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When the French observed the English thus advance, they drew up each under his banner, with his helmet on his head: they were, at the same time, admonished by the constable, and others of the princes, to confess their sins with sincere contrition and to fight boldly against the enemy. The English loudly sounded their trumpets as they approached, and the French stooped to prevent the arrows hitting them on the vizors of their helmets; thus the distance was now but small between the two armies, although the French had retired some paces. Before, however, the general attack commenced, numbers of the French were slain and severely wounded by the English bowmen. At length the English gained on them so much, and were so close, that excepting the front line, and such as had shortened their lances, the enemy could not raise their hands against them. The division under sir Clugnet de Brabant, of eight hundred men-at-arms, who were intended to break through the English archers, were reduced to seven score, who vainly attempted it. True it is, that sir William de Saveuses, who had been also ordered on this service, quitted his troop, thinking they would follow him, to attack the English, but he was shot dead from off his horse. The others had their horses so severely handled by the archers, that, smarting from pain, they galloped on the van division and threw it into the utmost confusion, breaking the line in many places. The horses were become unmanageable, so that horses and riders were tumbling on the ground, and the whole army was thrown into disorder, and forced back on some lands that had been just sown with corn. Others, from fear of death, fled; and this caused so universal a panic in the army that great part followed the example. The English took instant advantage of the disorder in the van division, and, throwing down their bows, fought lustily with swords, hatchets, mallets, and bill-hooks, slaying all before them. Thus they came to the second battalion that had been posted in the rear of the first; and the archers followed close king Henry and his men-at-arms. Duke Anthony of Brabant, who had just arrived in obedience to the summons of the king of France, threw himself with a small company (for, to make greater haste, he had pushed forward, leaving the main body of his men behind), between the wreck of the van and the second division; but he was instantly killed by the English, who kept advancing and slaying, without mercy, all that opposed them, and thus destroyed the main battalion as they had done the first. They were, from time to time, relieved by their varlets, who carried off the prisoners; for the English were so intent on victory, that they never attended to making prisoners, nor pursuing such as fled. The whole rear division being on horseback, witnessing the defeat of the two others, began to fly, excepting some of its principal chiefs. During the heat of the combat, when the English had gained the upper hand and made several prisoners, news was brought to king Henry that the French were attacking his rear, and had already captured the greater part of his baggage and sumpter-horses. This was indeed true, for Robinet de Bournouville, Riflart de Clamasse, Ysambart d'Azincourt, and some other men-at-arms, with about six hundred peasants, had fallen upon and taken great part of the king's baggage and a number of horses, while the guard was occupied in the battle. This distressed the king very much, for he saw that though the French army had been routed they were collecting on different parts of the plain in large bodies, and he was afraid they would renew the battle. He therefore caused instant proclamation to be made by sound of trumpet, that every one should put his prisoners to death, to prevent them from aiding the enemy, should the combat be renewed. This caused an instantaneous and general massacre of the French prisoners, occasioned by the disgraceful conduct of Robinet de Bournouville, Ysambart d'Azincourt, and the others, who were afterward punished for it, and imprisoned a very long time by duke John of Burgundy, notwithstanding they had made a present to the count de Charolois of a most precious sword, ornamented with diamonds, that had belonged to the king of England. They had taken this sword, with other rich jewels, from king Henry's baggage",—and had made this present, that, in case they should at any time be called to an account for what they had done, the count might stand their friend. The count de Marle, the count de Fauquemberg, the lords de Louvroy and du Chin, had with some difficulty retained about six hundred men-at-arms, with whom they made a gallant charge on the English; but it availed nothing, for they were all killed or made * See the Foedera, where the loss of these jewels, &c. is specified.

prisoners. There were other small bodies of French on different parts of the plain; but they were soon routed, slain, or taken. The conclusion was a complete victory on the part of the king of England, who only lost about sixteen hundred men of all ranks"; among the slain was the duke of York+, uncle to the king. On the eve of this battle, and the following morning, before it began, there were upwards of five hundred knights made by the French.

When the king of England found himself master of the field of battle, and that the French, excepting such as had been killed or taken, were flying in all directions, he made the circuit of the plain, attended by his princes; and while his men were employed in stripping the dead, he called to him the French herald, Montjoye, king-at-arms, and with him many other French and English heralds, and said to them, “It is not we who have made this great slaughter, but the omnipotent God, and, as we believe, for a punishment of the sins of the French.” He then asked Montjoye, to whom the victory belonged; to him, or to the king of France Montjoye replied, that the victory was his, and could not be claimed by the king of France. The king then asked the name of the castle he saw near him: he was told, it was called Azincourt. “Well then,” added he, “since all battles should bear the names of the fortress nearest to the spot where they were fought, this battle shall, from henceforth, bear the everdurable name of Azincourt.”

The English remained a considerable time on the field, and seeing they were delivered from their enemies, and that night was approaching, they retreated in a body to Maisoncelles, where they had lodged the preceding night: they again fixed their quarters there, carrying with them many of their wounded. After they had quitted the field of battle, several of the French, half dead and wounded, crawled away into an adjoining wood, or to some villages, as well as they could, where many expired. On the morrow, very early, king Henry dislodged with his army from Maisoncelles, and returned to the field of battle: all the French they found there alive were put to death or made prisoners. Then, pursuing their road toward the sea-coast, they marched away: three parts of the army were on foot, sorely fatigued with their efforts in the late battle, and greatly distressed by famine and other wants. In this manner did the king of England return, without any hindrance, to Calais, rejoicing at his great victory, and leaving the French in the utmost distress and consternation at the enormous loss they had suffered.


HERE follow the names of those lords and gentlemen who were slain at the battle of Azincourt, on the side of the French.

We shall begin with the king's officers: the lord Charles d'Albreth, constable of France!, the marshal Boucicaut $, carried a prisoner to England, where he died, sir James de Chastillon, lord de Dampierre ||, admiral of France, the lord de Rambures, master of the cross-bows, sir Guichard Daulphin, master of the king's households. Of the princes were, duke Anthony of Brabant, brother to the duke of Burgundy", Edward duke of Bar, the duke d'Alençon, the count de Nevers, brother to the duke of Burgundy, sir Robert de Bar, count de Marle, the count de Vaudemont, John brother to the duke of Bar, the count de Blaumont, the count de Grand-pré, the count de Roussy, the count de Fauquembergh, sir Louis de Bourbon, son to the lord de Préaux. The names of other great lords, as well from Picardy as elsewhere: the vidame of Amiens, the lord de Croy", and his son sir John de Croy, the lords de Helly, d'Auxit, de Brimeu, de Poix, l'Estendart, lord de Crequit, the lord de Lauvroy, sir Vitart de Bours, sir Philippe d'Auxi, lord de Dampierreş, bailiff of Amiens, his son the lord de Raineval||, his brother sir Alain, the lord de Mailly", and his eldest son the lord d'Inchy, sir William de Saveuses, the lord de Neufville, and his son the castellan of Lens, sir John de Moreul, sir Rogue de Poix, sir John de Bethune, lord of Moreul in Brie”, sir Symon de Craon, lord de Clarsyth, the lord de Rocheguyonfi, and his brother the vidame de Launois, the lord de Galigny, the lord d'AlegrešŠ in Auvergne, the lord de Bauffremont in Champagne, sir James de Heus||, the lord de Saint Bris, Philippe de Fosseux, sir Regnault de Crequy, lord de Comptes, and his son sir Philippe, the lord de Mannes, and his brother Lancelot, Mathieu and John de Humieres Toss, brothers, sir Louis de Beausault, the lord de Ront, sir Raoul de Manne, sir Oudart de Renty, and two of his brothers ***, the lord d'Applincourt, and his son sir James, sir Louis de Guistelle, the lord de Vaurin, and his son the lord de Lidequerke, sir James de Lescuelle, the lord de Hames, the lord de Hondescocte, the lord de Pulchres, sir John Baleul, sir Raoul de Flandres, sir Collart de Fosseux, the lord de Roissimbos, and his brother Louis de Boussy, the lord de Thiennes, the lord d'Azincourt and his son, sir Hustin Kierettff, le bêgue de Caen and his brother Payen, the lord de Varigines, the lord d'Auffemont off and his son sir Raulequin, sir Raoul de Neele, the lord de St. Crépin, the viscount de Quesnes, sir Pierre de Beauvoir, bailiff of the Vermandois, sir John de Lully and his brother sir Griffon, the lord de St. Symon and his brother Gallois $$$, Collart de la Porte, lord of Bellincourt, sir Yvain de Cramailles, the lord de Cerny in the Laonnois, sir Drieu d'Orgiers, lord de Bethencourt, sir Gobert de la Bove, lord de Savoisy, the lord de Becqueville * and his son sir John Marthel, the lord d'Utrecht, the seneschal d'Eu, the lord de la Riviere, de Tybouville, the lord de Courcy, the lord de St. Beuve, the lord de Beaumainnil +, the lord de Combouchis, the lord de la Heuse, the lord Viesport, sir Bertrand Painel, the lord Chambois, the lord de St. Cler, the lord de Montcheveul, the lord d'Ouffrevillei, sir Enguerrand de Fontaines and his brother sir Charles, sir Almaury de Craon, lord de Brolay $, the lord de Montejan, the lord de la Haye, the lord de l'Isle-Bouchart, sir John de Craon, lord de Montbason ||, the lord de Bueuil T, the lord de Laumont-sur-Loire, sir Anthony de Craon, lord de Beau Vergier **, the lord d'Asse, the lord de la Tour tit, the lord de l'Isle-Gonnort, sir John de Dreux, sir Germain de Dreux, the viscount de Tremblay, sir Robert de Bouvay, sir Robert de Challusi, sir John de Bonnebault, the lord de Mongaugier §§, sir John de Valcourt, the lord de Sainteron, sir Ferry de Sardonne, sir Peter d'Argie, sir Henry d'Ornay, the lord des Roches, sir John de Montenay, the lord de Bethencourt, the lord de Combourt, the viscount de la Belliere ||, the lord de la Tute, sir Bertrand de Montauban's", Bertrand de St. Gille, seneschal of Hainault, the lord de la Hamecte, the lord du Quesnoy, the lord de Montigny, the lord de Quiervran, the lord de Jumont, the lord de Chin, sir Symon de Havrech, the lord de Poctes, sir John de Gres, sir Allemand d'Estaussines, sir Philippe de Lens***, and sir Henry, brothers to the bishop of Cambray, sir Michel du Chastellier and his brother Guillaume de Vaudripont, Ernoul de Vaudrigien, Pierre de Molin, Jean de Buait, George de Quiervran and his brother Henry, the lord de Saures, sir Briffault his brother, le Baudrain d’Aisne knight, sir Maillart d’Azouville Palamedes des Marquais, the lord de Bousincourt, the lord de Fresencourt, the lord de Vallusant, the lord de Hectrus, Guernier de Brusquent, the lord de Moy in the Beauvoisis, his son Gamot de Bournouville and his brother Bertrand, Louvelet de Massinguehen and his brother, sir Collart de Phiennes, Alain de Vendôme, Lamont de Launoy, sir Colinet de St. Py, the lord de Bos d'Ancquin, Lancelot de Fremeusent, the lord d'Aumont +++, sir Robinet de Vaucoux, sir Raisse de Moncaurel off, sir Lancelot de Clary, the lord de la Rachie, sir Guerard d'Herbaines, sir Guerard de Haucourt, sir Robert de Montigny, sir Charles de Montigny, sir Charles de Chastillon $$$, Philippe de Poitiers, the lord de Feuldes, the lord de St. Pierre, Guillaume Fortescu, Burel de Guerames, Robert de Potiaumes, the son to the bailiff of Rouen, the provost to the marshals of France, Bertrand de Belloy ||, Jacques de Han, the lord de Baisir and Martel du Vauhuon his brother, Jean de Maletraicts, Raoul de Ferrieres, Raoul de Longeul knight, Henry de la Lande, sir Ernault de Corbie, lord d'Aniel, Jean Discolievelle, sir Yvain de Beauval, sir Brunel Fretel, le Baudrain de Belloy knight, sir Regnault d'Azincourt, the governor of the county of Rethel, Ponce de Salus knight, lord of Chastel-neuf, the lord de Marquectes, Symmonet de Morviller,

* This account of the loss of the English, is much more probable than that given by most English historians, who state that the total loss amounted to only forty.—Ed.

f He was very corpulent, and is said to have been pressed to death in the throng. The earl of Suffolk was also among the slain.

† Charles d'Albret, count de Dreux, succeeded by his son Charles II.

§ Boucicaut died in England two years after. He left no issue.

| He married Jane de la Riviere, and had issue by her one son, James II., lord de Dampierre, who served the dauphin faithfully, and was made grand-pannetier de France.

* The name of sir Guichard Dauphin appears to have betrayed Shakspeare into the error of making the Dauphin of France present at the battle of Azincourt, which he was not, unless we suppose the error to lie with the editors, in confounding two persons meant by Shakspeare to be distinct. In the camp scene before the battle, his dauphin does not hold such a rank in the debate and conversation as is suitable to the heir of the French monarchy, but precisely that which the master of the household might hold with propriety. In one scene, he is thus mentioned, “Enter Rambures, Châtillon, Dauphin, and others.”

* Of the princes, Anthony, duke of Brabant, left two sons, Philip and John, successively dukes of Brabant, and both dying s. p., Philip count of Nevers left Charles

count of Nevers, who died s. p., and John, count of
Estampes and of Nevers after the death of his brother.
Edward, duke of Bar, and John de Bar, lord of Puisaye,
were brothers, and both died s. p.
Robert de Bar, count of Marle and Soissons, was son to
Henry de Bar another brother, and also died, s. p. Upon
these deaths the succession was disputed between Louis,
cardinal de Bar, the surviving brother, and Yoland, queen
of Arragon, their sister. This dispute was terminated in
1419, when the cardinal resigned his right in favour of
Réné of Anjou (duke of Lorraine, &c.), grandson of
John I., count of Alençon, succeeded by his son, John
Ferry, count de Vaudemont. He was of the house of
Lorraine, and acquired Vaudemont by his marriage with
the heiress of Vaudemont and Joinville.
Henry II., count of Blamont, of the house of Salms.
Edward II., count of Grandpré, of the house of Porcien.
John W.I., count of Roussy and Braine, descended from
the old counts of Rheims. He left one daughter, Jane,
married to Robert de Sarreback, count of Commercy.
Ile was recognised among the dead by a wound which had
made one arm shorter than the other.
Waleran, eldest son of Raoul II., lord of Rayneval and
grand-pannetier de France, and his wife Philippa, daughter
of John de Luxembourg, count de Ligny and castellan of
Lille. Waleran possessed the lands of Fauquemberg by
the will of his aunt, Jane de Luxembourg, widow of Guy
de Châtillon, count of St. Pol. This count Waleran left
only a daughter, married to Baldwin d'Ailly, vidame of
* John, lord de Croy, and his two eldest sons, John
and Archambaud. + David, lord of Auxi.
f Raoul, surnamed L'Estendart, on account of the
many standards he had won from the English, son of
John IV., lord of Crequy.
§ Philip, brother of David, lord of Dompierre, not
J2ampierre, which was in the house of Châtillon.

| Raoul II., lord of Rayneval, grand-pannetier de
France, left four sons, of whom Waleran, the eldest, was
count of Fauquemberg, and killed at this battle; John,
the third, was lord de Meracourt, also killed here; Aubert,
the fourth, lord of Betencourt, also killed here:
Raoulequin, lord of Cardonnia, was the second;—but
there must be some mistake about their father the bailiff
of Amiens, and also about the brother sir Allain.
* Colard, or Nicholas, lord of Mailly, and his eldest
son Colard.
** John de Bethune, lord of Mareuil, Autréche, &c.
youngest son of John, lord of Wendeul and Vergier.
++ Simon, lord of Dommart and Claed, son of John de
Craon, lord of Dommart, and brother of William, lord of
Nouastre, and John, lord of Dommart, who was also taken
prisoner at Azincourt, and died in 1420.
John the young, lord of Midens, brother of John IV.,
lord of Crequy, Canaples, &c. was also killed at Azincourt.
it Guy VI., lord de Rocheguyon, counsellor and
chamberlain to the king. His son, Guy VII., was the
last male of this illustrious house. I find nothing of his
§§ Morinot de Tourzel, lord of Alegre. But I find in
Moreri, that he lived to the year 1418.
|| Heu, a family of Le Pays Messin, celebrated in the
sixteenth century.
** Matthew and John de Humieres, sons of Matthew,
lord de Humieres, and brothers of Philip de Humieres,
made prisoner on the same day.
*** Renty, a branch of the house of Croy.
+++ Henry Quieret, lord of Tours en Vimeu, died in
1406, leaving two sons, Guy, and Peter, lord of Haucourt,
both made prisoners at Azincourt; but I find none of
the family killed there.
fit Guy III., de Nesle, of the family of Clermont-en-
§§§ Matthieu de Rouvroy, and Guillaume le Gallois, his
brother, descended in the female line from the old
counts of Vermandois.

* William Martel, lord of Bacqueville, often men-
tioned before. He was the last person distinguished by
the venerable office of Porte-orisflamme.
t Robert VI. de Harcourt, lord of Beauménil.
: Q. Offrainville P Denis de Longueil, lord of
Offiainville, was .killed at Azincourt, together with his
elder brother, William lord of Longueville, and his son
$ Amaury de Craon, lord de Briolé, of the branch of
La Suze.
| John de Craon, lord of Montbazon and viscount
of Châteaudun, grand-echanson de France.
" John, lord of Beuil, master of the cross-bows from
1396 to 1399.
** Antony, lord of Beauvergier, grand-pannetier de
ff Agne III., de la Tour, lord of Orliergues.
it Probably Robert de Chabannes, lord of Charlus,
father of Stephen lord of Charlus, James, lord of La
Palice, and Anthony, count of Dammartin.
§§ St. Maur, lords of Montgaugier, a house of Touraine.
| Anthony de Bellievre, ancestor of the Bellievres,
presidents and chancellors, lived at this time; but it was

a law-family, and Q. if any of the branches were addicted
to arms ?
** Oliver W., lord of Montauban, a great house in
Bretagne, died soon after 1386, leaving five sons,—
1. William, who died in 1432; 2. Robert, bailiff of
Cotentin, at the siege of Orleans in 1420; 3. Bertrand,
killed at Azincourt; 4. Renaud, lord of Crépon ; 5. John.
*** John de Recourt, castellan of Lens, brother to
Charles, admiral of France, was killed at this battle ; but
I find no others of the family.
fitt John Hutin, lord of Aumont, Chars and Chapes,
échanson du roi, &c.
::: John, lord of Montcavrel, was killed at this battle.
He left only one daughter, in whose right Montcavrel
passed into the family of Monchy.
§§§ Charles de Châtillon, lord of Sourvilliers and
Gaspard de Chastillon and Hugh his brother, of the
Chastillons, lords of Blois and la Bastie, were also killed.
||| Hugh, lord of Bellay and Giseux, married Isabel
de Montigny, lady of Langey. Bertrand his son. He
had two other sons, one killed at Crevant, another at

Foleville, butler to the duke of Aquitaine, Gallois de Fougiers, sir Lancelot de Rubempré,
Lyonnet Torbis, the lord de Boissay, Anthony d'Ambrine, sir Hector de Chartres the
younger and his two brothers", Tauppinet de la Nefville t, Thibault de Fay, the lord de
Beauvoir-sur-Autre, Hue des Autels, the lord de Caucroy and his brother Eustace
d'Aubrunes, Lancelot de Couchy, Jean de Launoy, sir Collart de Monbertant, sir Charles
Boutry, sir Guy Gourle, with John Gourle his brother, le Bon de Sains, Anthony de Broly,
Guillaume de Villers, lord d'Urendone, Floridas du Souys, the lord de Regnauville, Baughois
de la Beuvriere, and his brother Gamart, le Plontre de Gerboal, Pierre Aloyer, Percival de
Richebourg, the lord de Fiefes and his son the bègue de Quenoulles, Godfrey de St. Mare,
the lord de Teneques, the lord de Herlin, Symon de Monchiaux, sir Maillet de Gournay and
his brother Porus, Jean de Noyelle, Pierre de Noyelle, and Lancelot de Noyelle, sir Carnel
de Hangiers , Jean d’Authville lord de Waverans $, Regnault de Guerbauval, William lord
de Rin, Pierre Remy, Sausset d'Eusne, the lord de Haucourt in Cambresis, sir Guichard
d’Ausne, the lord de Raisse ||, the lord d'Espaigny, the lord de Cheppon, Jean de Chaule
lord of Bretigny, Jean de Blausel, Guillebert de Gubauval, Haudin de Beleval, sir Guerard
de Hauressis, sir Louis de Vertain, sir Estourdy d'Ongines, with his brother Bertrand, sir
Henry de Boissy lord of Caule, sir Arthur de Moy, the borgne de Noaille, sir Floridas de
Moreul. sir Tristrain de Moy, sir Bridoul de Puiveurs, the lord de Verneul, Langhois de
Guerbauval, the viscount de Dommart, Ponchon de la Tour, Godfrey de Prouville.
In short, the number of persons, including princes, knights, and men of every degree, slain
that day, amounted to upwards of ten thousand, according to the estimates of heralds and
other able persons. The bodies of the greater part were carried away by their friends after
the departure of the English, and buried where it was agreeable to them. Of these ten
thousand, it was supposed only sixteen hundred were of low degree, the rest all gentlemen;
for in counting the princes, there were one hundred and six-score banners destroyed.
During the battle, the duke of Alençon most valiantly broke through the English line,
and advanced, fighting, near to the king,<-insomuch that he wounded and struck down the
duke of York. King Henry, seeing this, stepped forth to his aid; and as he was leaning
down to raise him, the duke of Alençon gave him a blow on the helmet that struck off part
of his crown. The king's guards on this surrounded him, when, seeing he could no way
escape death but by surrendering, he lifted up his arm, and said to the king, “I am the
duke of Alençon, and yield myself to you;" but, as the king was holding out his hand to
receive his pledge, he was put to death by the guards.
At this period, the lord de Longny, marshal of France, as I have said, was hastening with
six hundred men-at-arms attached to the king of Sicily, to join the French, and was within
one league of them when he met many wounded, and more running away, who bade him
return, for that the lords of France were all slain or made prisoners by the English. In
consequence, Longny, with grief at heart and in despair, went to the king of France at Rouen.
It was supposed that about fifteen hundred knights and gentlemen were this day made
prisoners: the names of the principal are—Charles duke of Orleans, the duke of Bourbon,
the count d'Eu, the count de Vendôme, the count de Richemont, sir James de Harcourt, sir
John de Craon lord of Dommart, the lord de Humieres, the lord de Roye, the lord de
Cauny, sir Boors Quieret lord of Heuchin, sir Peter Quieret lord of Hamecourt, the lord de
Ligne in Hainault, the lord de Noyelle, surnamed le Chevalier Blanc, Baudo his son, the
young lord of Inchy, sir John de Vaucourt, sir Actis de Brimeu, sir Jennet de Poix, the
eldest son and heir to the lord de Ligne, sir Gilbert de Launoy, the lord d'Ancob in Ternois.

* Hector de Chartres, lord of Ons-en-Bray, grand master of waters and forests in Normandy, father of Renaud, archbishop of Rheims and chancellor of France.

+ Perhaps a son of the mareschal Neufville, who succeeded to the estates of sir Arnold d'Andreghen in 1370.

# I can find no such name as Hangiers; but John W. lord de Hangest, grand-master of cross-bows from 1407 to 1411, was killed here.

§ John de Mailly, lord of Authuille and Warans, one of the twenty-five sons of Giles, lord of Authuille. This was a branch of the lords de Mailly before-mentioned.

| Guy II. de la Val, lord of Retz and Blazon, is said, by Moreri, to have died before 1416. He was father of the infamous marshal de Retz, by Mary of Craon.


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