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finement for a length of time. It was commonly reported, that John Raoullet was a party concerned with la Hire in playing this trick. When sir John de Luxembourg had collected his men-at-arms at Peronme, he entered the country of Guise, and having soon subdued the forts of Buissy-sur-Fontaines, Proisy, and some others, and conquered that country, he returned homeward, and disbanded his troops, when they all retired to the places they had come from.


IN this year the Parisians sent a solemn embassy to king Henry, and to the queen of England, to request they would speedily order a sufficient force to France, to oppose the daily advances of the party of the new king of France, the late dauphin of Vienne. The ambassadors were, the bishop of Terouenne, master John de Mailly, sir Bourdin de Salignies, Michault Lallier, and other persons of note. They took their road through Lille, to have a conference with the duke of Burgundy, and thence to Calais, where they embarked for England. They were joyfully received by the king and queen, and promised effectual and speedy succours by their ministers. IIaving thus accomplished the object of their embassy, they returned to France.

On the 14th of January in this year, the fortress on the bridge of Meulan was surprised by the French under the command of sir John de Grasville. He had with him some able captains and a body of five hundred combatants who slew all the English they found there, and used great diligence to put the place in better repair, and to revictual it; for they intended to defend the town and castle against their enemies. At this time, the countess-dowager of Hainault was defied by a noted plunderer of the name of L'Escremont Castel, a native of Ligny, in the Cambresis, and then captain of the tower of Beaumont under sir John de Luxembourg. Having sent his defiance to the countess, he attacked many of her towns, and made war on her subjects and vassals for a considerable space of time.

About Christmas in this year, some of the burghers of Paris formed a conspiracy against king Henry, with the intent to deliver up Paris to the Dauphinois; but it was discovered, and many arrested, some of whom were beheaded. A woman that had been concerned therein was burned : the rest saved themselves by flight, (among the latter was Michault Lallier,) and their property was confiscated to king Henry. At this period, the town of La Ferté-Milon was won by the French, with the consent of the inhabitants; but the castle was well defended by the garrison, who sent in haste for succour to the lord de l'Isle-Adam, to the lord de Castillon, and to the bastard de Thian. The lord de l'Isle-Adam collected a force of five or six hundred men, and marched them secretly in the rear of the castle, whence, at an hour previously agreed on with the garrison, they made a joint attack on the town, which was soon gained without any great resistance being made; and the greater part of those found within it were put to death without mercy, and all their effects carried off.

Shortly after the capture of Meulan, the duke of Bedford, who styled himself regent of France, assembled a large body of combatants, English, Normans, Picards, and others, and led them to lay siege to the bridge of Meulan on each side of the river. He had bombards and other warlike engines erected against the gates and walls to destroy them, and continued this siege with great perseverance from the beginning of January until the following March, when the besieged offered to capitulate.

In the month of February, while this siege was carrying on, sir John de Luxembourg conquered the forts of Franquemez, Neufville, Endorans, Vironfosse, and Canaple. He had with him the lord de Saveuses, sir Daviod de Poix, and many expert and tried men-at-arms. After these conquests, he returned before the town of Guise, and had a grand skirmish with its garrison. Having thus succeeded, sir John returned to his castle of Beaurevoir, where he dismissed his captains and men-at-arms.


Toward the end of February, a large body of combatants, attached to king Charles. from the country of Berry, assembled under the command of the count d'Aumarle", the earl of Buchan, a Scotsman, the viscounts de Narbonne, d'Annechyt, de Châtel Breton and others: they amounted to about six thousand men, and were marched to within six leagues of Meulan, where they formed themselves in battle-array; but a quarrel arose among their


Mrulan.-From an original Drawing.

leaders, so that they broke up in a very disorderly manner, and departed without advancing farther. They lost great numbers of men from the sallies made by the garrisons of Chartres, and other places in the hands of the English, while retreating in such disorder. The besieged in Meulan, hearing of what had happened, were exceedingly enraged that they had failed of having the promised succour. In their rage, they tore down the banner of king Charles that had been displayed over the gate, and flung it to the ground. Many gentlemen ascended the battlements, and in sight of the English tore to pieces the crosses they had worn as badges of king Charles, and loudly abused those who had been sent to their relief for perjured traitors. The garrison was not long before they held a parley with the duke's officers; and persons were chosen on each side to conclude a treaty. On the part of the English were deputed the earl of Salisbury, sir John Fastolfe, sir Pierre de Fontenay, sir John de Pouligny lord de la Motte, Richard Widville", Nicholas Bourdee, grand butler of Normandy, and Pierre le Verrad. The deputies from the town were, sir John de Grasville, sir Louis Martel, sir Adam de Croisines, knights, John d'Estainbourg, Jean de Mirot, Roger de Boissie, Oudin de Boissie, and Jean Marle, esquires. These deputies having met several times, at length agreed to a treaty, the terms whereof were as follow:—

* I suspect that this ought to be Aumale. John, count + Q. Annebaut P John, lord of Annebaut, was atof Aumale, son to the count of Harcourt. He was killed tached to the person of the count of Aumale in 1421.

the following year at Werneuil.



IN the first place, the besieged shall surrender the bridge and fortress into the hands of my lord duke of Bedford, or to his commissaries, fully repaired, and with all its cannons, powder, cross-bows, and all other warlike stores, without fraud or deceit, and without committing any damages to these articles. The said bridge and fort shall be thus honestly surrendered three days after to-morrow, that is to say, on the fifth day of this present month of March.-Seeondly, all persons now within the fort of the bridge of Meulan, whatever may be their rank, shall submit themselves, with the utmost humility, to the will of my lord the regent, who, in consideration of this their very humble obeisance, and from motives of mercy and religion, in honour of God, and with due reverence to this holy time of Lent, shall grant them their lives, excepting those who shall have formerly been subjects to the late king of England, (whose soul may God pardon () and such as shall have sworn to the observance of the last peace between the kingdoms of France and England; those who shall have been in any way aceomplices in the murder of duke John of Burgundy; all Welsh, Irish, and Scots, should any there be, are also excepted,—and more particularly so, John Dourdas, Savary a Bernardine monk, Olivier de Launoy, the cannoneers, and those who formed the ambuscade by which the bridge was surprised: all these last are to remain at the disposal of the lord regent. Thirdly, it is agreed that if any gentleman or others (excepting such as have been before excepted) be willing to submit themselves to the obedience of the king our sovereign lord of France and of England, and to my lord regent, as true and loyal subjects, and carry on a war against his enemies in the manner they had done against the king, my lord regent will receive them into his favour and acquit them of all imprisonment and ransom, provided they give sufficient pledges for their future good conduct.

Item, all persons now within the fort of the bridge of Meulan who may hold any towns or castles, by themselves or others, against our said king, shall deliver them up to the lord regent, or to his commissioners deputed for that purpose; and they shall exert themselves to the utmost that their relations or friends shall in like manner surrender all castles or towns they may be possessed of. And until all these things shall be done, they are to remain at the disposal of the regent, who engages, on their due accomplishment, to restore them to liberty.—Item, if any persons now within the fort of the bridge of Meulan shall detain there, or elsewhere, any prisoners, English, French, or Burgundians, or merchants, having sworn allegiance to the king of England, they shall release them without calling on them or their securities for any ransom whatever.—Item, it is agreed that the besieged shall, the day after to-morrow, either by themselves or others, carry to one or more appointed places, all their armours, without any way damaging the smallest article of them; and they will also have carried to another part all gold and silver plate, money, jewels, and every article of value within the said fortress, without concealing any part thereof or destroying it. They will deliver to the commissaries of the lord regent exact lists of the same without fraud or deception, under pain of forfeiting all benefit of this treaty, and of the grace of the lord regent.—Item, they will also deliver up their horses at an appointed place in the state they are now in, with their armours, to the said commissaries of the lord regent, on pain of forfeiture as above.—Item, under similar penalty, the besieged shall not, until the full

* Sir Richard Widville, seneschal of Normandy, 8 Aquitaine; 6 Edw. IV., his daughter Elizabeth being Hen. W.; constable of the tower, 3 Hen. WI. ; 15 married to the king, he was created *. Rivers, treasurer Hen. VI., married Jaqueline of Luxembourg, widow to and constable of England; and 9' Edw. IV. was be

the duke of Bedford; 26 Hen. VI., made knight of the headed, by orders of the duke of cio and the earl of Garter, and baron Rivers; 29 Hen. WI., seneschal of Warwick.

accomplishment of the treaty, suffer any person or persons to depart from or to enter the said fortress, without the express leave of the lord regent first had and obtained.—Item, under pain of the above, they shall denounce and deliver up to the said commissioners all those who have been especially named. And in order that all these articles may fully be complied with, the commissioners and deputies of either party have thereto set their seals, this first day of March, in the year 1422. This treaty was fully completed,—and in consequence of it, the fortresses of Marcoussy, of Montlehery, and several others held by the besieged, were yielded up to the regent. On the day Meulan was surrendered, one hundred gentlemen, and two hundred others of the garrison, took the oaths before required, and swore faith and allegiance to the lord regent,even the lord de Grasville took these oaths, when they were conducted prisoners to Rouen, until all the articles of the treaty should be accomplished. The lord de Grasville certified to the regent's commissioners that king Charles was in full health when he parted from him to come to Meulan,—but that he had been hurt by the falling in of a room at la Rochelle, where he was holding a council, as has been before mentioned.


ON the 20th day of March in this year, the French escaladed and won the castle of Dommart in Ponthieu, Lin which were the borgne de Fosseux knight, and Jacques de Craon his son-in-law, who made their escape, with a few attendants, by a postern, on hearing the tumult and the numbers of the enemy. Sir Simon de Boulenviller, John de Douceure, and others within the castle, with the lady of de Fosseux, were detained prisoners. All the effects, which were very abundant, were seized as lawful prey and carried off. Shortly after, the lord de Crotoy, with three or four hundred combatants, fixed his quarters at a castle belonging to the bishop of Amiens, called Pernois, about a league distant from Dommart, to make head against and oppose the farther progress of the French. A treaty was concluded with the French some days after the lord de Crotoy's arrival, by which they were to return unmolested, with their plunder, on condition they surrendered Dommart. The chief of this expedition was one called Dandonet. At this period the duke of Gloucester married Jacqueline duchess of Bavaria, countess of Hainault and of Holland, who had for some time resided in England, notwithstanding that Jacqueline had been married to duke John of Brabant, then living. This marriage astonished many persons. In this same year, the king of Arragon went to Italy at the request of queen Johanna, wife to sir James de Bourbon, as her elected heir”. On his arrival, he drove the duke of Anjou, who styled himself king of Sicily, and all his people, out of that country. He then attached to his service all the great captains of the queen of Naples, namely, Sforza, Braccia-Monte, and Tartaglia, with others of the leading men in Italy, who, uniting with the king of Arragon, made the queen Johanna prisoner. Thus was she punished in the same way she had treated her former lord sir James de Bourbon. The king of Arragon by these means remained for a considerable time master of great part of Italy; even the pope joined his party, and sent the cardinal of St. Angelo to conclude a treaty of friendship with him. This cardinal, while on the journey, fell from a plank, as he entered a fort, into the ditch, and was so grievously bruised that he died soon after. News was now brought to France that the heretics at Prague were in great force, and attempting to subdue all the Christian castles and fortresses. Their heresy was more powerful and extended than it had ever been, insomuch that the emperor, unable to resist them, was returned to Hungary without effecting anything. About this time also, sir James de Harcourt's men made several secret inroads to the countries of Vimeu, Ponthieu, and Artois, and seized and carried away many ploughs from the farmers of Mont St. Eloy, near to Arras, which they sold, with other booty, in the town of Crotoy, so that the farmers were afraid of residing on or working their lands. On the other hand, the French quartered at Guise made frequent visits to Crotoy and Rue, by which the country was sorely harassed by each party, and justice was nowhere obeyed. The burghers and commonalty of Tournay had, at this time, great dissentions, and assembled in arms under the banners of the different trades, that is to say, the great against the small. The commonalty admitted the lord de Moy into the town, who was attached to the party of king Charles as well as themselves; and they elected several men of low degree for their captains, in place of the provost and their rulers. This time, however, the quarrel was appeased without coming to blows; but similar agitations and changes frequently took place afterward within the town of Tournay. Two thousand five hundred English were now assembled in Normandy under the command of the lord de la Pole, sir Thomas Berry, and other captains, who marched them through the country of Maine, wasting every part they passed through, to Angers, where they did much damage, and made numbers of prisoners. They returned with them and their plunder to a large town, called Busignes de la Graville, where they halted many days. While these things were passing, John d'Aumarle, who had received from the country people intelligence of this expedition together with the baron de Colilouvre, the lord de Fontaines in Anjou, and sir Peter le Porc, collected a large body of men-at-arms and common people, and lay wait for the enemy in handsome array not far from La Graville. When the English perceived them, they dismounted, and posted the baggage in their rear. The French were mounted, and began the attack with great vigour, but the English defended themselves with such courage, the conflict was very severe and doubtful; but at length the English were conquered, and left full twelve hundred men on the field. The lord de la Pole was made prisoner, and thirty other gentlemen at least. Of the commonalty on the side of the French, six score persons were killed.

* See Giannone, lib. 25, c. 3.



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In the beginning of this year, the dukes of Bedford, Burgundy, and Brittany, met in the town of Amiens, attended each by a large company of knights and esquires. With the duke of Bedford, who styled himself regent of France, came the great council of the young king Henry of England; and with the duke of Brittany was his brother Arthur count de Richemont. These princes, on their arrival at Amiens, paid each other the utmost respect, and every outward symptom of affection; and the duke of Bedford splendidly and royally entertained them at dinner at the bishop's palace, where he lodged. When this had been done, they formed a triple alliance, in the form and manner following, signed with their hands and sealed with their seals.

“John governor and regent of the kingdom of France, Philip duke of Burgundy, and John duke of Brittany, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting.

“Know ye, that in consideration of our friendships, and the approaching near connexion about to take place by the marriages concluded between us, John duke of Bedford, regent of France, on the one part, with our very dear and well-beloved companion and cousin Anne of Burgundy on the other part; and between our very dear and well-beloved brother Arthur count de Richemont, de Montfort and of Ivry, on one part, with our very dear and well-beloved sister and cousin, Margaret of Burgundy, on the other part; and for the general welfare of the king our lord, and of his kingdoms of France and England, for ourselves and for our lordships, lands and vassals, do faithfully swear and promise to each other eternal friendship and love so long as we shall live, as affectionate brothers ought to do; and we will defend the honour of each both publicly and in private, without fraud or any dissimulation, and we will mutually inform each other of whatever may be for the advantage or disadvantage, the glory or disgrace, of ourselves or of our territories and subjects. Should any persons make evil reports to us of either in his absence, we will not put any belief in such reports, but detain all those who shall make such in safe custody, and give immediate notice to him of whom such reports shall have been made.

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