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began to appease them by ordering the trumpets to sound for decamping. This was not done without much loss, for the duke, occupied solely with the attempt to make the Flemings change their minds, had not ordered the tents to be struck, nor the baggage loaded, so that the greater part of the tents were burnt, with other things, from the fire of the houses caused by the Flemings on their departure. The flames spread from house to house, to the lodgings of the duke of Burgundy, who was troubled to the heart, for he well knew that his adversaries were in high spirits, a short day's march off, and he was anxious to give them battle; but from this conduct of the Flemings his intentions would be frustrated,— and what was worse, he knew for certain, that the moment they should hear of it, they would publish that he had retreated, not daring to meet them. He was, nevertheless, forced to submit to events which he could not foresee nor prevent.

The Flemings had no sooner turned their faces homeward but they advanced more in one day than in three before, and whatever they could lay hands on was pillaged and thrown into their baggage-carts: they had, moreover, many quarrels with the Picards and English, and it often happened that stragglers were wounded or put to death, –and when they were superior in numbers, they failed not to retaliate. It must be remembered, that this retreat took place in the month of September, when the grapes in the vineyards were ripe; and they robbed every vineyard they passed, devouring so many that numbers were found dead among the vines. On the other hand, they fed their horses and cattle so very abundantly on the immense pillage which they everywhere made, that very many were bursten.

The duke of Burgundy, on his arrival at Peronne with his men-at-arms, went personally to thank the Flemings, who were encamped on the river side, in the most humble manner for their services, and then had them escorted by his brother, the duke of Brabant, to Flanders, when every man returned to his home. The magistrates of the great towns were, however, very much displeased when they heard of their behaviour; but they did not at the time notice it, for there were too many of them under arms. Thus did the Flemings retreat from Mondidier contrary to the will of their lord, the duke of Burgundy. On the same day, a knight of the party of the duke of Orleans, called sir Peter de Quesnes, lord of Garois, at the head of full two hundred combatants, made an attack on Mondidier, about four hours after they had marched away. He found there many people, especially merchants, and inhabitants of the neighbourhood, whom he took prisoners: he slew many, and he and his men made a very great booty.

He then returned to Clermont in Beauvoisis, whither the Armagnacs had marched in pursuit of the count de Nevers. When they heard of this retreat of the duke of Burgundy and the Flemings, they held a council whether or not they should follow them into their own country. It was at length determined by the wisest to return toward Paris, and attempt to gain admittance by means of some connexions they had there, principally in order to have possession of the person of the king, which was their grand object. They began their march, in consequence, towards Verberies, and crossed the river Oise by a new bridge, which they erected, and thence advanced for Paris. Those who had the guard of the king and the Parisians were not well pleased to hear of their being so near, and made every preparation to oppose their entrance to Paris. The Armagnacs, finding it impossible to succeed, managed so well with the inhabitants of St. Denis that they were there admitted; and the princes lodged in the town, and the army in the adjacent fields and villages. From that situation, they made a sharp war on the town of Paris, and on all those who sided with the king and the duke of Burgundy. They advanced daily from different parts to the very gates of Paris, —when sallies were made against them, particularly by sir Enguerrand de Bournouville, who was one of the chiefs of the garrison under the count Waleran de St. Pol, the governor of the town. Severe skirmishes often took place, and many gallant deeds were done by the men-at-arms of both sides

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CIIAPTER LXXIX. —THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY ASSEMBLES ANOTHER ARMY TO MARCn To PARIS.–EVENTS THAT HAPPENED DURING THAT TIME.

WE will now return to the duke of Burgundy, who having, as I have said, dismissed his Flemings, under the escort of his brother, the duke of Brabant, went from Peronne to Arras, where he met the earls of Pembroke and of Arundel, and sir William Baldock, who had accompanied him on his late expedition. As these earls were lately come from England, he paid them every respect, in compliment to the king of England who had sent them. They had brought full twelve hundred combatants, as well horse as foot, all men of courage. Much intercourse took place at this time between the king of England and the duke of Burgundy, respecting a marriage between Henry prince of Wales and one of the duke's daughters". After he had magnificently feasted these English captains in his town of Arras, and made them handsome presents, he ordered them to march to Peronne, and hastily summoned menat-arms from all quarters to meet him personally at Peronne, where he had commanded the nobles of his estates to assemble. The duke of Brabant did not meet him this time, being detained in the county of Luxembourg by affairs on behalf of his wife. The duke of Burgundy left Peronne with no more than six thousand combatants, and marched to Roye, thence, by Breteuil, to Beauvais, and from Beauvais, through Gisors, to Pontoise, where he halted for three weeks or thereabout. During this period, great numbers of men-at-arms came from different countries to serve him.

While these things were passing, it was ordered by the royal council, in the presence of the duke of Aquitaine, the count de Mortain, the lord Gilles of Brittany, Waleran count de St. Pol, governor of Paris, the chancellor of Francef, the lord Charles de Savoisy, and other great nobles, that certain proclamations should be sent to all the bailiwicks and seneschalships of the kingdom, respecting the assembling of such large bodies of men-at-arms, daily done in defiance of the king's orders, by the duke of Orleans, his brothers, the duke of Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon and d'Armagnac, and others of their party, to the great mischief and tribulation of the kingdom at large, and highly displeasing to the king, and disgraceful to his dignity. This proclamation again prohibited any one from daring to join the aforesaid nobles, or any of their party in arms, under pain of being reputed rebels and traitors to the king and his realm. It likewise commanded all that had joined them to depart without delay, and return peaceably to their homes, without further living on or harassing the people; and ordered that no hindrance should be given to prevent this from being carried into effect. Such as should disobey these orders would be most rigorously prosecuted without delay as rebels; and from that day forth no grace or favour would be shown them.

This proclamation was published in the usual places; and some few, but in no great number, privately quitted the party of the Armagnacs, and returned to that of the king. Those that were disobedient, when taken by the royal officers, were in great danger of their lives. Several were publicly executed; and among them a knight, called sir Binet d'Espineuse, attached to the duke of Bourbon from being a native of the county of Clermont, suffered at Paris. The cause of his death was his having taken by force some Flanders horses that were coming as a present to the duke of Aquitaine from the duke of Burgundy.

* The advice which, according to Stowe, king Henry gave to the duke of Burgundy on this occasion, was deserving of more attention than he was disposed to pay to it. “The duke of Burgoyne, desiring the king's aid against the duke of Orliance, promised many things, amongst the which he promised his daughter in marriage to the prince, and a great sum of gold with her. To whom the king answered: “We advertise you not to fight with your enemie in this case, who justly seemeth to vexe you, for the death of his father by you procured, but as much as in you lyeth endeavor yourself to mitigate the young man's wrath, and promise to make him reasonable satisfaction, according to the advice of your friends; and if then he

WOL. I.

will not cease from persecuting you, get you into the
strongest place of your dominion, and there gather such
power as may be able to put off his force. If then, after
this, he will make war against you, you shall have the
juster occasion to fight with him,-and in such case we will
show you such favour as yee have demaunded.” Thus
there were sent over to his ayde Thomas earl of Arundell,
Gilbert Umfreville earl of Angus, or earl of Kyme, sir
Robert Umfreville, sir John Oldcastle lord Cobham, sir
John Grey, and William Porter, with twelve hundred
archers, &c., &c."
f According to the catalogue in Moreri, Arnauld de
Corbie, lord of Joigny, was at this time chancellor.

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After he was beheaded in the market-place, his body was suspended by the arms to the gibbet at Montfaucon. This punishment was inflicted by order of sir Peter des Essars, who, as has been said, was lately re-established in his office of provost of Paris, in the room of sir Brunelet de Sainct-Cler. The duke of Orleans and his party were indignant at this execution, as well as at the late royal proclamation; and the duke of Bourbon was particularly angry at the disgraceful death of his knight. Thus affairs went on from had to worse. One day, the duke of Orleans fixed his quarters, with a large force, at the castle of St. Ouen, which is a royal mansion, and thence made daily excursions to the gates of Paris. He pressed the Parisians so hard that they were much straitened for provisions; for they were not as yet accustomed to war, nor had they provided any stores or assembled a force sufficient to repel the attacks of their adversaries. The archbishop of Sens, brother to the late grand master Montagu, had joined the Armagnacs, but not in his pontifical robes; for instead of a mitre, he wore a helmet,_for a surplice, a coat of mail,-and for a cope, a piece of steel,-for his crosier, a battle-axe. At this period, the duke of Orleans sent his heralds with letters to the king and the duke of Aquitaine, to inform them that the duke of Burgundy had fled with his Flemings from Mondidier, not daring to wait his nearer approach. He took that opportunity of writing also to some of his friends in Paris, to know if through their means he could be admitted into the town. It was lost labour, for those who governed for the duke of Burgundy were too active and attentive in keeping the party together. By some intrigues between those of the Orleans party and one named Colinet du Puiseur, who was governor for the king in the town of St. Cloud, this place was given up to them. The duke of Orleans instantly re-garrisoned it, and continually harassed the Parisians; for now he could at any time cross the Seine at the bridge of St. Cloud, and attack both sides of Paris at once. Thus were the Parisians oppressed on all sides by the Armagnacs, on which account, another proclamation was issued in the king's name throughout the realm, complaining of the continued atrocious and rebellious acts, in spite of the positive orders of the king to the contrary, committed by the duke of Orleans and his allies, to the great loss and destruction of his subjects and kingdom; that since such grievous complaints had been made on the subject, and were continually made, he was resolved to have a stop put to such lawless proceedings. The king, therefore, with mature deliberation of council, now declares the aforesaid family of Orleans, and their allies, rebels, and traitors to himself and the crown of France; and in order that henceforward no persons may dare to join them, he declares all such to have forfeited their lives and estates, and by these presents gives power and authority to all his loyal subjects to arrest and imprison any of the aforesaid rebels, and to seize on their properties, moveable or immoveable, and to drive them out of the kingdom, without let or hindrance from any of the king's officers. Given at Paris, the 3d day of October, 1411. Signed by the king, on the report from the great council specially called for this purpose, at the hôtel de St. Pol, when were present the duke of Aquitaine, the count de Mortain, the count de la Marche, Louis de Baviere, the lord Gilles of Brittany, the count de St. Pol, the chancellor of France, with many other nobles of high rank. In consequence of this proclamation, many of the captains and noblemen of the Armagnacs grew cold in their service, or delayed joining them according to their former agreements; and fearing greater evils might befal them by further incurring the indignation of the king, they withdrew to the king's party, and excused themselves the best way they could. While these affairs were going forward, the duke of Burgundy remained at Pontoise, as I have before said, and was there joined by numbers of men-at-arms, as well vassals to the king as his own. During his stay at Pontoise, a man of a strong make entered his apartment, with the intention to murder him, and had a knife hid in his sleeve to accomplish his wicked purpose; but as he advanced to speak with him, the duke, having no knowledge of his person, and always suspicious of such attempts, placed a bench before him. Shortly after, some of his attendants, perceiving his design, instantly arrested him, when, on confessing his intentions, he was beheaded in the town of Pontoise. The king, in order to strike more terror into the duke of Orleans, and his allies, issued other proclamations throughout his kingdom. Underneath is the tenor of the one which he sent to the bailiff of Amiens. “Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, sends health. It has lately come to our knowledge, by informations laid before our council, that John our uncle of Berry, Charles our nephew, duke of Orleans, and his brothers, with John de Bourbon, John d'Alençon, Charles d'Albreth, our cousin Bernard d'Armagnac, in conjunction with others, their aiders and abettors, moved by the wicked and damnable instigations of their own minds, have for a long time plotted to depose and deprive us of our royal authority, and with their utmost power to destroy our whole family, which God forbid! and to place another king on the throne of France, which is most abominable to the hearing of every heart in the breasts of our loyal subjects. We, therefore, by the mature deliberation of our council, do most solemnly, in this public manner, divulge these abominable and traitorous intentions of the aforesaid persons, and earnestly do call for the assistance of all our loyal subjects, as well those bound to serve us by the tenure of their fiefs as the inhabitants of all our towns, who have been accustomed to bear arms, to guard and defend our rights and lives against the traitors aforesaid, who have now too nearly approached our person, inasmuch as they have entered by force our town of St. Denis, which contains not only many holy relics of the saints but the sacred bodies of saints, our crown and royal standard, known by the name of the Oriflamme, with several other precious and rare jewels. They have also gained forcible possession of the bridge of St. Cloud, and have invaded our rights, (not to say anything of our very dear and well-beloved cousin, the duke of Burgundy, to whom they have sent letters of defiance,) by setting fire to and despoiling our towns and villages, robbing churches, ransoming or killing our people, forcing married women, and ravishing maidens, and committing every mischief which the bitterest enemy could do. We therefore do enjoin and command thee, under pain of incurring our heaviest displeasure, that thou instantly cause this present ordinance to be proclaimed in the usual places in the town of Amiens, and in different parts within thy said bailiwick, so that no one may plead ignorance; and that thou do punish corporally, and by confiscation of property, the aforesaid persons, their allies and confederates, whom thou mayest lay hands on, as guilty of the highest treason against our person and crown, that by so doing an example may be held forth to all others. We also command, under the penalty aforesaid, all our vassals, and all those in general who are accustomed to carry arms, to repair to us as soon as possible. Be careful to have the within ordinances strictly executed, so that we may not have cause to be displeased with thee. “Given at Paris, the 14th day of October, 1411, and in the 32nd year of our reign.” This ordinance was signed by the king, on the report of his council, and thus dispatched to Amiens and other good towns, where it was proclaimed in the usual places, and with such effect on the vassals and loyal subjects of the king that they hastened in prodigious numbers to serve him. On the other hand, very many of those who were of the Orleans party were arrested in divers parts of the realm, some of whom were executed, and others confined in prison, or ransomed, as if they had been public enemies. It was pitiful to hear the many and grievous complaints which were made by the people of their sufferings, more especially by those in the neighbourhood of Paris and in the isle of France. I must not forget, among other circumstances, to relate, that the Parisians, to the amount of three thousand, as well those of the garrison as others, sallied out of Paris, and went to the palace of Winchester (Bicêtre), a very handsome mansion of the duke of Berry, where, from hatred to the duke, they destroyed and plundered the whole, leaving the walls only standing. When they had done this, they went and destroyed another house, where the duke kept his horses, situated on the river Seine, not far from the hôtel de Nesle. The duke was much enraged when he was told of the insult and mischief that had been done to him, and said aloud, that a time would come when these Parisians should pay dearly for it. Affairs daily grew worse; and at length, the duke of Berry, the duke of Orleans, and his brothers, the duke of Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon and d'Armagnac, the lord d'Albreth, were personally banished the realm by the king, with all their adherents, of whatever rank they might be, by sound of trumpet in all the squares of Paris, and forbidden to remain or set foot within it until they should be recalled. They were not only banished the kingdom of France, but, by virtue of a bull of pope Urban V. of happy memory, (preserved in the Trésor des Chartres of the king's privileges in the holy chapel at Paris), they were publicly excommunicated and anathematised in all the churches of the city of Paris, by bell, book,

Excommunication by “Bell, Book, AND CANdle."—From an original design.

and candle. Many of their party were much troubled at these sentences, but, nevertheless, continued the same conduct, and made a more bitter war than before.

CHAPTER LXXX.--THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY MARCHES A LARGE ARMY FROM PONTOISE T0 PARIs, THROUGH MELUN.—THE SITUATION AND conduct of THE DUKE of orleANs.

I HAVE mentioned, that during the stay of the duke of Burgundy at Pontoise, he received great reinforcements of men-at-arms from all parts: among others, the count de Penthievre, his son-in-law, joined him with a noble company. Having remained there for about fifteen days, and made diligent inquiry into the state of his adversaries, on the 22d day of October; he marched his whole army thence about two o'clock in the afternoon. As the royal road from that place to Paris was occupied by the enemy, he quitted it for that through Meluh sur Seine, where he crossed the river with full fifteen thousand horse, and, marching all night, arrived, on the morrow morning, at the gate of St. Jacques at Paris. Great multitudes went out of the town to meet him; among whom were the butchers of Paris, well armed and arrayed, conducted by the provosts of the Châtelet and of the merchants, under the command of the count de Nevers, brother to the duke of Burgundy, who was attended by several princes, noble lords, and captains: even the great council of state went out upwards

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