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murders, thefts, rapines, rapes, and every horrid mischief would have ensued to the ruin of that town, and, consequently, to the destruction of the church and kingdom. “We point out, therefore, the before-mentioned persons as guilty of these atrocious acts, and call on our faithful and loyal subjects to assist us heartily in putting an end to their very heinous misdeeds. There is very clear evidence of this last fact; for when they found they could not by any means enter our said town of Paris, like madmen they gallopped off for the town of Beaumont-sur-Oise, belonging to our very dear and well-beloved son and nephew the duke of Orleans, now prisoner in England, and on their march seized horses from the plough, and robbed and made prisoners every traveller they met. After this, they took the said town and castle by storm, plundered it, and killed or drowned very many of the townsmen. In like manner they took the town of Nesle in Vermandois, and had before done the same to our town of Chablis", to the castle of Néant, belonging to the monks of La Charité sur Loire, with numbers of other castles, towns and villages, laying violent hands on women of all descriptions, violating them like beasts, pillaging churches and other sacred edifices, of which we are every day receiving the most melancholy accounts and lamentations. Greater mischiefs our ancient enemies the English would not, nor could not do; but thes, wretches, perversely wicked, add daily sin to sin, publicly showing themselves rebels, an disobedient to our positive commands. They thus render themselves deserving of the severest punishments, and unworthy of the smallest grace, by holding ourselves and our sovereign power in perfect contempt. In consideration of the many and repeated complaints and lamentations made to us, by such numbers of our vassals and subjects, calling on God, our Creator, and on us for vengeance for the innocent blood that has been so cruelly shed,— we foreseeing that unless a stop be put to these atrocities, the whole kingdom will be ruined, and which we firmly believe to be the ultimate object of the before-named persons, have called together the princes of our blood, the members of our grand council and courts of parliament, with other barons and nobles of our realm, that they might advise on the best and most speedy measures to be adopted for the crushing this unnatural rebellion. “After many consultations on the said matters, we having the utmost dread lest the divine judgment should fall on our head and on our kingdom, for the blood of the just that has been so abundantly and cruelly shed, and being ever desirous that peace and justice may be observed in our realm, do make known, and declare all the aforesaid persons, with their allies and associates, rebels to us and to our government. And because we at this moment are fully employed in the war that exists between us and our enemies the English, who have invaded our country, and cannot therefore act as we should wish against these said rebels and their allies: we therefore give full power and authority to all our loyal subjects to take up arms against them, to put them to death, or to confine them in prison to suffer the punishment due to their crimes, and to take full possession of all their properties moveable or immoveable, by force of arms, and to slay such as may oppose them, without their having cause for any letters of pardon whatever. “We therefore command, by these presents, the bailiff of Amiens, or his lieutenant, solemnly to proclaim three times a-week, with sound of trumpet, in all the usual places where proclamations have been made within his district, full licence and authority for any one to seize the persons and effects of the before-named rebels, and to put them to death, should need be, without danger of process or suit being hereafter made against him or them for so doing. The said bailiff, or his lieutenant, will attend to the observance of the above, so that nothing arise through his neglect to our prejudice, or to that of our kingdom. That greater confidence may be put in these presents, we order, that exact copies be made, and sent to those parts where the original cannot be proclaimed, and that equal faith be given to them. In testimony whereof, we have had our seal affixed to these presents. Given at Paris, the 30th day of August, in the year of Grace 1416, and of our reign the 36th.” Thus signed by the king, on the report of his great council, and countersigned “FERRON.” This edict was solemnly proclaimed in Amiens the 12th day of September, and thence sent to all the provosts within the bailiwick of Amiens, to be proclaimed by them throughout their provostships. The provosts of Beauquesncs, of Montreuil of St. Riquier, and of Dourlens, through fear of the duke of Burgundy, dared only to proclaim it once, and in their own courts, when few people were present. Soon after, Remonnet de la Guerre was ordered by the king and constable to Noyon and Nesle, to aid sir Thomas de Lersies, bailiff of the Vermandois, in defending the country against the Burgundians. War was now openly declared between the contending factions in that and divers other places of the realm. In truth, wherever any of the king's officers could lay hands on the partisans of the duke of Burgundy, none escaped, whether nobles or not, from being sentenced to death; and more especially all who fell into the hands of the governor of Noyon and the parts adjacent were put to death without mercy, insomuch that many trees near to that town were marvellously laden with such fruits.
* Chablis, diocese of Langres, famous for its wines.
CHAPTER CLVIII.--THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY INCREASES HIS MEN-AT-ARMS.—THE MARRIAGE OF THE LORD DE LA TREMOUILLE.--THE DUKE OF CLARENCE EMBARKS A LARGE ARMY FOR HARFLEUR.
The duke of Burgundy, when he heard of this edict, so prejudicial and disgraceful to himself and his friends, was more than ever indignant and irritated against those who governed the king. He very much increased the number of his men-at-arms, and even consented to their quartering themselves on his own territories in the Cambresis, Tierrache, Vermandois, Santerre, and the whole country from the Somme to the sea-coast, toward Montreuil and Crotoy. Justice was now no longer attended to or maintained in those parts; and the powerful nobles cruelly treated churchmen and the poorer ranks. With regard to the provosts and others of the king's officers of justice, few, if any of them, dared to do their duty. The tradesmen could not venture abroad with their goods out of the fortified towns without paying tribute for passports, under risk of being robbed and murdered.
At this time the widowed duchess of Berry espoused the lord de la Trémouille," who was not beloved by the duke of Burgundy; and because this duchess was in her own right countess of the Boulonois, the duke sent the lord de Fosseux, then governor of Artois, to take possession of the town of Boulogne. This was done, but the lord de Moruelt remained governor of it in the king's name, against the English. At this same period, the duke of Clarence, brother to the king of England, sailed from the port of Sandwich with three hundred vessels full of English, whom he led to Harfleur, and destroyed the French navy under the command of the constable of France, who had for some time besieged that town. Many were killed on board the fleet; but when the duke of Clarence had revictualled it, and supplied his losses, he sailed back to England much rejoiced at his good success.
CHAPTER CLIX. —THE EMPEROR OF GERMANY AND THE KING OF ENGLAND COME To CALAIS.–DUKE JOHN OF BURGUNDY MEETS THEM THERE.--THE MATTERS THAT WERE TheN TRANSACTed.
About the feast of St. Remy, in this year, the emperor of Germany and the king of England came to Calais, attended by numbers of nobles. The duke of Burgundy there met them, and was most honourably received; and the duke of Gloucester, brother to king Henry, went to St. Omer as hostage for the duke of Burgundy, where he was nobly entertained by the count de Charolois, and by other great lords appointed for that purpose. However, when the count de Charolois visited the duke of Gloucester the day after his arrival, attended by some of the lords of his council, to do him honour and keep him company, the duke had his back turned towards him as the count entered the apartment, and was so engaged in talking to some of his attendants that he forgot to make the usual salutations to the count, but said, shortly enough, “You are welcome, fair cousin,” but without advancing to meet him, and continued his conversation with the English. The count de Charolois, notwithstanding his youth, was much hurt and displeased at this conduct, although at the moment he showed no signs of it. In the conferences held at Calais, the king of England earnestly requested the duke of Burgundy not to assist the king of France against him, in which case he would divide some of his future conquests with him ; promising at the same time not to attack any of his territories, or those of his allies or well-wishers. The duke refused to agree to this; but the truce that existed between them was prolonged until Michaelmas-day in the year 1419. At that time, as I was informed, the duke of Burgundy did homage to the emperor for his counties of Burgundy and Alost. When he had remained in Calais nine days, and finished the business on which he had come, he took leave of the king and returned to St. Omer, whence the duke of Gloucester came to Calais. The king of France and his ministers were much astonished at this visit of the duke of Burgundy, and believed for certain that he had allied himself with king Henry, to the prejudice of the king and kingdom of France.
* George, lord of la Trémouille, Sully, Craon, Jonvelle, &c. by descent; count of Boulogne, Auvergne, and Guisnes, by marriage with Jane, heiress of those counties, and widow of the duke of Berry. Moreri says he was made prisoner at Azincourt, though not mentioned in the list of prisoners by Monstrelet. He was successively conservator of waters and forests, grand-chamberlain of France, and lieutenant-general of the duchy of Burgundy. His wife, the duchess of Berry, brought him no issue; but
on her death in 1423, he married the heiress of l'Isle
cHAPTER CLX. —THE DUKE of BURGUNDY GOEs to valENCIENNES, IN obedience to A SUMMONS WHICH HE RECEIVES FROM THE DAUPHIN.—THEY MUTUALLY SWEAR FRIENDSHIP TO EACH OTHER.
ON the return of the duke of Burgundy from Calais, duke William count of Hainault sent ambassadors to him, to request that he would meet the dauphin his son-in-law, which he refused, because he had frequently sent to his brother-in-law, duke William in Holland, to desire he would bring the dauphin into those parts, and it had not been complied with. The dauphin, nevertheless, wrote letters with his own hand to the duke of Burgundy, to come to him at Valenciennes, who promised the messengers that he would be there, and indeed he went thither on the 12th day of November.
Duke William went out of Valenciennes the length of a league to meet him, carrying with him the dauphin. On the morrow such matters were discussed and agreed on as shall be hereafter mentioned, in the presence of the countess of Hainault, the count de Charolois, the count de Conversan, and many other able knights and esquires, and the ministers of the three parties, namely sir Jean de Luxembourg, sir Jacques de Harcourt, the chancellor to the dauphin, Baudouin de Fresnes, treasurer of Hainault, Robert de Vandegrès, Jean bastard of Blois, master Eustace de Lactre, the lord d'Antoing, the vidame of Amiens, the lord de Fosseux, the lord d'Ancre, the lord de Robais, the lord de Humbercourt, sir Hue de Launoy, sir Guillaume Bouvier, governor of Arras, sir Athis de Brimeu, sir Andrieu de Valines, master Philippe de Morvillers, and many more.
First, the duke of Burgundy offered himself and his services to the dauphin, and promised on his oath to serve the king his father and himself to the utmost of his power, against all their enemies. This promise the dauphin received with pleasure, and, in return, made oath that he would aid and defend the duke of Burgundy against his enemies and all ill-wishers to him or to his subjects. The dauphin then affectionately requested the duke to join the king in the defence of his realm against the attacks of the English, which he promised and swore he would. He next required of the duke that he would keep the peace that had been concluded at Auxerre. The duke replied that he would most willingly do so, for he was very desirous of maintaining that peace, and that he wished ill to no one but to the king of Sicily. The dauphin was satisfied with this answer, and made offer to the duke that if there were any articles in the peace which he wished to have altered, or if he desired others to be added, as well in regard to what had passed then as since, it should be done. All present then made oath to the duke of Burgundy for the observance of what had been said, and duke William and the duke of Burgundy mutually swore to maintain brotherly affection, and that they would endeavour to establish a good government for the king of France and the dauphin, that they would mutually support each other, as well when absent as present, by risking their persons in maintaining whatever they should have agreed upon. Duke William added, that in respect to the war between France and England, his predecessors had no way interfered, and that he intended in this matter to follow their example, lest his countries should suffer for it. Duke William afterward promised the duke of Burgundy, that he would not intrust the dauphin to the hands of any person of whom he was not sure, for the better security of the engagements just entered into; and that within fifteen days he would visit the queen of France, and would arrange matters with her so that he should regain her friendship and support for the good of the king and realm. When all these matters had been concluded, the duke of Burgundy and his people returned to Douay.
CHAPTER CLXI.-DUKE WILLIAM COUNT OF HAINAULT CARRIES HIS SON-IN-LAW THE DAUPHIN TO ST. QUENTIN, AND THENCE To compIEGNE, where HE DIES.—The CONDUCT OBSERVED ON THIS JOURNEY.
ON the 14th day of November, duke William carried back the dauphin to his castle of Quesnoy, whither ambassadors of different ranks were sent by the king and queen to recal the dauphin to the presence of the king in Paris; but, notwithstanding their remonstrances, he remained at Quesnoy until after Christmas. Duke William then conducted him to St. Quentin in the Vermandois, where they waited for the queen until the Epiphany; and because the queen would not come to St. Quentin, the duke carried the dauphin to Compiegne, where he was lodged in the king's palace. Shortly after, the countess of Hainault came thither with her daughter the dauphiness, and a large company.
The queen came in great state from Paris to Senlis, accompanied by her son the duke of Touraine and her son-in-law the duke of Brittany, and the great council of the king. At the same time, the young duke d'Alençon, and other lords of his age, went to Compiegne to pay their court to the dauphin. Negotiations now took place between Senlis and Compiegne. The countess of Hainault carried the dauphiness to visit the queen at Senlis, when, after spending some time together in much cheerfulness, they went back to Compiegne, and the queen returned to Paris, whither the negociations were transferred between duke William, the ministers of the dauphin, and ambassadors from the duke of Burgundy. True it is, that at this time the dauphin sent letters, sealed with his great seal, to the bailiffs of Vermandois and Amiens, and other places, commanding them to proclaim a cessation of warfare on all sides, on pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of effects; but they were of little service to the poor people, for the men-at-arms did not the less overrun and oppress the country.
On the last day but one in March, duke William declared in the full audience of the king's council at Paris, that he would unite the dauphin with the duke of Burgundy, or carry the dauphin back to Hainault, if measures were not instantly taken for restoring peace to the kingdom. The ministers, hearing this, resolved that the duke should be arrested and confined until he had given up the dauphin to the king his father. The duke was secretly informed of this by a friend, and on the morrow very early, under pretext of performing a pilgrimage to St. Maur-des-Fosses, and returning to Paris in the evening, he hastened with only two attendants to Compiegne. He found the dauphin most dangerously ill, insomuch that he died on Palm Sunday: his disorder was an imposthume in the ear, which burst and suffocated him. When dead, he was put into a leaden coffin and buried at St. Corneille", in the presence of duke William, his lady, and the dauphiness, who gave large sums for masses to be said for the welfare of his soul. The duke and his family returned in great grief to Hainault.
It was commonly reported that the dauphin had been poisoned by some of those who governed the king, because he and his elder brother had been too much attached to the duke of Burgundy.
* St. Corneille de Compiegne,—an abbey near that town.
cuAPTER CLXII. *—THE NEAPolitans REBEL AGAINST THEIR KING, JACQUES DE LA MARCHE, AND MAKE WAR ON HIM.–THEY TAKE THE QUEEN PRISONER.—THE CONSEQUENCES THAT Follow.
This year the Neapolitans rebelled against king James count de la Marche, and would have made him prisoner had he not been informed in time of their intentions. They confined the queen, and made a bitter war against him and his supporters. The constable and the lord de St. Maurice, his father-in-law, were imprisoned. The king, for his greater security, embarked on board a brigantine for the castle del Ovo, leaving a good garrison in Castel Nuovo. This war lasted until the 27th day of October in the same year, when peace was made on condition that all the French who held any offices in the kingdom should depart and return to their own country, excepting the very few employed personally to serve the king.
On the conclusion of the peace, the king and queen returned to Castel Nuovo, when all persons renewed their oaths of allegiance, promising to consider him as their king during his life, but that he was no way to interfere in the government of the kingdom. His establishment of guards, attendants, and horses, were all arranged according to the pleasure of the Neapolitans. On the day the king returned to Castel Nuovo, there were great rejoicings throughout the town, with bonfires, and illuminations on the terraces of the houses, and on the morrow there was a grand ball at the castle. But on the third day, the king was so strictly watched that none were allowed to speak to him but in the presence of those who had seized the government, and the French gentlemen were not permitted to take leave of him on their departure. The rulers of the kingdom soon after obliged the queen to join their party, lest the two when united might be over much for them: however, in conformity to their oaths, they showed the king and queen all outward respect, but governed the country as they willed. The chief of these usurpers was of one of the greatest and richest families, called Hanequin Mournil, one in whom the king had placed most confidence of all the Italians. The king was for a long time kept under this restraint: at length he escaped, and fled by sea to Tarentum, which had been given to him as a principality,+but he was, soon after, driven out of the kingdom. The duke of Anjou, son to king Louis, went thither on his expulsion, and was well received in the city of Aversa; but it was not long before he was forced out of the realm by the king of Arragon.
In regard to king James, besides the rebellion of his subjects, the queen likewise, old and capricious, was much displeased and jealous of his being a lover to young ladies of the country and neglecting her. This was also the cause why the nobles whom he had brought from France with him were generally hated.
chapTER CLXIII.—THE EARL of DoRSET, gover Nor of HARFLEUR, MAKES AN INCURSION INTO THE country of CAUx, AND is combatED BY THE FRENch.—THE EMPEROR CREATES THE COUNT OF SAVOY A DUKE.
At this same time, the earl of Dorset, who commanded in Harfleur, one day marched three thousand English combatants toward Rouen, and thence made a circuit through the country of Caux, where he remained three days doing great mischief with fire and sword. In the mean time the garrisons and nobles of those parts collected together under the lord de Villequier to the amount of three thousand men also, and met the English near to Walmont, who instantly attacked them ; but the French defended themselves so valiantly, the English were defeated, and eight hundred left on the field of battle. The remainder retreated with the earl into a garden surrounded by a strong hedge of thorns, and therein continued the rest of the day without the French being able to gain further advantage over them, although they took much pains. In the evening the French retired to a village hard
s: See Giannone, lib. 25, cap. 1 and 2, for an account of these events, which are not very accurately related by Monstrelet.