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a very handsome platform erected without the porch, and there solemnly crowned in the presence of all those whom I have mentioned, and a great multitude of doctors and clergy. When seated on his throne, which was covered all over with cloth of gold, he was surrounded by the cardinals de Vimers, de Challant, de Milles, d'Espaigne, de Thurey, and de Bar, having tufts of tow in their hands. The cardinals lighted their tufts; and as the flame was suddenly extinguished, they addressed the pope, saying, “Thus, holy father, passes the glory of this world!" This was done three times. The cardinal de Wimers having said some prayers over him and on the crown, placed it upon his head. This crown was a triple one: the first of gold, which encircled the forehead within the mitre; the second of gold and silver, about the middle of the mitre; and the third, of very fine gold, surmounted it. He

Tiara and Official Badges of the PopeDow.—Selected from old Italian pictures.

was then led down from the platform, and placed on a horse covered over with scarlet furniture. The horses of the cardinals and bishops, &c. were caparisoned in white; and in this state he was conducted from street to street, making everywhere the sign of the cross, until he came to where the Jews resided, who presented him a manuscript of the Old Testament. He took it with his own hand, and having examined it a little, threw it behind him, saying, “Your religion is good, but this of ours is better.” As he departed, the Jews followed him, intending to touch him, in the attempt of which, the caparison of his horse was all torn.—Wherever he passed, the pope distributed money, that is to say, quadrini and mailles of Florence, with other coins. There were before and behind him two hundred men-at-arms, each having in his hand a leathern mallet, with which they struck the Jews in such wise as it was a pleasure to see. On the morrow, he returned to his palace, accompanied by the cardinals dressed in crimson, the patriarchs in like manner, the archbishops and bishops in similar dresses, having white mitres on their heads, and numbers of mitred and non-mitred abbots. In this procession were, the majouis of Ferrara", the lord Malatestat, the lord of Gaucourti, and others, to the amount of forty-four, as well dukes as counts and knights of Italy, all dressed out in their liveries. In each street, two and two by turns led the pope's horse by the bridle, the one on the right hand, and another on the left. There were thirty-six bagpipes and trumpets, and ten bands of minstrels playing on musical instruments, each band consisting of three performers. There were also singers, especially those of the chapel of his predecessor, as well as those belonging to the cardinals and from different parts of Italy, who rode before the pope loudly chaunting various airs, sacred and profane. When he arrived at the palace, he gave his peace to all the cardinals, who, according to their rank in the college, kissed his foot, hand, or mouth. The cardinal de Vimers first performed the ceremony, and was followed by the other cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, abbots and clergy. He then gave his benediction to the four elements, and to all persons in a state of grace, as well to those absent as present, and bestowed his dispensations for four months to come, provided that, during this time, three Pater-nosters should be said by each in praying for his predecessor, pope Alexander. Pope John then went to dinner, as it was now about twelve o'clock, and this ceremony had commenced between five and six in the morning. In honour of him, feasts were continued at Bologna for the space of eight days; and on each of them very handsome processions were made round St. Peter's church, when the prelates were all dressed in vermilion robes, with copes of the same. In like manner did the Carthusians of St. Michael's Mount, without the walls of Bologna.

* Probably Nicholas d'Este, connected by marriage with posts of chamberlain, governor of Dauphine, and grand

the house of Malatesta. master of the household, became a distinguished actor in + Probably Pandulph Malatesta, lord of Rimini, a cap- the wars with the English, from 1427 to 1437 particularly. tain of great reputation and adherent of king Ladislaus. There was also a sir Eustace de Gaucourt, lord of Wicy

: Sir Raoul de Gaucourt, successively promoted to the who was grand falconer in 1406 and 1412.

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Pehlic Inauguration of the Pope. The Pope is crowned with the Tiara, and scated on a richly-caparisoned Mule led by two Cardinals.—Original design.

The next day, the 25th of May, pope John held a consistory, in the presence of the cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, and presented to the marquis of Ferrara and the Italian heralds many and various rich gifts. This was followed by a great feast, with dancing and music. The ensuing day, the pope revoked all that his predecessor had done, excepting what he had confirmed, or what had been taken corporal or spiritual possession of. King Louis of Sicily arrived at Bologna the Friday after the coronation of the pope, and twenty-two cardinals, two patriarchs, six archbishops, twenty bishops, and eighteen abbots, handsomely equipped, went out of the city to meet him: on his entrance, he went directly to the pope. He was clothed in scarlet, and his horse's furniture was ornamented with small gilt bells: he was attended by about fifty knights dressed in his uniform. It was the last day of May that the king arrived,—and he was most graciously received by the pope. The ensuing day, the Florentines came to pay their duty and reverence to the holy father. They were about three hundred horse, among whom were eighteen knights dressed in scarlet, with feathers bespangled with gold. They were attended by six trumpets, two heralds, and ten musicians playing on different instruments. When they had made their reverence to the pope, they returned to their hotels, and the next day went to court. By reason of their alliance with king Louis, they supplicated the pope to give him assistance against his adversary king Ladislaus, adding, that they intended affording him every aid in their power of men and money. These Florentines were very indignant at the late conduct of the Genoese in regard to the king of Sicily; for when the king of Sicily was sailing with five galleys from Marseilles, near to the port of Genoa, the Genoese, being in the interest of king Ladislaus, hastily armed fifteen galleys with cross-bows and men-at-arms, and sent them to attack the remainder of king Louis's fleet that was following him, which they conquered, all but one, that escaped back to Marseilles by superior sailing, and carried the crews and all their baggage prisoners to Genoa. The pope, having heard their request, asked some time to consider of it before he gave an answer. He could not well consent to it, because the Genoese had been long connected with him, and he had also entered into some engagements with king Ladislaus. The matter was, therefore, deferred. King Louis was, notwithstanding this, magnificently feasted by the pope and cardinals; after which, he left his court well pleased, and returned to Provence. On the first day of June, the pope held an open court, and signed many graces and benefices, and all such things as with honour and justice he could sign. He continued from that time to hold public audiences, and to do whatever business appertained to the papacy.

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chapTER LxiII.—The GRAND MASTER OF PRUSSIA MARCHES A POWERFUL ARMY OF ChristiANS INTO Lithuan IA.

This year, 1410, the grand master of the Teutonic order, accompanied by his brother knights and a numerous army of three hundred thousand Christians, invaded the kingdom of Lithuania, to destroy the whole of it. The king of Lithuania was soon ready to meet him; and, aided by the king of Sarmatia, he assembled an army of four hundred thousand infidels, and offered battle. The Christians gained a complete victory, for there remained dead on the field full thirty-six thousand infidels, the principals of whom were the grand general of Lithuania and the constable of Sarmatia. The remnant, with the other officers, escaped by flight. Of the Christians, only two hundred were slain, but a great many were wounded. Shortly after, the king of Poland, who was a determined enemy to the grand master of Prussia, (and who had but faintly accepted of Christianity in order to obtain his kingdom) marched his Polanders to the assistance of the infidels, whom he strongly pressed to renew the war against Prussia, insomuch that, eight days after this defeat, the king of Poland, in conjunction with the aforesaid two kings, assembled an army of six hundred thousand men, and marched against the grand master of Prussia, and other Christian lords. A battle ensued, which was lost by the Christians, who had more than sixty thousand killed and wounded. In the number of dead were the grand master of Prussia, with a noble knight from Normandy, called sir John de Ferriere, son to the lord de Ferriere, and another from Picardy, son to the lord du Bos d'Ancouin.

It was currently reported that the day had been lost through the fault of the constable of Hungary, who commanded the second squadron of the Christians, by running away with all his Hungarians. The infidels, however, did not gain the glory without loss, for without counting the Polanders, who had ten thousand men slain, they lost upward of six-score thousand men, according to the reports of the heralds, and the bastard of Scotland, called the count de Hembe". The lord de Kyeuraing and John de Grez, Hainaulters,

• Count de Hembe. Q.

were there, and with them full twenty-four gentlemen, their countrymen, who were unhurt at this battle, and returned home as speedily as they could. After the engagement, the infidels entered Prussia, and despoiled many parts of it, and took twelve inclosed towns in a short time and destroyed them. They would have persevered in their wickedness, and have done further mischief, had not a valiant knight of the Teutonic order, named Charles de Mourousle.*, rallied a great number of the Christians who had fled, and by his prudence and vigour regained the greater part of these towns, and finally drove the infidels out of the country't.

CHAPTER LXIv.—The DUKE of BERRY QUITS PARIS, AND RETIREs to HIs own ESTATEs. —HE Goes AFTERw ARD to ANGERs, AND UNITEs witH THE DUKE of orleANS AND THE OTHER PRINCES OF HIS PARTY.

THE duke of Berry, finding that he had not that government of the king and the duke of Aquitaine to which he had been accustomed, became very discontented, and retired to his estates, indignant at the ministers, and particularly at his nephew and godson, the duke of Burgundy. Shortly after, he went to Angers, where the dukes of Orleans and of Bourbon, and all the principal lords of that party, were assembled. They went in a body to the cathedral church, and there made oath, in the most solemn manner, to support each other. and mutually to defend their honour against all who should attempt anything against it, excepting the king, and ever to remain in strict friendship united, without acting to the contrary in any kind of measure. Many great lords in France were not pleased with this confederation; and when, shortly after, news of it was brought to the king and his council, he was much astonished and dissatisfied therewith.

The king, in consequence of the advice of the duke of Burgundy and his friends, marched out of Paris, accompanied by him, the duke of Brabant, the count de Montagu, and a large body of chivalry, and went to Senlis: thence to the town of Creil, to regain the castle of that place, which the duke of Bourbon held, and had given the government of it to some of his people. The governor made so many delays before he surrendered it that the king became much displeased ; and because they had not obeyed his first summons, the garrison were made prisoners, and carried bound to the prisons of the Châtelet in Paris. The countess of Clermont, cousin-german to the king, soon after made application for their deliverance, and obtained it; and on the morrow the king appointed another garrison, and returned to Paris. This expedition was not very agreeable to the Orleans-faction,-and they continued to collect daily, and inlist in their party as many as they could.

The duke of Burgundy became very uneasy at their proceedings; for he suspected the duke of Orleans and his party would infringe the peace which had so lately been patched up between them at Chartres, or that they would march a large force to Paris, to seize the government, together with the persons of the king and duke of Aquitaine. To obviate this, he caused several royal summons to be proclaimed in various parts of the realm, for the assembling of men-at-arms and quartering them in the villages round Paris, to be ready to defend the king and his government against the ill-intentioned. By the advice of his brothers and the king of Navarre, he resolved to defend himself by force against his adversaries, and caused it to be proclaimed throughout the kingdom, in the king's name, that no one should dare to assemble armed in company of the dukes of Berry and Orleans, and their allies, under pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of goods. The Orleans faction, however, continued their meetings in spite of this proclamation, and even forced their vassals to serve under and accompany them : I mean, such of them as were dilatory in obeying their summons. There were, therefore, at this time, great and frequent assemblies of armed men in different parts of France, to the prejudice of the poor people. Those lords that were well inclined to the king came to Paris, and their men were quartered in the flat country of the island of France. The Orleans party fixed their quarters at Chartres and the adjacent parts; and their forces might amount, according to the estimate of well-informed persons, to full six thousand men in armour, four thousand cross-bows, and sixteen hundred archers, without counting the unarmed infantry, of which there were great numbers. In regard to the army which the duke of Bungundy had assembled by orders from the king, it was estimated to consist of upward of sixteen thousand combatants, all men of tried courage. During this time, the king of Navarre and his brother, the count de Mortain, at the request of the duke of Burgundy, negotiated a peace between the duke of Brittany, their nephew, and the count de Penthievre, son-in-law to the duke of Burgundy. This was done in the hope that the duke of Brittany would be induced to assist the king with his Bretons, and give up the Orleans party, to whom he had engaged himself. On the conclusion of this peace between the two parties, twenty thousand golden crowns were sent the duke, to defray the expenses he had been at in raising men-at-arms. Large sums of money were also sent to the lord d'Albreth, constable of France, that he might collect a numerous body of men-at-arms, and march them to Paris, to serve the king. He had not any great desire to perform this, for he was wholly inclined to the duke of Orleans and his allies, as was perfectly notorious shortly afterward.

* Charles de Mourouse. Q. meet his enemy. Such a battle as this was never heard

t The author of “An Account of Livonia, with a Relation of the Rise, Progress, and Decay of the Marian Teutonic Order,” London, 1701, relates these transactions in the manner following:

“The order was now on the highest pinnacle of prosperity and honour, exceeding great kings and potentates of Europe in extent of dominions, power and riches, when Ulricus à Jungingen was chosen great master; but he being of a boisterous, fiery temper, soon broke the peace concluded between Poland with his brother Conradus à Jungingen, whereupon king Uladislaus Jagellon joining forces with his father Witoldas of Lithuania, formed an awmy of 150,000 fighting men and marched into Prussia. To stop the progress of this formidable army, the great master drew up as many forces as he could, and, after the Livonians had joined him, found his army consisted, in a general muster, of 83,000 well-armed stout combatants: and thus, with an undaunted spirit, he marched forth to

of before in these parts, and was given the 15th day of July, 1410, in Prussia, near the town Gilgenbourg, between the two villages Tannenberg and Grunwald, on a large plain, with such obstinacy, that, according to an exact computation, there were actually killed, on both sides, 100,000 on the spot. The Poles got the victory, but lost 60,000 men. The order lost 40,000,—but among them almost all their generals and commanders. The great master himself, and the chief of the order, with 600 noble German Marian knights, were there slain. There is still kept every year a day of devotion upon that plain, in * chapel built to the remembrance of this battle, marked with the date of the year it happened, and this inscription, Centum mille occisi. The king of Poland was so weakened by this dear-bought victory, that he very readily agreed to a peace. This memorable battle is called the battle of Tannenberg.”

CHAPTER LXV.—THE DEATH OF THE DUKE OF BOURBON.—THE PROCLAMATION OF THE KING OF FRANCE.- THE DUKE OF ORLEANS AND his ALLIES SEND LETTERS TO THE PRINCIPAL TOWNS IN FRANCE.

DURING this troublesome time, Louis duke of Bourbon, uncle to the king of France by the mother's side, being full sixty years of age, feeling himself oppresssd with years and sickness, caused himself to be conveyed to his residence at Moulins" in the Bourbonnois, where he departed this life, and was buried in the church of the Canons, which he had founded. He was succeeded by his only son, the count de Clermont, who, after some days of lamentation, had the funeral obsequies of his father performed, and, having arranged his affairs, returned to the duke of Orleans and the other lords at Chartres, and firmly united himself with them, treading in the steps of his late father. The duke of Bourbon had long held the office of great chamberlain of France, from the friendship of the king, and was in possession of it even at the time of his death; but at the entreaty of the king of Navarre and the duke of Burgundy, the king now gave it to the count de Nevers, to exercise the duties of it in the usual manner.

At this time, the duchess of Brittany, daughter to the king of France, was brought to bed of a son; and she sent to request the duke of Aquitaine, her brother, to stand godfather. He sent, as his proxy, sir David de Brimeu knight, lord of Humbercourt, with a handsome present of jewels, which sir David gave her on the part of the duke of Aquitaine. The king again issued his summons to the different bailiwicks and seneschalships in the realm, for all

* Moreri says, that the good duke Louis died at Mon- children, Louis and two daughters, died without issue and bucan, on the 19th of August, 1410. By his wife Anne, unmarried. He left also a natural son, named Hector, who dauphiness of Auvergne and countess of Forez, he left was killed at the siege of Soissons in 1414. John count of Clermont, his son and successor: his other

WOL. I. M

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