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Forty men at arms, richly dressed, were ordered by the king to keep the lists clear; and between their barriers was the constable of Arragon, with a large company of men at arms, brilliantly equipped, according to the custom of the country. Within the field of combat were two small pavilions for the champions, who were much adorned with the emblazonry of their arms, to repose in, and shelter themselves from the heat of the sun. On the arrival of the king, he made known to the seneschal, by one of his knights, that he and his companions should advance first into the field, since it had been so ordered, as the Arragonians were the appellants. The seneschal and his companions, on receiving this summons, instantly armed themselves, and mounted their coursers, which were all alike ornamented with crimson silk trappings that swept the ground, over which were besprinkled many escutcheons of their arms. Thus nobly equipped, they left their lodgings, and advanced toward the barriers of the lists. The before-named esquire marched first, followed by sir Tanneguy and sir James de Montenay; and last of all, the seneschal, conducted by the seneschal du Chut; when, having entered the lists, they made their reverences on horseback to king Martin of Arragon, who paid them great honour. They then retired to their tents, and waited an hour and a half for their opponents, who arrived, like the others, in a body on horseback. Their horses' trappings were of white silk, ornamented with escutcheons of their arms. When they had made their reverences to the king, they retired also to their tents, which were pitched on the right, where they all remained for full five hours thus armed. The cause of this delay was owing to the king and his council wishing to accommodate the matter, and prevent the combat. To effectuate this, many messages were sent from the king to the seneschal, proposing that he should not proceed farther; but he prudently made answer, that this enterprise had been undertaken at the request of Tollemache, and that he and his companions had come from a far country, and at great trouble and expense, to gratify his wish, which he and his companions were determined upon doing. At length, after much discussion on each side, it was concluded that the combat should take place. The usual proclamations were then made in the king's name; and the king at arms of Arragon, cried out loudly and clearly, that the champions must do their duty. Both parties instantly issued forth of their tents, holding their battle-axes in their hands, and marched proudly towards each other. The Arragonians had settled among themselves that two of them should fall on the seneschal, in the hope of striking him down: both parties were on foot, and they expected he would be at one of the ends of the lists above the others, but he was in the middle part. When they approached, the seneschal stepped forward three or four paces before his companions, and attacked Tollemache, who had that day been made a knight by the king's hand, and gave him so severe a blow with his battle-axe, on the side of his helmet, as made him reel and turn half round. The others made a gallant fight with their opponents; but sir James de Montenay, throwing down his battle-axe, seized sir James * de Monstarde with one of his hands under his legs, and, raising him up with his dagger in the other, was prepared to stab him; but, as the affair on all sides seemed to be carried on in earnest, the king put an end to the combat. According to appearances, the Arragonians would have had the worst of it had the combat been carried to extremities; for the seneschal and those with him were all four very powerful in bodily strength, well experienced in all warlike exercises, and equal to the accomplishment of any enterprise in arms that might be demanded from them. When the champions were retired to their tents, the king descended from his seat into the lists, and requested of the seneschal and Tollemache, in a kind manner, that the remaining deeds of arms might be referred to him and his council, and he would so act that they should all be satisfied. The seneschal, then falling on one knee, humbly entreated the king that he would consent that the challenge should be completed according to the request of Tollemache. The king replied, by again requiring that the completion of the combat should be referred to his judgment; which being granted, he took the seneschal by the hand, and placed him above himself, and Tollemache on the other side. He thus led them out of the lists, when each returned to his hôtel and disarmed. The king sent his principal knights to seek the seneschal and his companions, whom, for three days, he entertained at his palace, and paid them as much honour as if they had been his own brothers. When he had reconciled them with their opponents, he made them fresh presents; and they departed thence on their return to France, and the seneschal to Hainault.

* Before called Peter.

About this time the admiral of Brittany, the lord du Chastel, and many other knights and esquires of Brittany and Normandy, to the amount of twelve hundred or more, embarked on board several vessels at St. Malo, and put to sea, intending to land at Dartmouth. Notwithstanding the admiral and some others were adverse to going ashore there, the lord du Chastel and some others made their landing good, thinking they would be followed by the rest, which was not the case. They attacked the English, who were assembled in a large body; but, though the combat lasted some time, the Bretons and Normans were defeated, and the lord du Chastel slain,-with him two brothers, sir John Martiel, a Norman knight, and many more. About one hundred prisoners were made,-among whom was the lord de Bacqueville, who afterward ransomed himself by dint of money. The admiral and those that had remained with him, or were wounded, returned to their country, afflicted and disconsolate at their loss".


NEARLY at this time, the marshal of France and the master of the cross-bowst, by orders from the king of France, and at his expense, collected twelve hundred fighting men. They marched to Brest, in Brittany, to embark them, for the assistance of the Welsh against the English, on board of six score vessels with sails, which were lying there. As the wind was contrary, they there remained fifteen days; but when it became favourable, they steered for the port of Haverfordwest,--which place they took, slaying all the inhabitants but such as had fled. They wasted the country round, and then advanced to the castle of Haverford, wherein was the earl of Arundel, with many other men at arms and soldiers. Having burnt the town and suburbs under the castle, they marched away, destroying the whole country with fire and sword. They came to a town called Tenby, situated eighteen miles off, where they found the prince of Wales:, with ten thousand combatants, waiting for them, and thence marched together to Carmarthen, twelve miles from Tenby.

Thence they marched into the country of Linorquieś, went to the Round Table ||, which is a noble abbey, and then took the road to Worcester, where they burnt the suburbs and adjoining country. Three leagues beyond Worcester, they met the king of England, who was marching a large army against them. Each party drew up in order of battle on two eminences, having a valley between them, and each waiting for the attack of its opponent. This contest, who should commence the battle, lasted for eight days; and they were regularly every morning drawn up in battle array, and remained in this state until evening, during which time there were many skirmishes between the two parties, when upwards of two hundred of either side were slain, and more wounded. On the side of France, three knights were slain, namely, sir Patroullars de Tries, brother to the marshal of France", the lord de Martelonne, and the lord de la Valle. The French and Welsh were also much oppressed by famine and other inconveniences; for with great difficulty could they gain any provision, as the English had strongly guarded all the passes.

At length, on the eighth day that these two armies had been looking at each other, the king of England, seeing the enemy were not afraid of him, retreated in the evening to Worcester, but was pursued by some French and Welsh, who seized on eighteen carts laden with provision and other baggage; upon which the French and Welsh then marched back to Wales. While these things were passing, the French fleet was at sea, having on board some men at arms to defend it, and made for a port which had been pointed out to them, where they were found by their countrymen on their retreat from England. The marshal de Tries and the master of the cross-bows, having embarked with their men on board this fleet, put to sea, and made sail for the coast of France, and arrived at St. Pol de Leon without any accident. However, when they were disembarked, and had visited their men, they found they had lost upwards of sixty men, of whom the three knights before mentioned were the principal. They thence departed, each man to his home, excepting the two commanders, who went to wait on the king and the princes of the blood at Paris, by whom they were received with much joy.

* Of this invasion, Stowe gives the following brief | Round Table. Q. Caerleon near Newport, in Mon

account: “The lord of Cassels, in Brytaine, arrived at
Blackepoole, two miles out of Dartmouth, with a great navy,
where, of the rustical people, whom he ever despised, he was
+ John de Hangest, lord de Huqueville.
it Owen Glendwer. § Linorquie. Q. Glamorgan *

mouthshire, one of Arthur's seats 2
* Regnault de Trie, lord of Fontenay, was admiral of
France on the death of the lord de Vienne, killed at Nico-
polis. He resigned, in 1405, in favour of Peter de Breban,
lord of Landreville, surnamed Clugnet, and hereafter men-
tioned, but incorrectly, by the name of Clugnet de Brabant.


IN this year, a great and powerful prince of the region of Tartary, called Tamerlane, invaded Turkey, belonging to king Bajazet, with two hundred thousand combatants and

Charge of TAMERLANE's WAR ELEPHANTs.-From a design by Raphael.

twenty-six elephants. Bajazet was very powerful, and had been one of the principal chiefs who had conquered and made prisoner the count de Nevers in Hungary, as is fully described in the chronicles of master John Froissart. When Bajazet heard that Tamerlane had thus invaded his territory, and was wasting it with fire and sword, he issued a special summons throughout his country, so that within fifteen days he had assembled an army of three hundred thousand fighting men, but had only ten elephants. These elephants of each party had small castles on their backs, in which were many men at arms, who grievously annoyed the enemy. Bajazet marched this force against Tamerlane, and found him encamped on a high mountain to the westward, called Appady, having already destroyed or burnt very many good towns, and the greater part of the country. When the two chiefs were in sight of each other, they drew up their armies in battle array". The combat soon began, and lasted full six hours; but at last Bajazet and his army were defeated, and he himself made prisoner. Forty thousand Turks were slain, and ten thousand of their enemies. After this success, Tamerlane sent larger detachments of his army to the principal towns in Turkey, all of which, or the greater part, surrendered to him, so that Tamerlane, in one campaign, conquered nearly the whole of Turkey.



At this same season, Charlest king of Navarre came to Paris to wait on the king. He negotiated so successfully with the king and his privy council, that he obtained a gift of the castle of Nemours, with some of its dependent castlewicks, which territory was made a duchy. He instantly did homage for it, and at the same time surrendered to the king the castle of Cherbourg, the county of Evreuxt, and all other lordships he possessed within the kingdom of France, renouncing all claim or profit in them to the king and his successors, on consideration, that with this duchy of Nemours the king of France engaged to pay him two hundred thousand gold crowns of the coin of the king our lord. When this was done, duke Philip of Burgundy left Paris to go to Bar-le-Duc, to attend the funeral of his sister the duchess of Bar', who had died there. After this ceremony, he went to his town of Arras, where the duchess was, and there celebrated the feast of Easter. He then went to Brussels in Brabant, to the duchess's, grandmother | to his wife, who had sent for him, to resign into his hands the government of the country; but he was there seized with an alarming illness, and caused himself to be carried to Halle, as will be more fully shown hereafter.


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At the beginning of this year, the good duke of Burgundy, Philip, son to king John, and brother to Charles the Rich, caused himself to be carried in a litter from the town of Brussels, in Brabant, to Halle, in Hainault. That the horses which carried him might travel more safely, and he be less shaken, labourers advanced before the litter, with spades and pick-axes, to repair and smooth the roads.

When at Halle, he fixed his lodgings near to the church of our Lady, at an hôtel bearing the sign of the Stag; and, finding his disorder increase, he sent for his three sons, namely, John count de Nevers, Anthony and Philip. On their arrival, he entreated and commanded them to be loyal and obedient, during their lives, to king Charles of France and to his successors, and made them promise obedience on their love to him. This engagement the three princes readily granted to their lord and father, who then assigned to each such lordships and estates as they were to hold after his decease, and specified the manner in which he intended they should enjoy them. All these, and various other arrangements, were wisely ordered by the duke in a manner becoming such a prince, who had a good memory in his

* This famous battle was fought at Angora, in Galatia. | Rather aunt. John III. duke of Brabant, dying in

t Charles III. succeeded his father, Charles the Bad, in 1386.

f This county descended to him from his great-grandfather Louis, count of Evreux, son to Philip the Bold, king of France. Philip, son of Louis, became king of Navarre, in right of his wife Jane, daughter of Louis Hutin. He was father of Charles the Bad.

§ Mary of France, daughter of king John, married Robert duke of Bar, by whom she had issue, Edward duke of Bar, and Louis cardinal, hereafter mentioned, besides other children.

the year 1335, without male issue, left his dominions to his eldest daughter Joan, who married Wenceslaus duke of Luxembourg, and survived her husband many years, dying, at a very advanced age, in the year 1406. She is the princess here mentioned. Margaret, youngest daughter of John III., married Louis de Male, earl of Flanders; and her only daughter Margaret (consequently niece of Joan, duchess of Brabant) brought the inheritance of Flanders to Philip, duke of Burgundy.

Horse Litten.—Composed from contemporary illuminations.

last moments. When he had finished these matters, he died in this hôtel. His body was then opened, and his bowels interred in the church of our Lady at Halle; but his body being well embalmed, was placed in a leaden coffin, and carried to the towns of Douay and Arras, magnificently attended, and in a manner suitable to his rank. At Arras the corpse was placed in his chapel, where a solemn service was performed. The duchess Margaret” there renounced her claim to his moveables, from fear of the debts being too great, by placing her girdle with her purse and keys on the coffin, as is the usual custom in such cases, and demanded that this act should be put into writing by a public notary there present. The body was afterward conveyed to Burgundy, and interred in the church of the Carthusians near I)ijon, which church he had founded and ornamented at his own expense. His heart was carried to the church of Saint Denis, and placed near to his royal ancestors, from whom he was descended. The duke, in addition to the three before-mentioned sons, had three daughters, namely, the archduchess of Austriat, the countess of Hollandt, wife to William count of Hainault, and the duchess of Savoy S. There were great lamentations at his death, not only by his children, but generally by the greater part of the lords of France and of his own countries; for he had prudently and ably governed the affairs of France, in conjunction with his elder brother the duke of Berry, by whom he was much regretted. After his decease, John count of Nevers, his eldest son, took possession of the county and duchy of Burgundy: his second son, Anthony, was declared heir to the duchy of Brabant, after the death of his great aunt the duchess, who immediately resigned to him the duchy of

* The heiress of Flanders, mentioned in the preceding t Margaret, married to William of Bavaria, (VI. of the page. name), count of Holland and Hainault.

f Catherine, married to Leopold the Proud, duke of § Mary, married to Amadeus VIII. first duke of Savoy, Austria. afterwards pope by the name of Felix W.

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