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otherwise than they looked for. Enguerrand de Bournouville had, with some other captains, remained behind, with about three hundred men-at-arms in ambuscade, and, when they saw it was time, issued forth, killed many, and made more prisoners, and returned to the king's army. § the morrow, the king and his whole army crossed the river. One division advanced toward Bourges, and another to Orleans, to despoil and waste the country in the same manner as they had done on the opposite side. The townsmen of Bourges, observing the army to cross the river, hastily set fire to the suburbs on that side, which were very extensive, to prevent the enemy from occupying them, and some churches were also burnt: the more the pity! The king encamped his army round the city on that side, and had his cannons and engines pointed in such wise as effectually to annoy the place. The besieged were not idle in providing for their defence, and the means of preventing the city from being taken, but were very much grieved and cast down at the great damage which had been done to it. The duke of Aquitaine, son and lieutenant to the king, saw with regret the destruction of so noble a city, the capital of Auvergne and Berry, and to which he was heir, and, fearing its total ruin, forbade the cannoneers, and those who had the direction of the other engines, to fire any balls, or to cast more stones into it, under pain of death. The duke of Burgundy, on hearing these orders, which counteracted his wish to push matters to extremity, was much displeased and surprised, and suspected the duke of Aquitaine had changed his opinion, or was moved with compassion toward his enemies: however, in the conversation that passed between them on the subject, the duke of Aquitaine declared positively, that he would put an end to the war. The duke of Burgundy most earnestly begged of him, that if he were determined upon it, he would conclude it according to the terms that had been agreed to by the king's ministers at Paris, namely, that if their adversaries should present themselves with all humility before the king, and submit themselves to his mercy, he would receive them, but entreated that any terms he should make might not be to his dishonour. The duke of Aquitaine replied, that in truth the war had lasted too long; that it was prejudicial to the king and kingdom, and that he in the end might suffer from it, for those against whom the war was made were his uncles, cousins-german, and others of his kindred, by whom he should be greatly assisted in any cases of need,—but he was desirous that they should submit themselves in the manner proposed in council before he had left Paris. The duke of Burgundy, in consequence of this and other conversations, humbled himself much toward the duke of Aquitaine; for he had discovered that the business had been discussed with some other great lords, of whom he was very suspicious, and particularly of the duke of Bar, who had, for some time past, clearly shown he was displeased with him. He, however, told the duke of Aquitaine publicly, that he was satisfied that the negotiations for a peace should be continued according to the good pleasure and honour of the king and himself. The commissioners were, therefore, ordered to renew the conferences, which they willingly obeyed. When they had reduced to writing the demands and answers of the two parties, they requested of the princes on each side, that the dukes of Berry and Burgundy might meet and conclude the treaty ; and this was agreed to by the king and the duke of Aquitaine, and the leaders of the opposite party. An elevated place was fixed and well secured for the meeting of the uncle and nephew, for neither of them had much confidence in the other. It was for this reason that barriers were erected on a platform, on which the dukes entered at separate ends, having bars between them, and their council behind, whom they occasionally consulted as to the demands and answers. For greater security, a body of their men-at-arms were stationed near to each, but not so near as to hear any conversation that passed.—They were both completely and handsomely armed. The duke of Berry, notwithstanding he was seventy years of age, wore a sword, dagger, and battle-axe : he had on a steel scull-cap, and a rich clasp on his breast,-over his armour a purple jacket, the cross-belt of which was bespangled with pearls. After they had been two hours together, they separated, to outward appearance, in good humour; but the duke of Berry said peevishly to the duke of Burgundy, “Fair nephew and fair godson, when your father, my dear brother, was living, there was no need of any barriers betwixt us: we were always on the most affectionate terms.” The duke of Burgundy replied, “My lord, it has not been my fault.” The duke of Berry then mounted his horse, and returned, with his attendants, to Bourges, and the duke of Burgundy, in like manner, to the camp. The knights of the duke of Burgundy, on their return, said, that those of the duke of Berry, in their common conversations, declared themselves no way rebellious nor disaffected to the king; that their lord had been for some time very unwell, and unable to command them; that had he been otherwise, he would not so long have left the death of his nephew unpunished; that in regard to their having burnt, taken, and destroyed several towns and castles, in different parts of the kingdom, such as St. Denis and Roye, which they had plundered, they replied, that as their lords were of the blood-royal, they had a right to lead their men-at-arms through any towns in the realm, on their personal wars, for that they had very just cause for attacking the duke of Burgundy, and that in so doing they committed no offence against the king; but, in regard to having refused to open the gates of the city of Bourges when the king came in person before it, they confessed themselves guilty of contempt, for which they humbly asked his pardon, as was stated in the treaty, and offered him the keys of the town. On the Wednesday following, the two dukes again met, with their counsellors, at the barriers in front of the city-gate, and renewed their conference. When it was concluded, they drank wine together, and separated very joyfully. On the next day, all the nobles and knights of the army assembled before the tent of the duke of Aquitaine, who appeared in state as the representative of the king. He was attended by the dukes of Bar and Lorrain, and many others of high rank. The chancellor of Aquitaine, sir John de Neelle, knight and licentiate of law, and of great eloquence, then recited most notably all the different acts of rebellion committed by John de Berry, Charles d'Orleans, John de Bourbon, John d'Alençon, Bernard d'Armagnac, and Charles d'Albreth, and their adherents, declaring their alliance with the king of England, the king's adversary, and detailing all the destruction they had brought on the kingdom, concluding a long speech by demanding, by orders of the king and of his son the duke of Aquitaine, that every person should now promptly deliver his opinion, whether there should be peace or war. Many replied, that it were better peace should be made with the above lords, and that they should be reinstated in the king's favour, than otherwise, provided the peace were a solid one; but others were of a contrary opinion, —and thus ended this meeting, which caused much murmuring. It is true, that at this time the heat of the weather was excessive, and great sickness prevailed in the army, insomuch that very many, hearing daily of the deaths of their companions, departed without taking leave. There was a great mortality among the horses, and the stench of their carcases much infected the camp.
CHAPTER xCW.–the PRINCES AND LORDS WITH IN THE CITY OF BOURGES WAIT ON THE KING AND THE DUKE of AQUITAINE, AND AFTERw ARD AT AUXERRE.
ON Friday the 15th day of July, when all things had been settled, the dukes of Berry and of Bourbon, the lord d'Albreth, the count d'Eu", the lord John de Bar, brother to the duke of Bar, accompanied by many knights and esquires bearing their banners, came forth of the city towards the king's army, and entered the tent of the duke of Aquitaine, who was surrounded by many nobles, such as the dukes of Burgundy and Bar, and other knights and esquires, the king being afflicted with his usual disorder. After the treaty had been read and agreed to, each kissed the other; but when the duke of Berry kissed his nephew the duke of Aquitaine, tears ran down his cheeks.
This treaty contained, among other articles, that the treaty which had been concluded at Chartres by the king and his council, between Charles duke of Orleans and his brothers, respecting the death of their late father, Louis duke of Orleans, on the one part, and John duke of Burgundy on the other, for being an accomplice in the aforesaid death, should be kept inviolable for ever; and that the marriage formerly proposed between one of the brothers of the Orleans family and a daughter of the duke of Burgundy should take effect. The other articles declared, that the duke of Berry and the lords of his party should surrender to the obedience of the king all such towns and castles as the king might demand; and the duke entreated, that the king would excuse and pardon him for not having before submitted to his obedience the city of Bourges. And also, that the aforesaid lords would renounce all confederations which had been made between them, as well as all foreign alliances against the duke of Burgundy, who in like manner was to renounce the alliances he might have formed against them. That the king would restore to them, fully and completely, all their towns, castles, and forts, which he might have taken, excepting such as had been demolished or razed, which were to remain in their present state. The articles also declared, that the officers of the aforesaid lords who had been deprived of their places, should be reinstated. When they had dined, the duke of Berry presented the keys of the city of Bourges to the duke of Aquitaine, as the representative of the king, and then returned thither with his companions. The duke of Aquitaine caused the peace to be proclaimed throughout the army and country in the king's name, acting as his lieutenant. By the same proclamation, it was most strictly ordered, that henceforth no one of either party should personally abuse another, either corporally or in his fortune, nor use any opprobrious language, nor call any one by the names of Armagnac or Burgundian. On Saturday, the 16th day of the same month, king Louis of Sicily came from his possessions in Anjou and Maine, escorted by three thousand two hundred men-at-arms, knights and esquires, and accompanied by the count de Penthievre with his Bretons, to assist the king in his siege of Bourges. The king of Sicily was very much rejoiced when he was informed of the peace that had been concluded with the princes; and on the morrow, attended by the duke of Bar and a number of other knights, he went into the city, and was there magnificently entertained at dinner by the duke and duchess of Berry. The other lords dined in the duke's palace, and were grandly and plentifully served: after dinner, they all returned to the camp. On the ensuing Wednesday, the king of France decamped from before the town, having remained there, at this second siege, forty days, at an immense expense, and with his whole army marched back, the way they had come, to la Charité-surLoire, where he was lodged. Thither came the dukes of Berry and of Bourbon, and the lord d'Albreth, with the commissioners from the duke of Orleans and his brothers, who, in the tent of the duke of Aquitaine, and in his presence and in that of the principal lords, made oath on the holy evangelists punctually and faithfully to observe the peace that had been concluded at Bourges. They promised to swear the same in the presence of the king; and as the duke of Orleans and his brothers were absent, they solemnly engaged that they would meet the king, to take this oath personally before him, on any appointed day, at Auxerre: when this was done, they returned home. The peace was again proclaimed by the king's orders; and all persons were strictly enjoined, whatever might be their rank, not to molest each other in body or estate, and not to use any defamatory language, or call any one by the name of Armagnac. After this, the king of Sicily, the dukes of Aquitaine, Burgundy, and Bar, and all the princes, counts, barons, and chivalry, departed. The king retained with him a great body of the captains of his army, and their men-at-arms, and gave permission for all the rest to return to their homes. He went thence to Auxerre, and was lodged in the episcopal palace: the king of Sicily and the duke of Aquitaine were quartered in the town, and their men in the adjacent villages. The lord Gilles de Bretagne, on his arrival at Auxerre, died of a dysentery. In like manner, the count de Mortain, brother to the king of Navarre, lost his life either at Auxerre or at Sancerre from the same disorder. His body was carried to Paris, and interred in the church of the Carthusians. Aymé de Vitry, sir John de Guistelle, John d'Icquennie, and several others, died on their road home; and this disorder was so fatal that from one thousand to twelve hundred knights and esquires, not including varlets, died of it, as it was reported to the lords in Auxerre. When the marshal de Boucicaut, the count de Foix, and the lord de St. George, who were carrying on the war against the count d'Armagnac, heard that peace was concluded between the king and his enemies, they disbanded their army, and gave permission for all to return home. During the time the king was at Auxerre, he had summoned the greater part of his nobles and prelates thither, as well as the chief citizens of the great towns, to witness the solemn swearing to the observance of the peace. But before they could arrive, other intelligence was brought, which was far from being agreeable, namely, that the English were at anchor, with their whole navy, before the town of la Hogue de St. Vas, in the country of Coutantin; that they had made a descent, and spread themselves over the adjacent countries, destroying or plundering everything they could find, and that their numbers amounted to about eight thousand, of whom two thousand were men-at-arms, and the rest archers or infantry, and that they were under the command of the duke of Clarence, second son to the king of England. These English had landed in consequence of the treaty between the dukes of Berry and Orleans and their allies, and the king of England, and were on their march to assist in raising the siege of Bourges. The counts of Alençon and Richemont went to meet them, and received them most joyfully, although they had come too late to do them any effectual service; but, notwithstanding this, they exerted themselves to the utmost to supply them with horses and provision. This force was much increased by the junction of six hundred Gascon helmets that had likewise been subsidized by the confederates at Bourges. When these forces were united, they overran the country, and committed great destruction. The prisoners confined at Lille, as before mentioned, consisted of the lord de Hangest, formerly master of the cross-bows of France, sir Louis de Bourdon, sir Charles de Gerammes, Enguerrand des Fontaines, and some others. They were all set at liberty by the count de la Marche, on each paying a large ransom to the person who had made him prisoner; and in like manner were all others delivered, by exchange or by ransom. About the feast of the Assumption of our Lady, those who had been summoned by the king of France arrived at Auxerre. In their number, the Parisians came in great pomp ; and the dukes of Berry and Bourbon, and the lord d'Albreth, also attended. The lord d'Albreth, soon after his arrival, wished to resume the office of constable ; but the count Waleran de St. Pol would not suffer him, and exercised it himself. Many high words passed between them; and the lord d'Albreth, having taken the oaths of peace, retired much displeased and indignant. On the ensuing Monday, the duke of Orleans and his brother, the count de Vertus, came to Auxerre, escorted by about two thousand combatants. When all the lords were arrived, they assembled on an extensive plain without the city, near to a convent of nuns, where had been erected a handsome scaffolding, richly adorned, on which was the duke of Aquitaine, as representative of his father, the king of Sicily, the dukes of Burgundy, of Bar, and others. The duke of Burgundy and his party repeated the oaths they had before taken, as also did the duke of Orleans and his friends: and the same proposal of marriage as had been made at Chartres, was again solemnly agreed to take place, between the count de Vertus and a daughter of the duke of Burgundy, on the terms before mentioned. The aforesaid lords then publicly renounced all confederations and alliances which they had formed with Henry king of England, with his sons, or with any others of the English nation, enemies to France, the duke of Burgundy having before declared that he had no connexion with them,-and they agreed to write such letters to the king of England as the king and his council should advise. They also promised and swore to renew their oaths respecting the observance of this peace in the king's presence, so soon as he should have recovered his health, for at that time he had had a relapse, and to sign such papers as he would please, that they would never again form any confederations or alliances against each other; and that if either of them should attempt to infringe the articles of this peace, the others would unite against him or them to enforce their due observance, and oblige them to listen to reason. At this ceremony, by orders of the king, were some of the members of the parliament, of the chamber of accounts, and of the university of Paris, the provosts of Paris and of the merchants, the sheriffs and some of the principal citizens, to many of whom this treaty was WOL. I. Q
* Charles d'Artois, count of Eu, son to the constable mencing in Robert the good count d'Artois, who was d'Eu (who died in Turkey, 1397.) and of Mary, daughter killed in Egypt in the year 1250, when accompanying his of the duke of Berry. He married twice, but had no brother St. Louis. issue, and in him ended the royal branch of Artois, com
not very agreeable. There were also present, in consequence of the king's summons, very many from Rouen, Caen, Amiens, Tournay, Laon, Rheims, Troyes, Langres, Tours, and from the chief towns in the kingdom.
When this solemnity was over, all the great lords went to dine with the duke of Aquitaine at his lodgings. At this entertainment, which was most splendid and abundant, the duke of Burgundy served, and the counts de Nevers and de St. Pol, assisted by other noble knights, carried the dishes. After they had dined, the company amused themselves by playing at divers games. These being ended, towards dusk all retired to their lodgings. On the morrow, and for several days following, they continued feasting together, and, according to all outward appearances, were in great harmony with each other. Even the dukes of Orleans and Burgundy rode out together, both on the same horse *, in company with other lords, and showed such mutual affection as is becoming brothers and near relations. Nevertheless, some wicked tongues were not sparing of them behind their backs, but loudly spoke their minds. With regard to the people, they were in such crowds that it need not be asked if they were pleased,—for they continually shouted out, “Gloria in excelsis Deo," as if they wished to praise the gloriousness of the heavens. It indeed seemed to them a kind of miracle that such bitter hatred as had existed between these great lords should be so speedily appeased.
When every thing was concluded, and because this epidemic disorder raged at Auxerre, the king and princes departed, and went by Sens to Melun, where great feasts and entertainments, with justings and dancings, were held by the queen and her court, for joy of the happy reconciliation that had taken place between the princes of the blood royal. In truth, while the king resided at Melun, he recovered his health, and then, at the entreaties of the queen, his daughter, the dukes of Aquitaine and Burgundy, and of the king of Sicily, he approved of and ratified the treaty of peace that had been made. In consequence, he delivered up all the castles, towns and lands, which he had seized on account of the rebellion of his nephews and other lords, as well secular as ecclesiastic, and restored them to their free possession. They thus re-entered their towns and castles, but without any restitution for the damages which had been done to them : several of them had been nearly destroyed; and the vineyards, forests and other lands, had suffered greatly, with various mischiefs that had been done to the farms. That this peace might be publicly known, and that no one might plead ignorance, but that it should remain for ever inviolate, the king issued the following edict.
CHAPTER XCVI.--THE KING OF France ORDERS HIS EDICT RESPECTING THE PEACE to BE
“CHARLEs, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.—Among the heavy and continued anxieties which we always feel for the preservation of our crown and kingdom, the warmest wish we have is to nourish love and affection among our subjects, and to guard them from all oppressions and other inconveniences which are consequent on civil commotions, that they may live under us in perfect tranquillity. Whereas many very serious discords and divisions have arisen within our realm between several of the princes of our royal blood, their adherents and allies, which have caused great mischiefs to ensue, to the detriment of our faithful subjects; and others still more disastrous might have followed, had we not provided a sufficient remedy. These discords have occasioned to us the utmost grief of heart; and for this reason we make known to thee, that through the grace of the sovereign King of kings, our Creator and Saviour, and the Giver of all peace; and through the diligent exertions of our very dear and well-beloved son the duke of Aquitaine, dauphin of Vienne, and others who have laboured with him, we
*This was a singular method of publicly displaying fami- poverty and humility, bore two knights on one horse as liarity. In some of the old romances we read of adventurous their device: but we have never met with anything to knights assisting the unfortunate by “giving them a lift,” show that the practice was usual.—Ed. in this manner; and the knights Templars, in token of