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even by lying in wait for him, by flatteries and adulations, notwithstanding any confederation entered into between them, and after oaths having mutually passed, and without waiting for the sentence of any judge whatever.’ This proposition, thus stated generally for a maxim, is, according to the common acceptance of the word “tyrant, an error in our faith, contrary to the doctrine of good morals, and contrary to the commandments of God: “Non occides propriá auctoritate;’ Thou shalt not kill of thy own authority; and in the 26th chapter of St. Matthew, “Omnes qui accipiunt gladium gladio peribunt.' This doctrine tends to the subversion of all public order, and of each prince and sovereign, and opens a road for all licentiousness and every consequent evil, such as frauds, violations of oaths, treasons, lies, and general disobedience between vassals and lords, distrust of each, and consequently perdurable damnation. Item, he who shall pertinaciously affirm this error, and the others which follow, is a heretic, and ought to be punished as such, even after his death. “Notatur in decretis questione quinta, the other proposition.—St. Michael, without any orders or command from God, or others, but moved solely by his natural affections, slew Lucifer with everlasting death, for which he is receiving spiritual riches beyond measure.

“This proposition, however, contains many errors of faith, for St. Michael did not slay Lucifer, but Lucifer slew himself by his sin, and God put him to an everlasting death. Besides, St. Michael did receive orders from God to thrust Lucifer out of paradise: “Quia omnis potestas est a Deo ; et hoc sciebat Michael, quia constitutus erat a Deo princeps, quem honorem non sibi assumpsit. Nota, quomodo Michael non est ausus inferre auditum blasphemiae, sed dicit, imperet tibi Dominus: in epistola Judae. God might also have given him more spiritual riches, and the power of receiving them: therefore he did not obtain such riches through his natural affection.

“With regard to the other proposition,-Phineas killed Zimri without any command from God, or from Moses, and Zimri had not committed idolatry. This proposition is contrary to the book containing this history, according to the reading of learned doctors, and according to reason and the nature of things. You will see in the 25th chapter of the book of Numbers, “Dicit Moyses ad judices Israel, Occidat unus quisque proximos suos, qui initiati sunt Beelphegor et ecce unus,' &c. glosa. Josephus dixit, “quod Zimri et principes in tribu Symeon duxerant filias,' &c. Again, Moses, without any orders, slew the Egyptian, so that this assertion is contrary to the text of the Bible, Actorum vii. according to the explanation of learned doctors, and according to reason. Textus, “Estimabant, autem intelligere fratres, quoniam Deus per manum ipsius daret salutem Hierusalem,' &c. Judith did not sin in flattering Holofernes, nor Jehu by falsely saying that he would worship Baal. This is favourable to the error of those who have declared that lies may be lawful on some occasions. St. Austin writes thus against such doctrine to St. Jerome, ‘Si, inquit, admissa fuerint vel officiosa mendacia, tota scripturae divinae vacillabit auctoritas.' The other case brought forward to support the proposition, that Joab killed Abner after the death of Absalom, is contrary to the text expressed o the holy Scriptures, 1 Regum iii. cap. where it is said, that long before the death of Absalom, Joab slew Abner. The assertion, that it is not perjury to commit such actions, although oaths of fellowship may have been given on both sides, is false, for it is gross perjury, and unprofitable to such as may swear to treacherous alliances: it is fraud, deception, and clear perjury; and to maintain that such actions are lawful is an error of faith.”

When these propositions had been fully discussed, they were condemned as heretical opinions, and errors against the faith.

CBAPTER CxIII.--THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY GOES TO ANTWERP.--THE ARREST OF SIR JOHN DE croY,+AND other REMARKABLE Events THAT HAPPENED ABOUT THIS PERIoD.

NEARLY about this time, the duke of Burgundy held at Antwerp a very confidential council of his most tried friends, on the state of his affairs, at which were present his brother of Brabant and his two brothers-in-law, namely, duke William, and John of Brabant bishop

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of Liege, the counts de St. Pol and de Cleves. He had assembled them particularly to know whether they would support him in the war which France was silently meditating against him. They all promised him their aid against his adversaries, excepting the persons of the king of France and his children. When the council broke up, the duke of Burgundy returned to Artois, in his country of Flanders, and the other lords to the places whence they had come. On the feast of the circumcision, a sergeant-at-arms came to St. Pol-en-Ternois, and presented to the count letters from the king of France, containing positive orders, under pain of his highest displeasure, not to bear arms nor to assemble any men-at-arms to accompany the duke of Burgundy or others into his kingdom without his especial licence; and that he should give an acknowledgment of the receipt of this royal command, which the count did. While these things were passing, the duke of Aquitaine resided in the Louvre with his state, and the duchess and her attendants at the hôtel of St. Pol. On Wednesday, the 12th day of January, the queen, attended by the duchess, went to visit her son. A short time before, by the advice of the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, of Orleans, and other princes of the blood, she had caused four knights and many other servants belonging to her son of Aquitaine to be arrested and carried away from the Louvre, which had so much enraged the duke that he wanted to sally out to call the populace to his aid in rescuing these prisoners. The princes, his relatives, would not permit him to do this; and the queen his mother appeased his anger in the best manner she could, and then went to the king in the hôtel de St. Pol, leaving with her son the before-mentioned princes, who pacified his anger by gentle and kind words. The four knights who had been arrested were sir John de Croy, the lord de Broy, sir David de Brimeu, sir Bertrand de Montauban, and some others, who very soon after, on promising not to return to the duke of Aquitaine, were set at liberty. Sir John de Croy was detained prisoner, and carried as such to Montlehery.

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Although the duke of Aquitaine pretended to be satisfied, he nevertheless secretly sent one of his servants to the duke of Burgundy to desire that he would hasten to Paris with all his forces: he afterward wrote to him several letters with his own hand, and without the knowledge of the queen or the princes. When the duke of Burgundy received this intelligence, he was well pleased, as he wished for nothing more than such a pretext to march to Paris, and instantly issued a summons to men-at-arms from all countries, appointing a day for them to meet him at Espelry, near St. Quentin in the Vermandois. For his exculpation, and that the cause of this armament might be known, he wrote letters to all the principal towns in Picardy, a copy of which is as follows: “Very dear and good friends, you must have it in your remembrance how that last year, in the month of August, my lord the king, returning from his city of Bourges, and tarrying in the town of Auxerre, was desirous that peace should be established for ever between the princes of his blood, and commanded that it should not only be sworn to be observed by them, but likewise by the prelates, nobles, universities, and principal cities in his realm. You likewise know that all present at Auxerre did most solemnly swear to its observance, as well for themselves as for those on whose part they were come thither. My lord the king did afterwards issue letters throughout his realm for the more strictly keeping of this peace, and that it might be sworn to ; and you also know that we ourself, and others of the princes of the blood, did, by the king's command, take a solemn oath to maintain this peace, according to the schedule drawn up for this purpose at Auxerre, in which, among other things, it was ordained that a good and perfect union should subsist between these lords, and that henceforth they should live in a manner becoming good relatives and friends. “Now although this peace has been much wished for by us, and that we have never infringed it, or suffered it to be infringed by others in any degree, nevertheless offensive conduct has been holden toward us by the detestable injuries which many have attempted to do to our most redoubted lady and daughter the duchess of Aquitaine, as is notorious to the whole kingdom, without farther entering into particulars. Very contemptuous conduct has been used toward ourself, and personal injuries have been done us, in banishing from Paris every person that was known to be attached to us or to our aforesaid lord of Aquitaine; in defaming our honour in several public assemblies and in various places, by sermons and harangues, which, notwithstanding the pain it has cost us, we have patiently borne, and should have continued to do so from our love of peace, which is the sovereign good to this kingdom, and to avert all the miseries and distress that must otherwise ensue, had not our most redoubted lord and son, the duke of Aquitaine, made known to us, that, after many injurious excesses which had been committed towards him, to his infinite mortification, he was confined in the Louvre like a prisoner, with the drawbridge of the said castle drawn up, which is an abomination that ought not only to be displeasing to us but to every good subject and wellwisher to our lord the king. “In consequence of this treatment, my most redoubted lord and son has several times, by messengers and letters, requested our aid and succour to free him from the perilous situation in which he is held; and since we are so intimately connected by blood, marriage, and other confederations, with our said lord the king, and our beloved lord the duke of Aquitaine, his son, the loyalty and affection we owe to both will prevent us from failing to comply with his demand of assistance and support. We have, therefore, determined to advance to Paris with as large a body of men-at-arms as we can muster, for the security of our person, and that it may please God that we may see in all good prosperity my aforesaid lord the king, my lady the queen, my much redoubted lord of Aquitaine, and my well-beloved daughter his duchess; and likewise that we may deliver them from the danger they are in, and set them, as is but reasonable, at full liberty, without having the smallest intentions of violating the peace of the kingdom. We signify this to you, very dear and good friends, that you may be acquainted with our object, and act accordingly, as becometh well-wishers, and truly obedient subjects, to my said lord the king. Know, therefore, for a truth, that our intentions and will are such as we have said, and none other; and we therefore entreat you most earnestly, from our heart, that in this business, which is of such consequence to my said lords, and for the tranquillity and peace of the realm, you will come forward to our assistance as speedily as possible, that it may be accomplished to our honour and that of my lords the king and the duke of Aquitaine, and for the common good of the realm, and that you will so bear yourselves, that your excellent loyalty may be visible toward my lord the king, the duke of Aquitaine, to the public welfare, and in like manner to ourself, who are only desirous of peace. We have a perfect confidence in you, very dear and good friends,-and may God have you in his holy keeping ! “Written in our town of Lille, the 23d day of January, in the year of our Lord 1413*. on the eve of our departure.” The superscription was, “To my very dear and well-beloved the resident burgesses and inhabitants of the town of Amiens.” These letters thus sent by the duke of Burgundy, and also the levy of men-at-arms which he was making, were immediately known at Paris; and to counteract the enterprises of the duke, a reconciliation took place between the duke of Aquitaine and the king's ministers, in consequence of which the duke was prevailed on to write letters to different towns to put an end to the intended expedition of the duke of Burgundy. These letters were of the following tenor :— “Louis, eldest son to the king of France, duke of Aquitaine, and dauphin of Vienne, to the bailiff of Aumiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting. Whereas it has lately come to our knowledge that our very dear and well-beloved father-in-law, the duke of Burgundy, has for a short time past begun to raise a large body of men-at-arms, and still continues to do the same, with the intent, as it is said, of marching them to us, which may be very prejudicial to my lord the king, his realm and subjects, and more especially so to the peace which has been so lately concluded at Auxerre between many princes of our royal blood: we have therefore very fully explained ourself to our aforesaid father-in-law by a letter, the contents of which are as under:— “‘Louis, eldest son to the king of France, duke of Aquitaine and dauphin of Vienne, to our very dear and well-beloved father the duke of Burgundy health and affection. You know how often my lord the king has repeated his commands to you, both by letter and by able ambassadors, not to raise any bodies of men-at-arms that might be hurtful to the welfare and profit of his kingdom. You know also what oaths you took, as well at Auxerre as at Paris. It has, nevertheless, come to the knowledge of our lord the king, that, contrary to the terms of the peace concluded between our said lord and yourself, and sworn to at Auxerre, you have raised, and continue to raise, bodies of men-at-arms, with the design, as it is said, of coming to us; and, as a pretence for the levying these men-at-arms, you have published letters, as from us, desiring that you would come to our aid with a large force, which thing we have neither done nor thought of doing. Because we are truly sensible, that your coming hither at this time would be very prejudicial to the said peace and welfare of the realm, our said lord the king sends you a sergeant-at-arms of the parliament, with his positive commands not to come hither. We therefore require, and also command you in his name, and on the loyalty and obedience you owe him, as well as for the love and affection you bear to him and to us, and for the good of the realm, which you say you have had always at heart, that notwithstanding any letters or messages you may have had from us, you do for the present lay aside all thoughts of coming to us, otherwise you will incur the anger of our lord the king; and that you do disband any bodies of men-at-arms which are already assembled, and instantly countermand such as have not yet joined. Should you have any causes of complaint, or should anything have happened likely to violate the peace, make them known to my lord or to us; for we know for a truth, that my said lord will provide such remedies for them as shall give you satisfaction. Given at Paris, the 24th day of January, in the year 1413.” “We also require and command you, the bailiff of Amiens, in the name of my aforesaid lord, to have these presents publicly proclaimed in all usual places where proclamations have been made, within your bailiwick, forbidding, in the king's name, all his vassals and * This, according to modern computation, would be are indifferently used in ancient documents,whichfrequently

1414; but we are here to understand the year as com- causes very great confusion.—Ed. puted either from Lady-day or from Easter. Both methods

subjects, as has been before notified to them, to obey the summons of our said father the duke of Burgundy, either on the pretext stated by him or any other, without his especial order and licence, as may appear in his letters patent, subsequent to the date of these presents. “Given at Paris the 24th day of January, in the year of Grace, 1413.” Signed by the duke of Aquitaine, and countersigned “J. de Cloye.” The duke of Burgundy, however, in spite of these commands from the king and the duke of Aquitaine, would not desist from his enterprise; and the king then issued a summons for men-at-arms to oppose him, and published the following edict: “Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, health and greeting. “It has come to our knowledge, that our cousin the duke of Burgundy, in opposition to the articles of the peace concluded by us, between him and others of our blood, and sworn to at Auxerre and at Paris, has raised, and continues to raise, large bodies of men-at-arms, notwithstanding our positive orders to the contrary, as well by letters as by especial ambassadors sent to him for this purpose ; and has already quitted his country, and is on the march, as he declares, to come to Paris, by which the said peace will be destroyed, and would cause numberless evils and irreparable injuries to our realm and subjects, unless a speedy and effectual remedy be provided against it. Having, therefore, deliberately weighed the consequences, and the probable means of opposing the enterprises of the duke of Burgundy, we have determined to exert our whole power against him, and all others who shall in any way attempt to infringe the said peace, and to call for the aid and support of all our loyal subjects. We therefore do command and expressly enjoin you, under pain of incurring our displeasure, to proclaim these presents in a solemn manner, with a loud voice and sound of trumpets, in all towns and other accustomed places within your jurisdiction, commanding all our vassals and liege subjects, on the faith they owe us, to appear in arms on the 5th day of February next, in our town of Mondidier *, ready to follow us to our town of Paris, or wherever else it may please us to lead them. They will find in the town of Mondidier sufficient persons authorised by us to receive them, with orders to allow such pay as shall content them; and at the same time, they will inform them whither they are to direct their march. “You will make this known to all our said vassals and subjects, and forbid them, under the heaviest penalties of corporal punishment and confiscation of effects, and of being counted as traitors to our crown, to comply with any summons, prayers, or entreaties, of the said duke of Burgundy, or others, whether of our blood or not, under any pretence or colour of aiding us, to bear or assemble in arms, or in any way to obey them without our especial leave and licence, in letters-patent, of a later date than these presents. Should any have joined the duke of Burgundy or others, you will order them instantly to depart home, even supposing they should be of the kindred or vassals liege of the said duke or others, and had, in consequence of their fiefs, been summoned to assemble in arms; for in this instance we do exempt them not only from obeying such commands, but do promise to guarantee and defend them from any ill consequences that may ensue from their disobedience. Should it happen, that after the proclamation of these our commands, any of our vassals within your bailiwick shall set out to join the duke of Burgundy in arms, or should those who have joined him not return to their homes, but remain in arms with the said duke, or with any others who may have summoned them, we most strictly order and enjoin, that with the least possible delay, and without any excuse or dissimulation whatever, you do seize, in our name, having had a just and true inventory made, all their moveables and immoveables, estates, houses and all other effects whatever; and that you do put the same under the management of sufficient persons as may, at a fit time and place, render a good account of them, proceeding at the same time to the extremity of the penalties incurred by such for their disobedience. “You will also arrest and imprison all persons whom you shall discover within your bailiwick endeavouring, by lies and false reports, to sow discord among our loyal subjects, or in any way attempting a breach of the peace; and for this purpose we delegate to you, by these presents, full power and authority for the punishing of all whom you shall find

* Mondidier, a town in Picardy, nine leagues from Amiens, twenty-three from Puris.

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