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lords de Torsy, de Rambures, and de Viefville, with a certain number of men-at-arms, to the city of Asti, belonging to the duke of Orleans, and near to the territory of Genoa, with the hope of affording assistance to Boucicaut. On their arrival at Asti, they found that the whole country was in rebellion, excepting some forts, which held out for the French; but as they were without the town, and could not contain many men, from dread of wanting provision, they were not of consequence, nor could they do much mischief. The above knights, therefore, perceiving they could not perform any essential services, resolved to return to France.

All merchants, and others who came from or had any connexions with Genoa, were now sought after in Paris, arrested and imprisoned, and their goods confiscated to the king's use. Now these Genoese had for a long time been under obedience to the king, and had diligently served him in many of his wars.

CHAPTER LVII.--THE PRINCEs of THE BLOOD ASSEMBLE, AND REsolve To REFoRM THE MANAGEMENT OF THE ROYAL FINANCES.-The DEATH OF MONTAGU.

At this period, the following princes of the blood, Louis king of Navarre", the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, and many other great lords, were at Paris; and having learnt that the king's treasury was impoverished by his officers and those who governed him, insomuch that his plate and the greater part of his jewels were in pawn, they one day personally explained to the king, in the presence of the queen, the duke of Aquitaine and others of his council, the miserable state of his finances, and the unworthy government of the officers of his household. They at the same time requested, that he would be pleased to permit that some of them should have power to reform in general the abuses that had commenced with his reign, and to call to an account, dismiss, and punish all who should have mismanaged the finances, according as the cases might require, without any exception whatever. This request the king granted; and for the better carrying on their object, the greater part of the lords before-mentioned left their own hotels, and resided in the king's palace of St. Pol, where, with the advice of the members of the parliament and the university, they continued their reformations for many days.

They soon discovered that those who had managed the finances for the last sixteen or twenty years had very dishonestly acquitted themselves, and had acquired for themselves and their friends immense fortunes, to the prejudice of the state. Montagu, who had been the principal minister of finance, was particularly the object they aimed at, and they ordered him, with several others, to be arrested and confined in the prison of the Châtelet. Sir Peter des Essars, provost of Paris, was directed to put this order into execution, with his sergeants; and by the command of the duke of Burgundy, the lords de Heylly, de Robais, and sir Roland de Vequerque, were appointed to assist the provost in this duty. Having assembled together, they, on a certain day, met Montagu, and with him the doctor, Martin Gouge, bishop of Chartres, both going to hear mass at the monastery of St. Victor.

The provost, attended by the above lords, on meeting them, laid his hands on both, saying, “I lay hands on you by virtue of the royal authority vested in me for this purpose."— Montagu, hearing these words, was much astonished, and trembled greatly; but his courage soon returned, and he replied to the provost, “What! rascal, art thou daring enough to lay hands on me?” But the provost answered, “Matters will not turn out as you think, for you must make reparation for the many and great mischiefs you have done." Montagu, unable to resist, was tightly bound by the provost, and carried by him straight to the Little Châtelet. The bishop of Chartres was arrested with him, as he had been president of one of the financial departments. Montagu was several times put to the torture, insomuch that, suspecting his end was approaching, he asked his confessor what he had best do: the confessor replied, “I see no other remedy than your appealing from the jurisdiction of the provost of Paris.” This he did; and the provost waited on the lords who had commanded him to arrest Montagu, to inform them, that he had appealed against his jurisdiction. The parliament was consequently convoked to examine into the matter; and the members of it declared the appeal of no effect. The lords, therefore, seeing the cause had been judged, said to the provost, “Go, without delay, accompanied by some of the populace well armed, take thy prisoner, and finish the matter by cutting off his head with an axe, and fix it on a lance in the market-place.” After these words, the populace armed themselves, and, on the 17th of October, assembled in bodies in the Place Maubert, and in other parts of the town. They carried Montagu to a scaffold erected in the market-place, where, having made him strip to his shirt, they cut off his head, and fixed it to the end of a pike, and hung his body by the shoulders to the highest gibbet at Montfaucon. This execution was chiefly owing, as it was said, to the duke of Burgundy's hatred to him, who even sent for a very great number of the nobles of his countries of Burgundy, Flanders, and Artois, to be spectators of it. A little before this execution took place, the duke of Bourbon, and his son the count de Clermont, left Paris, indignant at the arrest of Montagu. The duke of Orleans, his brothers, and all of their party, were also very much displeased that he was put to death, but they could not help it, for at that time they were not listened to by the king's council. On the morrow of this event, duke William count of Hainault arrived at Paris, having been sent for by the duke of Burgundy. A large company of the nobles went out of the town to meet him; and he was most graciously received by the king, the duke of Aquitaine, and the other princes. On his arrival, the hotel that had belonged to Montagu was given to him, with all its furniture, for it had been confiscated to the king's use; and duke William took instant possession. The castle of Marcoussi, which had been built by Montagu, was seized by the king: it is situated seven leagues from Paris, on the road to Chartres. Montagu was born in Paris, and had first been secretary to the king : he was the son of Gerard de Montagu, who had also been secretary to Charles V. He was of noble birth by his mother's side, and had three daughters, two of whom were married; the elder to John" count de Roussy, the second to Peter de Craon, lord of Montbason; and the third was betrothed to John de Melun, son to the lord d'Antoing +, but the match was broken off: his son was married to the daughter of the lord d'Albret, constable of France and cousin to the king, as has been related. After this, the provost of Paris arrested many of the king's officers, particularly those who had been concerned in the finances and in matters of revenue. All the principals in the department of the generalities, the presidents and others of the chamber of accounts, Perrin Pillot, a merchant, with several others, were imprisoned in the Louvre and in other places of confinement. When the borgne de Foucal, equerry to the king, and keeper of that department of the treasury called the Epargne, heard that the grand master of the household was arrested, he was greatly astonished and troubled, and instantly changing his dress, mounted a fleet horse, and secretly left Paris. This caused him to be much suspected of improper conduct by the princes who were examining into these matters. At this period, the archbishop of Sens, brother to the grand master, Guichart Daulphin, William de Tignonville, knights, and master Goutier Col, secretary to the king, were sent, by orders from the king, to meet the English ambassadors at Amiens. The archbishop, hearing of the arrest and imprisonment of his brother, took leave of his companions, and set out from Amiens: but as he was journeying towards Paris, he was met by one of the king's ushers, who made him his prisoner; for he had orders so to do from the king, and confine him at Amiens, should he chance to find him there. The archbishop very prudently replied, that he was ready to follow him to prison or to death; but when they came to the river Oise, near the priory of St. Leu de Cherens, he played the usher a trick. On leaving the ferry-boat with a few of his people, he mounted the fleetest of his horses, and galloped off, leaving the usher on the other side waiting for the return of the ferry-boat; but, thunderstruck at his being so cheated, he returned to Paris without his prisoner. The lord de Tignonville, having been a member of the chamber of accounts, was, by command of the princes, arrested by the bailiff of Amiens, and confined in his prison. But, after a short time, he, the bishop of Chartres, and the other prisoners at Paris, were suspended from their offices, and, having given bail, were permitted to go about Paris, or wherever they pleased. The princes, not being able to attend sufficiently to these matters of reform from their other occupations of greater weight, appointed a commission to examine carefully into them, which commission was composed of the counts de la Marche, de Vendôme and de St. Pol, with some members of the parliament. The men-at-arms that had been called together round Paris by the duke of Burgundy and others, were disbanded; and each, as they returned to the places whence they had come, devoured the substance of the poor people, according to the custom of that time. Sir Guichart Daulphin", before mentioned, was, by the princes, appointed grand master of the king's household, in the room of the murdered Montagu ; for the king was then troubled with his usual disorder. The bishop of Paris now requested of the princes, that they would, in their mercy, permit him to have the body of his brother taken down from the gibbet, and, with many tears and supplications, petitioned for leave to bury him. But neither of these requests was granted him by the princes; on which the bishop, ashamed of the disgraceful death of one brother and the flight of another, the archbishop of Sens, soon after quitted his see, and taking with him his sister-in-law, the widow of Montagu, and some of their children, for the duke of Berry had already appointed another chancellor, went to the estate of his sister-in-law in Savoy: she was the daughter of sir Stephen de la Grange, formerly president of the parliament, and brother to the cardinal d'Amiens. The borgne de Foucal, not answering to the proclamations that were made for his appearance, was banished the realm of France, by sound of trumpet in the four quarters of Paris. In like manner were the archbishop of Sens, and many other fugitives, banished the kingdom. The king of Navarre, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy and Holland, with the counts de Vendôme and de la Marche, and several great lords, waited on the queen of France and the duke of Aquitaine, to make them acquainted with the reasons for the executing of Montagu, and what progress they had made in the reformation of abuses, and the measures they had pursued against such as were criminal. The queen testified her satisfaction, and was contented that they should proceed as they had begun. She was, however, far from being pleased with the duke of Burgundy, whom she dreaded, from the great power he was now possessed of, more than any of the other princes, although he treated her respectfully in his speech. The marriage of the lord Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, was again talked of with the daughter of the king of Navarre; and he was presented with the castle of Marcoussi, with all its furniture and appurtenances, which had lately been confiscated to the king, by the death of Montagu, which was very agreeable to the queen. After these lords had for some days transacted business at Melun, where the court was, they all returned to Paris, carrying with them master Peter Bosthet, president of the parliament, and some members of the chamber of accounts, and assembled daily to inquire after those persons who had been in the receipt and expenditure of the public revenues. During this time, the king, who had been very ill, was restored to health, insomuch that on the 2d day of December, he rode from his palace of St. Pol, dressed in a hauberk under his robes, to the cathedral church of Nôtre Dame, where he made his prayers, a page carrying behind him a very handsome steel helmet and a Moorish lance. Having finished his prayers, he returned to his palace of Saint Pol. On the morrow, he held a royal council in person, at which were present the king of Navarre, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and of Bourbon, which last was lately returned to Paris. It was there resolved, that the king should summon the following lords to attend him personally at the ensuing feast of Christmas, namely, the dukes of Orleans, of Brittany, of Brabant, of Bar, and of Lorrain: the counts of Savoyt, of Alençon, of Penthievre, of Namur, of Harcourt, of Armagnaci, and in general all the great lords within his realm of France and Dauphiny, with many prelates and other noblemen. After this summons of the king, the duke of Burgundy gave orders for a large body of menat-arms to be collected in his countries of Flanders, Artois, and Burgundy, for the safety of his person. Shortly after this council, duke William count of Hainault went to Melun, the residence of the queen of France, who was his near relation; and so managed that she, who could not bear the duke of Burgundy, and had strongly supported the party adverse to him, namely, that of my lord the duke of Orleans, was reconciled to him.

* Q. Louis king of Sicily? or Charles king of Navarre? Probably the latter.

* John VI. count of Roucy and Braine, son of Hugh younger branch of the house of Melun, counts of Tanca: count de Roucy and Blanche of Coucy. He married Isabel ville. John I. viscount of Melun, was grandfather both de Montagu, and was killed at Azincourt. to the count of Tancarville and the lord d'Antoing, men

f The lords of Antoing and princes of Espinoy were a tioned in this volume.

* Guichard Dauphin, descended from the old counts de + Amadeus VIII. the first duke of Savoy, son of AmaClermont, dauphins of Auvergne, grand-master from 1409, deus VII. and Bona, daughter to the duke of Berry. to 1413. He was son to Guichard Dauphin I. grand- t Bernard VII. brother of John III., count of Arunaster of the cross-bows. magnac, killed at Alexandria della Paglia, as related by

CHAPTER LVIII.-DUKE LOUIS OF BAWARIA ESPOUSES THE DAUGHTER OF THE King of NAVARRE.--THE NAMES OF THE LORDS WHO CAME TO PARIS IN OBEDIENCE TO THE KING's or DERs.

About this time, duke Louis of Bavaria was married at Melun to the daughter of the king of Navarre, according to what has been before mentioned. She had previously married the eldest son of the king of Arragon", who had lately been slain in a battle between him and the viscount de Narbonne and the Sardinians, which took place in Sardinia. There was much feasting at this wedding, which was attended by many lords, ladies, and damsels. About Christmas the greater part of those lords whom the king had summoned, arrived at Paris: the duke of Orleans and his brothers, however, did not come. On the eve of Christmas-day, the king went to the palace to hold his state, and remained there until St. Thomas's day, where he celebrated most solemnly the feast of the nativity of our Lord.

On this day the following persons were seated at the king's table at dinner: on his right, doctor William Bouratier, archbishop of Bourges, who had said the mass; next to him was the cardinal de Bar. The king was seated at the middle of the table, very magnificently dressed in his royal robes. On his left were the dukes of Berry and Burgundy. A great variety of ornamental plate was produced in gold and silver, which were wont to be served before the king on high feasts, but which had not for some time been seen, because they had been pawned to Montagu, and had been found after his death in his castle of Marcoussi, and in other places where he had hidden them. By orders from the princes of the blood they had been replaced, as usual, in the king's palace, which was a very agreeable sight to the nobles and people of Paris, from their regard to the honour of the king's person, and his royal state.

A great many princes and others had obeyed the king's summons, and were at this feast, —namely, the king of Navarre, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, Bourbon, Brabant, duke William count of Hainault, the duke of Lorrain, duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, —and nineteen counts, namely, the count de Mortain, brother to the king of Navarre, the count de Nevers, the count de Clermont, the marquis du Pont, son to the duke of Bar, the count de Vaudenont, the count d'Alençon, the count de Vendôme, the count de Penthievre, the count de St. Pol, the count de Cleves, the count de Tancarville, the count d'Angyi, the count de Namur, and several others, to the aforesaid amount. The number of knights who accompanied these princes was so great that, from the report of the heralds, they were more than eighteen hundred knights without including esquires. Nevertheless, there were not in this noble company the duke of Orleans nor his brothers, nor the duke of Brittany, nor the lord d'Albret, constable of France, nor the counts de Foix, d'Armagnac, and many other

Froissart. This count was a man of the most unbounded island of Sardinia was at this time divided between the

ambition, and had already, in the forcible seizure of the
county of Fesenzaguet, (the appanage of a younger branch
of Armagnac,) and the murder of its count, Geraud III.,
and his two sons, discovered an unprincipled cruelty of
disposition, remarkable even at this calamitous period of
history. He married Bona of Berry, the widow of
Amadeus VII., and mother of Amadeus VIII, above-
mentioned.
* Martin, king of Sicily, by whose death without issue
the king of Arragon was deprived of male heirs. The

Genoese and Arragonian factions. The chief of the former
was Brancaleon d'Oria, whose sister was married to William
count of Narbonne. Turquet calls him Aimery, -and
says that the king of Sicily was not killed, but died a
natural death at Cagliari, after obtaining a victory over the
confederates.
t Q. Angennes P John d'Angennes, lord de la Louppe,
was governor of Dauphiné and afterwards of the Louvre,
and enjoyed great credit at court.

potent lords, although they had been summoned by the king in like manner as the others. On St. Thomas's day, after the king had feasted his nobles in royal state, the queen, by orders from the king, came from the castle of Vincennes to Paris. All the princes, prelates, and great crowds of people, went out to meet her and her son, the duke of Aquitaine, and

Charles Duke of AquitAINE, Fourth Dauphin of FRANCE, AND Second Son of Charles VI.
From a print in Wol. II. of Mezeray's Histoire de la France.

conducted her to the palace, where they presented her to the king, in the presence of all the before-mentioned lords. Her son had visited his government, to be properly instructed in arms, and other necessary matters, that he might be the better qualified to rule his kingdom when it should fall to him.

chapTER LIX.--THE KING OF FRANCE KEEPS ROYAL STATE IN HIS PALACE, WHEREIN SEVERAL of THE GREAT LORDS BEFORE-MENTIONED HOLD MANY COUNCILS ON THE sTATE OF THE NATION.

IN consequence of several meetings having been held in the presence of the king, queen, and duke of Aquitaine, the king ordered the great hall of the palace to be magnificently prepared for a royal sessions. Thither were summoned all the principal noblemen, prelates, and others, when the king appeared seated in his regal robes. On one side of him were the king of Navarre and the cardinal de Bar, and on the other the duke of Aquitaine, the duke of Berry, and all the other princes and nobles, each seated according to his rank: in like manner were the prelates, knights, and clergy, and a multitude of others, seated according to their respective situations in life. Then, by the king's commands the count de Tancarville, an able and eloquent man, harangued, with a loud and clear voice, how Richard, late king of England, and son-in-law to the king, had been basely and treacherously put to death, during the time of a truce, by Henry of Lancaster, calling himself king of England, but then earl of Derby, in conjunction with his partisans, as might be fully proved by several of

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