K

A few days afterwards, duke William, count of Hainault, arrived at Paris, well accompanied by unarmed men ; and, at the request of the duke of Burgundy, set out for Tours, attended by the lords de Croy, de St. George, de la Viefville, d'Olhaz, and others of the council of the duke, to negotiate his peace with the king, and the lords who had carried him from paris. The count of Hainault was most honourably received at Tours by the king, the queen, and the other great lords; for the marriage had taken place between John duke of Touraine, second son to the king, and the daughter of the duke of Burgundy: he was also

nearly related to the queen.

Charles VI., from his Tomb at St. DENIs, and his Quern Isabella of Bavaria.--
From a print in Vol. II. of Mezeray's Histoire de la France.

On the conclusion of the feasts made on his arrival, the count of Hainault, and those who had accompanied him, opened, in full council, the business of their mission, namely, to make peace for the duke of Burgundy. After many discussions, it was resolved, that the king should send certain persons, selected by him, to hold a conference with the duke of Burgundy at Paris, and point out to him the means of his regaining the good graces of the king. Duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, Montagu, grand master of the king's household, and other experienced counsellors, were nominated for this purpose; and they returned with the

count de Hainault to Paris, when what had passed was told to the duke of Burgundy. As

all the circumstances of this treaty were not agreeable to the duke, and as he had many suspicions respecting Montagu, he was not disposed to receive the negotiators in the way they were sent to him. He even personally made many reproaches to Montagu, who bore them patiently, excusing himself for anything that had passed. The treaty, however, having been altered and corrected, was sent back to the king at Tours, and in the end agreed to in the manner you shall hear. While these negotiations were going forward, and before their conclusion, the duchessdowager of Orleans", daughter to Galeazzo, duke of Milan, died in the town of Blois, broken-hearted at not having been able to obtain justice from the king and council against the duke of Burgundy for the murder of her late lord and husband, Louis duke of Orleans. The duke of Burgundy was much rejoiced at this event, for the duchess had bitterly carried on her prosecution against him. Her heart was buried at Paris, near that of her husband, and her body in the church of the canons at Blois. After her death, Charles, her eldest son, was duke of Orleans and of Valois, count of Blois and of Beaumont, lord of Coni and of Ast.

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Chanles Duke of ORLEANs-From a MS. illumination engraved in Montfaucon, Wol. III.

with many other lordships:–Philip, the second son, was count of Vertus, and John, the youngest, was named count of Angoulême. These three brothers, and one sister, thus became orphans, but they had been very well educated; yet, by the deaths of the duke and duchess of Orleans, they were much weakened in support and advice,—and several of the king's ministers were not so zealous to prosecute the duke of Burgundy as they had been. This was very apparent in the negotiations which took place some little time after the death of the duchess, between the duke of Burgundy and the children of Orleans; for although the treaty sent by the king was not wholly to the liking of the duke, as has been said, yet it was so corrected that the parties accepted of it in the following terms:

* This unfortunate princess, who was subjected to so much obloquy from vulgar prejudices, was one of the most amiable women of her time. She was loudly accused of having practised arts learnt in Italy, where the preparation of poison was best understood, and its use most frequently practised, for the destruction of the king. Witchcraft was also imputed to her, but the only arts she practised were the spells of a gentle and affectionate disposition. Whilst her husband, the duke of Orleans, was occupied in gallantries with Queen Isabella, his gentle wife was soothingt he paroxysms of the afflicted king, who, in such cases, could only be calmed by her voice. He was accustomed to call her his dear sister, sa saeur cherie, and was never easy when away from her presence. Her husband's infidelities

could not obliterate the affection she had borne for him, not even when he publicly took pride in them, causing his death by a vain unfounded boast, that even the duchess of Burgundy had smiled on him, a boast never forgiven by the duke. Disappointed of the justice she sought, her heart failed her at last; but, on her death-bed, she called around her her children, and exhorted them never to cease their pursuit of their father's murderer. Dunois, the bastard of Orleans, accompanied them,-a striking proof of the duchess's constant love, since she included her husband's illegitimate child in her affections. He answered her appeal more warmly than the rest, upon which she touchingly exclaimed, “Alas! they robbed me; he ought to have been my son."—Ed.

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