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with close sleeves, and a mantle of the same lined with ermine; the stockings were black, and the shoes of blue velvet besprinkled with flowers de luce. In this state was he solemnly carried to the church of Notre Dame, where a mass for the defunct was chanted by the patriarch of Constantinople. When the service was finished the procession moved to St. Denis. The body was borne by the attendants of his stable as far as a cross, half-way between Paris and St. Denis, when the measurers and carriers of salt in Paris took it from them, having each a flower de luce on his breast. They carried the body to a cross near St. Denis, where the abbot, attended by his monks and all the clergy of the town, with great multitudes of people bearing lighted torches, received it. Thence with chanting and singing, recommending his soul to God, was it carried to the church of St. Denis. During this whole time, neither the duke of Bedford nor any of those before mentioned quitted the body. On the body being placed in the church, another service was celebrated by the patriarch of Constantinople, but a night intervened between the two services. No one but the duke of Bedford went to the offering. There were full twenty thousand pounds of wax expended at these two services, and sixteen thousand persons attended the almsgiving, when three blancs of royal money were given to each. When the last service had been performed in the church of Saint Denis, and the king's body laid in the sepulchre of his forefathers, the patriarch gave his benediction in the usual manner, on which the late king's ushers-at-arms broke their staves and threw them into the grave, and turned their maces downward. Then Berry, king-at-arms, attended by many heralds and poursuivants, cried over the grave, “May God show mercy and pity to the soul of the late most puissant and most excellent Charles VI. king of France, our natural and sovereign lord ' " Immediately after Berry cried, “May God grant long life to Henry by the grace of God king of France and of England, our sovereign lord!" which cry he again repeated. After this, the sergeants-at-arms and ushers returned their maces and shouted together, “Long live the king ! long live the king!” When the ceremony was over, the lords returned to Paris, which had been placed under the guard of sir Guy le Bouteiller and the bastard de Thian, with a very large body of menat-arms. They had also under their command different detachments in the environs, with able captains, to prevent any surprise or attempts of the Dauphinois. The duke of Bedford was now regent and sole governor of the realm, in the name of his nephew the young king Henry, in so far as to those parts under his obedience. Thus ended the life of the most noble king Charles, in the 43rd year of his reign, during great part of which the kingdom was sorely troubled and ruined by the continual quarrels of the princes of his blood with each other. May God through his infinite goodness have

mercy on and receive his soul!

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THE celebrated philosopher Wegesus tells us, in his work on the valour and warlike skill displayed by the votaries of chivalry, that the empire which the ancient Romans were enabled to extend over the greater part of the world, may be attributed to their constant exercise of arms, and their continual warfare. This opinion appears to be well founded, since well-directed manoeuvres, perseverance, and skill in arms, do more to procure victory, than a great assembly or the multitude of combatants. And in truth, the Romans, whose forces were comparatively small, could have effected little against the nations by whom they were surrounded, had they not possessed superior skill in military affairs. But all their institutions were founded with that object in view, and they daily practised warlike exercises, whereby they acquired, during their supremacy, great renown and inestimable praises, which have been recorded in many books still extant, written by wise and eloquent clerks, philosophers, and poets, both in prose and verse, and which are often quoted, and are with pleasure seen and heard before princes and great lords, for the sake of the bold enterprises and courageous feats of arms therein written and recorded. But we should consider that the all-powerful God, maker of heaven and earth, has given to each of us a certain measure of understanding different from that of any other person, by which he is distinguished from his fellows, and that it is not uncommon for two persons to receive very different impressions from the same thing; as for instance, when we see many modern additions made to the works written by the wise ancients on the various sciences; yet we are not to imagine that the subject was unintelligible without these additions, but that the authors wrote only so much as in their opinion the subject appeared to require ; and as to the additions made by those whose natural talents, reading, or experience, have enabled them to search for and discover them, they should, inasmuch as their intention is useful and reasonable, be favourably received without any reproach to the original author. And thus it is not surprising that men furnished with warlike engines, invent or imagine new things which appear necessary and applicable to their management. And although in their ardour they pay little attention to the names by which these improvements may be distinguished, they take all possible methods which appear to them advantageous for the annoyance of their enemies or their own defence, relying as much on art and laudable skill, as on prowess and valour of body; all men

• Thi, Prologue, which is omitted in the Johnes's translation, is given from M. Buchon's edition of the original-Ed

of noble courage who address themselves to warlike pursuits, either at the call of the laws, by constraint, or pressing necessity, ought to instruct themselves in the art to the extent of their power, and to occupy themselves valiantly and honourably for the public good, and in guarding and defending their own honour and persons, and by such conduct will acquire great reputation. Without desiring to derogate from the valour and prowess of the ancient warriors, or undervaluing their excellent and noble deeds, we may, in my opinion, discover as many high and excellent achievements of several kinds, which have been performed in the time of which this present history or chronicle makes mention, as in those which have been seen and heard and recorded heretofore ; for many various and cruel instruments of war have been invented and continue in use, of which no knowledge was formerly possessed; and by their means, with other subtleties, many diverse manners of conducting and carrying on war have come into practice.

To preserve these things in memory in a faithful record, I, Enguerrand de Monstrelet residing in the city of Cambray, who have heretofore taken a laborious pleasure in putting into writing, in the manner of a chronicle, the marvellous adventures and valorous deeds of arms, worthy of praise and record, which have happened in the most Christian kingdom of France, the neighbouring countries, and distant parts, as well in Christendom as beyond it, to the best of my little skill, without embellishment, or going beyond the matter in hand, but narrating the simple facts, following the relations which have been made to me by many men of noble birth, and other distinguished persons, and also by kings-at-arms, heralds, and poursuivants, worthy of faith and credence, who have been present, have applied myself to the continuation and further pursuit of the work I have long ago begun, and have undertaken the labour of compiling this history; it comprises, as those who have an opportunity of reading or hearing it, may see, accounts of mortal battles, the desolation of many churches, cities, towns, and fortresses; the depopulation of a great extent of country, and other marvels, piteous to record; of valiant and prudent men, as well nobles as others, who long perilled body and goods, and suffered and endured pain and labour in peril of their life, and many of whom, in consequence of their valour, or by some unhappy misadventure, ended their days; such should be esteemed happy, and well recompensed by having their courage, their renowned actions, and noble deeds recorded, to the honour of themselves and of their successors, and should be held by the living in perpetual memory. When such things are recited, all noble persons of valour and daring courage should feel fresh incitements loyally to serve their prince and rightful lord, and to fight steadfastly in his quarrel and for his right.

For these reasons I have devoted my time to this pursuit; for as I have had frequent opportunity of beholding the pleasure which many princes and lords of great authority and of other conditions take in seeing and hearing such acts, so I well know the pains, anxiety, and labour, of arranging them in proper order. Nevertheless such labour is not ungrateful to the author who enters zealously upon his task.

I shall begin my second book with the month of October 1422, where my first volume, composed of the history of the preceding time, ends, and with the reign of Charles the wellinstructed, of most noble memory, by the grace of God, king of France, the seventh of that name, and will end with the month of May 1488, in which month and year the truces between the kingdoms of France and England were arranged and finally concluded, at the city of Tours in Touraine.

BOOK II.

CHAPTEI. I.-INFORMATION OF THE DEATH OF KING CHARLES THE WELL-BELOVED IS CARRIED TO HIS ONLY SON CHARLES THE DAUPHIN.—OTHER MATTERS.

NEws of the death of king Charles the well-beloved was soon carried to his only son the dauphin, then residing at a small castle called Espally, near to Puy in Auvergne, and belonging to the bishop of that place. The dauphin was very much grieved on receiving this intelligence, and wept abundantly. By the advice of his ministers, he instantly dressed himself in mourning, and on the morrow when he heard mass was clothed in a vermilion coloured robe, attended by several officers-at-arms in their emblazoned coats. The banner of France was then displayed in the chapel, and all present shouted “Vive le Roi!” After this, the service of the church was performed without any other ceremony, but henceforth all that were attached to the party of the dauphin styled him king of France. When the duke of Burgundy was returned to Artois, after the death of the king of England, he held a council of his captains in Arras, when it was determined that sir John de Luxembourg should assemble a body of men-at-arms to subdue the Dauphinois in the county of Guise and in the adjacent parts, for they were harassing greatly the Cambresis and the Vermandois. Sir John therefore fixed his place of rendezvous for his men at and about Peronne. At this time the lord de l'Isle-Adam obtained his liberty through the solicitations of the duke of Burgundy. He had been for a long time prisoner in the bastille of St. Anthony, by orders of the late king of England. He was restored to his possessions, and, in part, to the offices he had held. Many knights and esquires of Picardy were now sent to St. Valery to summon sir James de Harcourt to surrender the place according to his promise. The gates of the town were thrown open to their summons, and sir John de Blondel was made governor thereof. On Martinmas-night, by means that had been practised before, the town of Rue was given up to sir James de Harcourt, and the inhabitants swore allegiance to the dauphin, thus violating the peace that had been made. Sir James appointed the lord de Verduisant governor, and as his force was inadequate for its defence, he sent for a reinforcement from the county of Guise, which, on its arrival, oppressed the country much. About this same time the lord de Bosqueaux, who had long been most active to serve the Dauphin and Orleans party, was made prisoner in the castle of Thoisy-sur-Oise and carried to Paris, where he was beheaded and quartered, for having some time past maliciously murdered sir Guy de Harcourt, bailiff of the Vermandois.

CHAPTER II.-CHARLES THE DAUPHIN IS CRowNED KING of FRANCE, IN CONSEQUENCE of HIS FATHER's DEATH.

AFTER the death of the king of France, his only son Charles the dauphin, by the advice of the nobles of his party, was crowned king, in the town of Poitiers, and from that day was called king of France by his adherents, as his father had been before him. A short time prior to this he had narrowly escaped being killed; for while he was holding a council in the town of la Rochelle, part of the chamber in which he was sitting fell in, when John de Bourbon, lord of Préaux, and some more were killed. The dauphin was slightly wounded; but his attendants hastily extricated him from his danger, and carried him to a place of security, where he soon recovered his health.

In this year, sir Mansart d'Esne was made prisoner in the castle of Vitry, of which he was governor, by la Hire, both of them being adherents to the dauphin, and notwithstanding they had long been intimate friends. Sir Mansart, however, was deprived of all his effects, of his castle, and a high price withal fixed for his ransom, while he was kept in close con

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