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agreed on between them. On regaining his liberty, the count de Conversan remained in the service of king Henry during the siege of Meaux; and sir John de Luxembourg returned to Picardy, of which he was governor-general. He was accompanied by sir Hugh de Lannoy, who had been lately appointed grand master of the cross-bows of France by the two kings of France and of England. This year, Catherine, queen of England, was brought to bed of a son and heir to the kingdom, who, by orders from his father, was baptised Henry: his sponsors were Jacqueline duchess of Bavaria, at that time in England, and others nominated for that purpose ". King Henry felt the utmost pleasure at this event, and there were greater rejoicings throughout England than had been ever seen before on the birth of any prince. During this time, the Dauphinois took the town of Avranches by storm, and killed or made prisoners from two to three hundred English, to the great vexation of their king. On receiving this intelligence, he sent off from the siege of Meaux a strong detachment to the earl of Salisbury, governor of Normandy, who made such good use of his reinforcement that he retook Avranches, and put to death or made prisoners many of the Dauphinois. At this same time, Arthur count de Richemont was delivered by a certain treaty from his imprisonment in England, and came to the siege of Meaux with a large body of men-at-arms to serve king Henry, in whose service he remained during the life of that king.


THE lord d'Offemont assembled about forty combatants, the most expert and determined he could find, and led them near to the town of Meaux, which the king of England was besieging in person, with the intent to enter it secretly, as the inhabitants had sent him frequent messages to come and be their governor, and knowing of his arrival were prepared to receive him. They had placed a ladder on the outside of the wall, by which the lord d'Offemont and his people were to gain admittance; and on the appointed day, when the lord d'Offemont approached to accomplish his enterprise, he met a party of the English guard, whom he soon put to death. He then led his men to the bank of the ditch, and they began to ascend the ladder; but he himself, who had staid to see his men mount before him, stepping on an old plank that had been thrown over the ditch, it broke under him, and he fell, fully armed, into it, whence he could not be raised, although they gave him two spears, which remained in his hands. In the mean time, the besiegers, hearing a noise, came in numbers to the spot, and made them prisoners. The lord d'Offemont was cruelly wounded in the face, and his men were also wounded; and thus were they carried to the king of England, who was well pleased at the capture which his men had made. Having questioned the lord d'Offemont on many subjects, he put him under a good guard, to whom he gave strict orders to be careful of his person.

On the morrow, the besieged, sorrowful at heart for their disappointment in the loss of their looked-for governor, and thinking the town could not hold out much longer, began to carry their most valuable articles into the market-place. This was observed by the men of John de Guigny, a Savoyard, who was at the siege, and he instantly made an attack on that side of the town. The onset likewise commenced on the opposite quarter, and was continued with such vigour that the place was won with little loss to the besiegers. The garrison then retreated into the market-place, not however without some being slain or taken, but in no great numbers. The king and very many of his men were lodged in the town, and soon after they gained a small island, on which they planted some bombards that terribly annoyed the buildings. Those who had retired into the market-place were sorely oppressed, for king Henry had caused several bulwarks to be erected against the walls, and they were hourly expecting to be stormed; for all hopes of succour had fled, since the time appointed by the dauphin to send them aid was passed. The English, pushing matters forward, increased their distress by the capture of the corn-mill of the market-place, so that no corn could be

ground without infinite danger.
* See for them in Rymer, &c.


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We must now speak of what sir John de Luxembourg, with some of the Picard lords, did this year, by orders from the kings of France and England. Sir Hugh de Lannoy, the newly-appointed grand master of the cross-bows, the vidame of Amiens, the lord de Longueval, the lord de Saveuses, the lord de Humbercourt, and a great number of knights and esquires, mustered their forces, in the month of March, in the town of Eure. When this was done, few people knew whither sir John intended to lead them: at length he directed their march toward Amiens, to a miserable castle called le Quesnoy, belonging to John d'Arly, in which about forty pillagers of the dauphin's party had quartered themselves, and, in conjunction with those in D'Airaines, had greatly harassed the whole country of Vimeu, and down the river Somme from Amiens to Abbeville. The vidame of Amiens and the lord de Saveuses had advanced their men thither the preceding day to prevent their escape. On sir John de Luxembourg's arrival, having arranged his quarters, he caused his artillery to be pointed against the walls, which shortly made large breaches in them, and in such numbers, that the besieged finding all resistance vain offered to capitulate.

The following terms were soon agreed on between them and the lord de Saveuses, who had been commissioned for that purpose by sir John de Luxembourg, namely, that they should surrender the castle and everything within it to sir John de Luxembourg; and the greater number of these pillagers were to be given up to his will. Waleran de St. Germain, their leader, in fact betrayed them, giving them to understand that their lives would be spared,— but he only bargained for himself to depart freely, with sufficient passports.

On the conclusion of this treaty, the castle gates were thrown open, and those within carried to a house in the town, when part of them were shortly after hanged, and the others sent to the bailiff of Amiens, who had them gibbeted: in the latter number was a gentleman, named Lienard de Picquigny, who said he was distantly related to the vidame of Amiens. This castle was razed to the ground after the wood-work had been burnt. Sir John then marched his forces toward Gamaches, where he was joined by three hundred English combatants under the command of sir Raoul le Bouteiller; and he subjected to the obedience of the kings of France and of England certain fortresses in Vimeu, as Louvroy", Hericourt, and others. In the mean time, the men of the lord de Gamaches, who were posted at Compiègne, took by storm the castle of Mortemer, near Mondidier, belonging to Conherrard de Brimeu, then absent with the army of sir John de Luxembourg in Vimeu. They placed a strong garrison within it, which much oppressed the country round. In another part, a company of Dauphinois, quartered at Marcoussy, to the amount of two hundred combatants, with their captain, secretly marched by night to the bridge of Meulan, to which they did great mischief. Their plan was to establish a garrison there to defend it; but the king of England sent thither the count de Conversan, with a number of men-at-arms, who having besieged them, they soon surrendered on having their lives and fortunes spared.


In this year the emperor of Germany assembled a large body of men-at-arms from all parts of Christendom, to combat and oppose the false and stinking heretics that had arisen within the city of Prague, and in the adjoining country from two to three days' journey around it. This armament was composed of many princes, prelates, knights, esquires, and others, as well on foot as on horseback, from parts of Germany, Liege, Holland, Zealand, Hainault, and elsewhere. Their numbers were so great they could scarcely be counted; but the heretics defended themselves so courageously in Prague that they could not do much harm to them, except in some skirmishes, when many were put to death. They were firmly united, and the country so strong, that the Christians were forced to retreat for want of provisions; and these accursed people were obstinate in their errors, and not afraid of any punishments which might be inflicted on them: they even armed their women, who were very devils in cruelty; for several, dressed as men, were found among the slain in different engagements. Similar heretics of both sexes were also discovered near to Douay, who held their meetings at the village of Sains, and were carried prisoners to the court of the bishop of Arras. Some of them recanted, and were pardoned; but the rest, having been preached to by the bishop and inquisitor, were publicly burnt at Douay, Arras, and Valenciennes. Sir John de Luxembourg returned with his captains and his whole army, on Easter-night, before the two castles of D'Airaines, and surrounded them on all sides. He had his artillery pointed against the walls, which made breaches in several places; but the besieged made a good defence with their cannon, and some sallies, by which indeed they did not gain much: however, as they were well supplied with stores and provision, they held out a considerable time, in the expectation of being powerfully succoured, according to the promises that had been given them by some of the dauphin's partisans.

* Louvroy. In du Cange's MS. notes it is called Hornox.


CHAPTER COLVIII. —THE DAUPHINois Assemble to RAISE THE SIEGE of D'AIRAINEs.—THE BURGUNDIANS AND ENGLISH MARCH To MEET THEM, AND of FER THEM BATTLE [A. D. 1422.] At the beginning of the year, a party of the Dauphinois assembled near to Compiègne, with the intent of marching to the succour of D'Airaines. Their leaders were, the lord de Gamaches, the lord de Moy, and Poton de Saintrailles, and their force amounted to from eight hundred to a thousand men. They first advanced to Pierrepont, which belonged to the vidame of Amiens; and although its outworks had strong hedges, and ditches full of water, they formed a lodgement therein, and made an attack on the fortress, but it was too well defended by those on guard. While they were thus occupied at Pierrepont, news was brought of their proceedings to sir John de Luxembourg, at the siege of D'Airaines. He advised with his principal nobles, and then detached some of the captains, with a thousand combatants, to meet these Dauphinois. The commanders of the detachment were, sir Hugh de Lannoy", master of the cross-bows of France, sir Raoul le Bouteiller, an Englishman, le borgne de Fosseaux knight, the lord de Saveuses, and others expert in arms. They lay the first night at Coucy, and on the morrow very early advanced to Moreul, where they heard that the Dauphinois were still in Pierrepont. They, in consequence, marched in very handsome array to meet them; but the Dauphinois, having heard of the near approach of their enemies, mounted their horses, and, after setting fire to their quarters, drew up in order of battle above Mondidier. The English and Burgundians traversed the town of Pierrepont as speedily as they could, but were much delayed by the fire, and formed themselves in battle-array fronting the enemy. On this occasion many new knights were made on the part of the Burgundians, namely, le bêgue de Launoy, Anthony de Reubempré, James de Brimeu, Robert Fritel, Gilles de Hardecourt, Matthew de Landas, Philip du Bos, John de Beauvoir, Waleran de Fieses, Framet de la Tramerie, and many more. Much skirmishing took place between them, in which several men-at-arms were unhorsed and severely wounded or slain. During this the Burgundian and English infantry remained inactive, and the Dauphinois galloped away in good order toward Compiègne, forming a rear guard of their ablest men for their security. The Burgundians, seeing this, despatched the lord de Saveuses with a certain number of men-at-arms, to pursue and check them, while the main body kept advancing after them as fast as they could. The Dauphinois, however, were panic-struck, and made their escape with a trifling loss of seven or eight men, who were killed on the first onset: in the number was a gallant man-at-arms called Brunet de Gamaches. On the side of the Burgundians, an old man from Auxerre, named Breton d'Ailly, who for a long time had not followed the wars, was slain, and a few others. The English and Burgundians now returned to their quarters at Moreul and other villages, and thence to sir John de Luxembourg at the siege of D'Airaines. . The besieged were informed of the fate of the succour intended them, and that there was no hope of being relieved, which induced them to accede to a treaty by which they were to surrender the castles, and to have permission to march unhurt, with their baggage, under passports from sir John de Luxembourg, to Compiègne, Crotoy, Gamaches, St. Valery, or to any other places within their obedience from the river Seine to Crotoy.

* Hugues de Lannoy, grand master of the cross-bows, appointed in January 1421.

The garrison consisted of about one hundred men-at-arms, and as many archers, under the command of sir Cocquart de Cambronne and John Sarpe. The two castles, when surrendered, were found full of stores and provision; but sir John de Luxembourg destroyed one of them, namely that of the lady of D'Airaines. The other he strongly regarrisoned, and appointed sir James de Lievin the governor. When the Dauphinois had marched off, sir John returned with his army to his castle of Beaurevoir, where he dismissed his captains and the others who had followed him.

Shortly after, sir James de Harcourt made an inroad as far as Auxi on the river Authie, and to other towns and villages, whence he returned to Crotoy with many prisoners and much plunder.


The king of England was indefatigable at the siege of Meaux, and having destroyed many parts of the walls of the market-place, he summoned the garrison to surrender themselves to the king of France and himself, or he would storm the place. To this summons they replied, that it was not yet time to surrender, on which the king ordered the place to be stormed. The assault continued for seven or eight hours in a most bloody manner; nevertheless the besieged made an obstinate defence, in spite of the great numbers that were attacking them. Their lances had been almost all broken, but in their stead they made use of spits, and fought with such courage that the English were driven from the ditches, which encouraged them much. Among the besieged who behaved gallantly must be noticed Guichart de Sisay; and his courage and ability were remarked by king Henry, who, after the reduction of the place, offered him a large sum if he would take the oaths and serve him, but he would never listen to the proposal, and remained firm to the dauphin. Many new knights were made by the English at this attack, such as John Guigny, a Savoyard, and the bastard de Thiam, who had formerly been a great captain in the free companies under duke John of Burgundy. There were also at this siege, under the king of England, the lords de Châtillon and de Genlis, with many others of the French nobility. From the commencement of this siege until the last moment, when they had no longer any hopes of relief from the dauphin, the besieged poured torrents of abuse upon the English. Among other insults which they offered, they had an ass led on the walls of the town, and, by beating it, made it bray, and then cried out to the English that it was their king calling out for assistance, and told them to go to him. This conduct raised the king's indignation against them. During the siege, a young knight, son to sir John Cornwall, and cousingerman to king Henry, was killed by a cannon-shot, to the great sorrow of the king and the other princes; for, although he was but a youth, he was very well-behaved and prudent. Toward the end of April, the besieged, having lost all hopes of succour, and finding they could not hold out longer, offered to enter into terms of capitulation. King Henry appointed his uncle the duke of Exeter, the earl of Warwick, the count de Conversan, and sir Walter Hungerford, his commissioners for this purpose. On the part of the besieged were nominated, sir Philip Mallet, Pierron de Luppel, John d'Aunay, Sinader de Gerames, le borgne de Caucun, John d'Espinach, and Guillaume de Fossé. They had several conferences, and at length agreed to the following terms:— First, on the 11th day of May, the market-place and all Meaux was to be surrendered into the hands of the kings of France and England.—Item, sir Louis de Gast, the bastard de Vaurus, Jean de Rouvieres, Tromagon, Bernard de Meureville, and a person called Oraches, who had sounded the trumpet during the siege, were to be delivered up to justice, and such punishment was to be inflicted on them as they might deserve.—Item, Guichart de Sisay, Pierron de Luppel, master Robert de Gerames, Philip de Gamaches, and John d'Aunay, were to remain in the power of the two kings until all the forts held by them or their allies in the realm should be given up ; and when that was done they were to have their liberty.—Item, all the English, Welsh, Scots, and Irish, subjects to the king of England, who had assisted in the defence of the place, were to be delivered up to the two kings.—Item, all other persons, as well men-at-arms as burghers, were to have their lives spared, but to remain prisoners to the two kings.-Item, the count de Conversan was to be acquitted of all his engagements to Pierron de Luppel respecting his ransom ; and the latter was to promise that he would hold him acquitted of the above, without fraud or malice. —Item, the besieged, within eight days preceding the surrender of the town, were to carry all their effects to an appointed place, without any way injuring them, and to deliver inventories thereof to commissaries named by the said kings. They were to carry all relics, ornaments, or church-furniture, to a separate place.—Item, they were to deliver up all prisoners, whether confined in the market-place or in other forts, and acquit them of their pledges.—Item, they were not to suffer any person to quit the place before the surrender of the town, and, in like manner, were not to permit any one to enter it, unless so ordered by the kings.-Item, for the due observance of these articles the besieged were to give assurances signed with the hand and seal of one hundred of the principal townsmen, four-and-twenty of whom were to remain as hostages so long as the two kings might please.—Item, on the signing this treaty all hostilities were to cease on each side. Matters now remained in this state until the 10th day of May, when the substance of the above articles was put into execution by commissaries appointed by the two kings, who sent off the prisoners under a strong guard. Some of the principal were carried to Rouen and thence to England, and others to Paris, where they were confined. The whole of the prisoners of war might be about eight hundred ; and their commander-in-chief, the bastard de Vaurus, was, by king Henry's command, beheaded, and his body hung on a tree without the walls of Meaux, called thenceforth Vaurus's Tree. This Vaurus had, in his time, hung many a Burgundian and Englishman: his head was fixed to a lance and fastened on the tree over his body. Sir Louis Gast, Denis de Vaurus, master John de Rouvieres, and he who had sounded the trumpet, were beheaded at Paris, their heads fixed on lances over the market-place, and their bodies hung by the arms to a gibbet. All the wealth found in Meaux, and which was very great, was distributed according to the pleasure of king Henry. He was very proud of his victory, and entered the place in great pomp, and remained there some days with his princes to repose and solace himself, having given orders for the complete reparation of the walls that had been so much damaged by artillery at the siege.


IN consequence of the reduction of Meaux, many considerable towns and forts, as well in the county of Valois as in the surrounding parts, submitted to king Henry, through the intervention of the lord d'Offemont, under whose power they were. In the number were, the town of Crespy in the Valois, the castle of Pierrepont, Merlo, Offemont and others. The lord d'Offemont, however, kept possession of his own towns and forts, and was acquitted of his ransom as prisoner, on condition that he swore obedience to the terms of the peace last concluded between the two kings at Troyes, and gave sufficient securities for his so doing. The bishop of Noyon and the lord de Cauny were his sureties, who pledged their lives and fortunes in his favour. Those who had been made prisoners in Meaux likewise submitted many towns and castles to the kings of France and England. When the leaders of the Dauphinois in the Beauvoisis heard that king Henry was proceeding so vigorously, and reducing to obedience, by various means, towns and castles that were thought

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