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receive more than that sum from the demesne or taxes.—Item, in regard to the court of parliament, it is necessary that all inefficient members be dismissed, and replaced by others better informed, who shall adhere to ancient usages. The presidents of finances, of the civil and criminal courts, with the greffiers, treasurers, and clerks, must be handsomely provided for, but reduced to a competent number.—Item, the chamber of accounts must undergo similar regulations; and the members of it should consist of men of a prudent age, who may inform you of any mismanagement in the finance department.—Item, in regard to the minor officers, and deputy-receivers of finance, we think that if the whole of this business was put under the management of the presidents, you would gain considerably, whereas these minor officers swallow up great sums in salaries and fees. “Item, it appears to us that you ought to select certain wise men, that they may be solely your council, in conjunction with the princes of your blood, and that they may loyally advise you for the real good of yourself and state, having their attention directed to nothing else, and that, when so doing, they should be strenuously supported by you in such wise that whatever they may propose for the welfare of the state may be instantly put into execution, without any opposition whatever. They should take such oaths as are usually taken, or any more solemn ones, such as you shall think proper. Item, we recommend that the defence of the frontiers of Picardy, of Aquitaine, and of other parts, be sufficiently provided for, by allotting adequate sums of money for the payment of men-at-arms and repairs of castles, so that all danger of invasion, and other inconveniences, may be prevented.—Item, to check as much as possible the daily oppression of the lower orders, by provosts and other inferior officers, it will be necessary to nominate honest and discreet persons, with moderate salaries, to overlook their conduct, and see that these men do not surcharge the poor by exorbitant fines. “Item, there are several other oppressive grievances that have lasted for a considerable time, and which cannot be immediately remedied. Your daughter and aforesaid dutiful subjects promise to apply themselves diligently concerning them; and they most humbly and earnestly supplicate you to reform the abuses they have stated to you, and more especially those that relate to your treasury, which has been exceedingly wasted, and that without any cause. They also beg of you to appoint a commission of the princes of your blood, with other well-informed persons, no way connected or related to those who have had the management of your finances, that they may reform and punish all who have been culpable let their rank be what it may. Item, we also entreat that you would order the prelates and chief citizens in the difierent provinces, to impeach those who in their districts have been guilty of any peculations in your finances. All these things, most redoubted lord, have your aforesaid daughter and dutiful subjects laid before you, as being anxiously interested in your honour and welfare, and in the preservation of your crown and kingdom. Your aforesaid daughter has not done this through any expectation of worldly profit, but simply as her duty; for it is well known she has not been accustomed to hold offices, nor to seek for such profits, but solely to attend to her studies, and to remonstrate with you on what touches your honour and welfare whenever the case may require it. “But although she has several times presented herself before you, to remonstrate on some of the before-mentioned grievances, no remedy has been hitherto applied, by which your kingdom is in the utmost possible danger. Your faithful and loyal subjects again acquit themselves of their duty; and, that the reformation may now be entered upon in earnest, your aforesaid daughter requires the aid of your eldest son the duke of Aquitaine, and of the duke of Burgundy, by whom a reform was some time since begun, with heart and hand, without sparing any one, with whom your daughter joined, considering such reformation was so much wanted. However, from the great opposition made by those who were interested in checking it, no great progress was made, for they were afraid the consequences would have been fatal to them. They urged every objection to it, as well as those now in power. We demand also the assistance of our much-honoured lords of Nevers, of Vertus, of Charolois, of Bar, and of Lorrain, of the constable and marshal of France, of the grand-master of Rhodes, of the admiral, of the master of the cross-bows, and in general of all the chivalry and esquiredom in the realm, whose peculiar duty is to watch for the preservation of your crown, and also of your counsellors and all other your subjects, who, according to their several situations, may wish to acquit themselves toward your majesty. “It has been publicly said by some, that your aforesaid daughter has made this exposition to your majesty, through hatred to particular persons, and from the reports of five or six. May it please you to know, that she has never been accustomed to gain information by such means, but has learnt the existence of the before-stated grievances from their public notoriety; and there is no man so ignorant as not to be fully sensible of the truths we have asserted, and of the culpability of those we have impeached. She has also received informations from many who are attached to your person, who have not indeed been gainers by it; but in further regard to them, she will be silent, unless you shall order otherwise in a private audience. Your daughter, therefore, concludes by begging your majesty to pursue diligently, and without delay, an examination and reform of the above grievances, in which she will join without the least personal disrespect to your royal person, otherwise your daughter would not acquitherself properly in regard to your royal majesty.” After this conclusion, the university demanded of the princes, prelates, and lords, then present, that they would avow that what they had declared would be for the honour of the king and the welfare of the kingdom, which they complied with ; adding, that they were ready to assist in carrying the aforesaid reforms into execution to the utmost of their power. The king's ministers, more especially those of the finances, were thunderstruck, and fearful of an immediate arrest. Among them, master Henry de Marle, chancellor of France, seeing that he was accused with the others, found means of admission to the king, and by his fair promises, and by engaging to pay a very large sum of ready money within a few days, he contrived to gain his favour. On the following Saturday, the 2d day of March, Andrew Guiffart, one of the treasurers, was arrested and confined in the Châtelet: his associate, John Guerin, took refuge in a church,-and thither also fled sir Peter des Essars, provost of Paris, who lately had great command in the expedition to Bourges. The duke of Burgundy had hitherto supported him, but his affection was cooled, for the provost had lately shown himself more attached to the party of Orleans. Having formed the resolution of quitting Paris, sir Peter des Essars sent Thomelin de Brie with five other men-at-arms to gain possession of the bridge at Charenton, that his passage over it might be secured; but they were made prisoners by the inhabitants of Charenton, who had received information of their coming, and carried back to the tower of the Louvre, wherein they were confined. The provost, learning this, took another road, and escaped to Cherbourg, of which place he was the governor, and remained there for some time. Shortly afterward, Baudrin de la Heuse was appointed provost of Paris, for the king had now relapsed into his former disorder. The duke of Aquitaine, however, took the whole government of the kingdom into his own hands; and many of the king's ministers, particularly those in the treasury, were ordered to be put under arrest, until they should have rendered a faithful account of all their receipts.

CHAPTER C.—THE DUKE OF AquiTAINE IS DISPLEASED WITH HIS CHANCELLOR. — JEALOUSIES ARISE AMONG THE GREAT LORDS,-AND OTHER MATTERS.

IN these days, at a full council, of which the duke of Aquitaine was president, high words passed between the chancellor of France and sir John de Nesle, lord d'Ollehaing chancellor of Aquitaine, insomuch that the latter told the chancellor his words were not gospel; and the other madly replied, that he lied in his throat.—Several other abusive expressions were used by him, and so often that the chancellor of France said, “You abuse me, who am chancellor of France, and have often done so: nevertheless, I have always borne it patiently, from respect to my lord of Aquitaine, who is now present, and shall even still suffer it." But the duke of Aquitaine, hearing these words, arose in a passion, and taking his chancellor by the shoulders, thrust him out of the council-chamber, saying, “You are a wicked and proud vagabond, for having thus abused the chancellor of my lord the king in my presence,—and I have no farther need of your services.” In consequence, the lord d'Ollehaing resigned the seals, which were given to master John de Vailly, advocate in the parliament, who was appointed chancellor of Aquitaine in his stead.

The queen attempted, but in vain, to appease her son, as did the duke of Burgundy, who had recommended the late chancellor to him ; for he now took the whole government into his hands, and insisted that every thing should be done according to his pleasure. Some of his confidential servants encouraged him in this conduct, as the welfare of the kingdom concerned him more than any one else; and since, as he was now of a proper age to govern it was absolutely necessary for him to take the reins, considering the melancholy state of the king his father. Among those who thus encouraged him were the duke of Bar, duke Louis of Bavaria, the count de Vertus, and others of that faction then at Paris, who visited him often, and desired nothing more than that he would take the government of the kingdom upon himself. The duke of Burgundy was duly informed of all these intrigues, and saw clearly that their object was to drive him from the administration, which very much displeased him. He formed different plans, and remembered that the duke of Aquitaine had told him, when before Bourges, that he would put an end to the war, and was sensible that the treaty of peace then concluded was contrary to the engagements sworn to be observed at the royal council held at Paris, previous to their march from the capital. Nevertheless, he did not openly show that he was hurt by what was passing.

At this time, the county of Poitou was given to John de Touraine”, at the instance of duke William of Hainault, whose daughter he had married. The Poitevins made all the opposition they could, as they preferred being vassals to the king; but it was taken possession of in the name of the duke of Touraine, by the lords d’Andregines and de Mouchas, members of duke William's household, who brought with them the king's grant of this county, which was proclaimed in the usual manner.

At the same period, namely, about Mid Lent, some of the inhabitants of Soissons rose suddenly in rebellion, and, advancing to the castle, broke down all the out-walls as well as those which surrounded their city, to open a free entrance on all sides. They also demolished the bridge over the river that gave access to the castle, so that none could gain admittance but by means of boats, which might formerly have been done without their leave. This castle belonged to the duke of Orleans, who was much exasperated by their conduct, although at the moment he could not obtain any reparation, notwithstanding he had remonstrated with the king's ministers on the subject. At the request of the duke of Aquitaine, the head and body of sir Mansart du Bos, who had been beheaded at Paris, were restored to his widow and children. At ten o'clock at night his head was taken down from the market-place, and his body from Montfaucon : they were united together in a coffin, and carried to the town of Rainsseval, in the diocese of Amiens, where his remains were honourably interred near the bodies of his father and ancestors.

CHAPTER CI.—HENRY OF LANCASTER, KING OF ENGLAND, who HAD BEEN A v ALIANT KNIGHT, DIES rN THIS YEAR.—of THE ALLIANCE BETWEEN HIM AND THE FRENCH PRINCES.

TowARD the end of this year, died Henry of Lancaster king of England. He had in his time been a valiant knight, eager and subtile against his enemies, as is recorded in history, which also has enregistered the strange and disgraceful manner of his obtaining the crown of England, by dethroning his cousin-german Richard, after he had reigned peacefully for twenty-two years. He was before his death sorely oppressed with leprosy, which pitifully put an end to him, and he was royally and honourably interred among his ancestors in Westminster Abbey. This king left behind him four sons,—namely, Henry prince of Wales, who succeeded to the throne, Thomas duke of Clarence, John duke of Bedford, and Humphryduke of Gloucester, and a daughter married to Philip Barbatus, duke of Bavariat. All the four sons were handsome, well made, and versed in the different sciences,—and in process of time each had great commands, of which mention shall be hereafter made. But we must not omit reporting a conversation that passed between the king and his eldest son at his last moments. He was so sorely oppressed at the latter end of his sickness that those who attended him, not perceiving him breathe, concluded he was dead, and covered his face with a cloth. It was the custom in that country, whenever the king was ill, to place the royal crown on a cushion beside his bed, and for his successor to take it on his death. The prince of Wales, being informed by the attendants that his father was dead, had carried away the crown; but, shortly after, the king uttered a groan, and his face was uncovered,—when, on looking for the crown, he asked what was become of it? His attendants replied, that “my lord the prince had taken it away.” He bade them send for the prince; and on his entrance, the king asked him why he had carried away the crown 7 “My lord,” answered the prince, “your attendants, here present, affirmed to me that you were dead; and as your crown and kingdom belong to me as your eldest son, after your decease, I had taken it away." The king gave a deep sigh, and said, “My fair son, what right have you to it? for you well know I had none.” “My lord,” replied the prince, “as you have held it by right of your sword, it is my intent to hold and defend it the same during my life.” The king answered, “Well, act as you see best: I leave all things to God, and pray that he would have mercy on me!" Shortly after, without uttering another word, he departed this life.

* Second son of the king. of Bavaria, and her second husband the king of Arragon,

f Monstrelet has forgotten Philippa of Lancaster, Henry's was married to the duke of Bar, but had no issue by any younger daughter, married to Eric king of Denmark, and of them. died without issue. His elder daughter outliving the duke

After the king's interment, the prince of Wales was most honourably crowned king, in the presence of the nobles and prelates of England, no one appearing to contest his right.—

Coronation of HaNRY W. of England. The Throne surrounded by the first Ecclesiastical and Lay Peers; the former doing homage.—Designed from contemporary authorities.

When the duke of Clarence and the English in the duchy of Aquitaine, heard of king Henry's death, they returned as speedily as they could to England, for at that moment there was a truce between the two countries. But, notwithstanding this truce, the English on the frontiers of Calais continued to make inroads on, and to harass, the Boulonois, insomuch that the constable was obliged to reinforce the garrisons of Ardres, Gravelines, and other places in the French interest. Here follows a copy of the treaty concluded by king Henry IV. and his children, on the one part, and the dukes of Berry, of Orleans, of Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon, d'Armagnac, and the lord d'Albreth, on the other, on the 8th day of May, in the year 1412. “It was first agreed to by the above lords, or by their commissioners, that they would expose their lives and fortunes in the service of the king of England, his heirs and successors, whenever they should be required so to do, in all their just quarrels, in which they include the king of England's warfare in Guienne as a just quarrel, and maintain that the duchy of Guienne and its dependencies belong to him by right of succession, and that by such declaration and assistance they shall no way act contrary to their loyalty.—Item, the aforesaid lords make offer, by themselves or their delegates sufficiently authorised, of their sons, daughters, nephews, nieces, relations, in short, of all their subjects, to contract such marriages as shall be agreeable to the aforesaid king of England.—Item, they likewise make offer of all their towns, castles, treasures, and in general all belonging to them, for the assistance of the said king and his heirs in all their lawful quarrels, saving their loyalty, which they have more fully explained in other acts passed between them.—Item, they also make offer of their friends and adherents, to support the said king in the recovery of his duchy of Guienne.—Item, the aforesaid lords are willing, without any fraud or deceit, to acknowledge at the altar, or in any sacred place, the said king's right to the duchy of Guienne, in as full a manner as any of his predecessors ever possessed it.—Item, the aforesaid lords acknowledge, by themselves or their delegates, that all the towns, castles, and possessions they may have in Guienne, they hold under the king of England, as the true duke of Guienne, promising every service due from their homage, to be performed in the best possible manner by them. – Item, they also engage to deliver up to the king of England, as far as lies in their power, all towns and castles, said to have belonged to the king of England, to the number of twenty, as well castles as towns, which are fully detailed in the treaty". In regard to the other towns and fortresses that are not under their obedience, they will gain them, or assist the king of England to gain them, at their expense and with a sufficient number of men. “Item, as is more fully detailed in the treaty, that it shall be agreeable to the king of England that the duke of Berry, his loyal uncle, subject and vassal, that the duke of Orleans, his subject and vassal, and in like manner the count d'Armagnac, do hold under him the following lands by fealty and homage. The duke of Berry shall possess the county of Poitou during his life: the duke of Orleans shall hold the county of Angoulême for his life, and the county of Perigord in perpetuity: the count d'Armagnac shall hold four castles specified in the treaty, upon the terms and conditions therein declared.—Item, among the engagements entered into by the king of England as duke of Guienne, he was to guarantee them safe possession of the above places, and to defend them against all enemies whatever, and afford them the assistance due from their true and superior lord, and he was also to aid them in bringing the duke of Burgundy to exemplary punishment. And the said king was not to make or enter into any treaties with the duke of Burgundy, his children, brother, or with any of his adherents, without the previous consent of the aforesaid princes.—Item, the king of England promises to assist the aforesaid lords as his loyal vassals in all their just wars, and to enforce recompense to them by the duke of Burgundy for all the damages he may have done to them.—Item, the king of England will instantly send them eight thousand combatants to their aid against the duke of Burgundy, who has excited the king of France to march against them with the whole force of his realm.” This treaty of alliance was signed and sealed by the parties on the 8th day of May, in this year 1412. The aforesaid princes, however, agreed to pay the men-at-arms, whom the king of England should send to them, and gave sufficient securities for so doing.

[graphic]

* See the original treaty in the Foedera. It is dated the 18th of May, and not the 8th. as in Monstrelet.

VOL. I.

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