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well drawn up; and they had not advanced far, when the scouts, whom they had left in their rear to bring them information, gave notice that the English had taken the field. This was true, for some of the duke of Gloucester's captains, having his permission, collected at most eight hundred men to see the Brabanters decamp. They advanced so near as to be visible to all, although there were some ditches between the two parties. The count de St. Pol drew his men in array, on the ascent of a mountain, namely, the gentlemen and archers, and so did the English; and in the mean time some skirmishing took place between the outposts of each, in which several were killed, wounded, and unhorsed, but in no great numbers. The two parties remained thus for a considerable time in battle array, each waiting for the other to depart first. While they were in this position, certain intelligence was brought to the count de St. Pol of the day of combat having been fixed between the dukes of Burgundy and of Gloucester, and that all warfare was to cease until that was over, On this being made public, and because evening was coming on, the English marched away to the duke of Gloucester in Soignies, and the count de St. Pol with his men to Halk and that neighbourhood, where they kept a strict watch. It is a truth that the greater part of the commonalty of Brabant, who were in the count's army, had been panic-struck, and deserted in great confusion, leaving suits of armour without number, carts, cars, and all their warlike instruments dispersed over the fields, although they were, as I said before, from thirty to forty thousand men, so that very few remained with their commander and other captains, and it was not their fault that they did not on that day receive much loss and disgrace. The town and castle of Guise was by treaty to have been surrendered on the first day of March : but sir John de Luxembourg practised so successfully with John de Proisy, the governor, that they were yielded up to him on the 26th of February, without waiting for the appointed day. In like manner he gained possession of the fortress of Irechon. He was, by this means, obeyed throughout the whole county of Guise, to the great displeasure of Réné d'Anjou, duke of Bar, to whom this county belonged as its true lord. Those who had assembled to be present at the surrender on the first of March, as well English as Picards, hearing what had passed, returned to their quarters. Sir John de Luxembourg gave liberty to the hostages, and passports for them to go whither they pleased. He also appointed sir Daviod de Poix governor of Guise. When the count Philip de St. Pol and the Brabant nobles were returned to Brussels, and the Picards quartered on the borders of Hainault, the duke of Gloucester retreated with his duchess and army from Soignies to Mons, where he met the countess-dowager of Hainault. Having conferred with her and some of the nobility, it was determined that he and his English should return to England, to prepare himself for the combat that was to take place with the duke of Burgundy. When he was on the point of his departure, his mother-inlaw, the countess of Hainault, and the nobles and deputies from the principal towns, requested that he would leave the duchess Jacqueline, whom he called his wife, and their lady behind. This he assented to, on condition that they would solemnly swear to him that they would guard and defend her against all who might attempt to injure her; and more especially the burghers and inhabitants of Mons were to take this oath, as she intended to reside within that town. The duke and duchess of Gloucester now separated with many tears and lamentations; and he departed with from four to five thousand English combatants for St. Gillart, and thence to Yvins near Bohain, where he lay the first night: he then continued his route by Vy, and after some days arrived at Calais; but in all the countries through which he passed he committed no waste, but paid for all his provision very peaceably. He carried with him to England Eleanor de Cobham, whom he had brought with him as companion to the duches Jacqueline, and was afterwards married to her. Toward the end of this year king Charles sent ambassadors to the court of Rome, the principal of whom was the bishop of Leon in Brittany, who offered, in the king's name, his submission to pope Martin, the which was very graciously received.

CHAPTER XXX. —POPE MARTIN SENDS HIS BULL TO DUKE JOHN OF BRABANT.—ITS CONTENTS.

In the beginning of this year, copies of a letter, in the manner of a bull, from pope Martin to duke John of Brabant, were published throughout the duke's dominions, the tenor of which was as follows:

“Martin, bishop, and servant to the servants of God, to our dear son John duke of Brabant health and benediction. Whereas there has lately come to our knowledge from persons worthy of belief what is very displeasing to us, namely, that certain papers have been divulged and publicly read, as coming from us, and in our name, by way of bull, in divers parts of Hainault, and in the bishoprics of Utrecht, Liege and Cambray, purporting (as it has been affirmed to us), that we have confirmed the marriage-contract between our dear son Humphrey duke of Gloucester, and our dear daughter in Jesus Christ Jacqueline, a noble lady and duchess of Bavaria; and that we have reprobated your marriage with the said duchess, having judged it invalid. Now although such writings have never been issued by us, and have been published to our great scandal and dishonour, we will that the suit respecting this said marriage shall be determined according to the decision of common law. “And we notify to you, by these presents, that you bear not any malice nor sorrow in your mind, but firmly hold that the papers thus scandalously published do not come from us, but from wicked men not having the fear of God before their eyes, who delight in novelties, falsehoods and dissentions. We will also, that the movers and promoters of such scandal shall, for the honour of us and of the apostolical chair, be punished in a manner adequate to the heinousness of the crime they have committed. For this reason, we have written to our venerable brethren the bishops of Utrecht, Liege and Cambray, and to each of them, apostolical mandates, directing them to read this our letter publicly from their pulpits to the people, to undeceive them relative to the aforesaid scandalous papers, to excommunicate all who shall henceforth read them in their presence, or promulgate them, and also to confine them in their persons until they shall receive further orders on this

subject from us. “Given at Rome, at the church of the Holy Apostles, on the ides of February, in the 8th

year of our papacy.”

cHAPTER xxxi.—AFTER THE DEPARTURE OF THE DUKE of GLoucestER, A war TAKEs PLACE IN HAINAULT.--THE DUCHESS JACQUELINE WRITES TO THE DUKE OF GLOUCESTER FOR

ASSISTANCE.-The CONTENTS OF HER LETTER.

Not long after the duke of Gloucester had left Hainault, the men-at-arms of duke John of Brabant and the Picards began an open and severe warfare against the towns in that country under obedience to the duke of Gloucester, as well as on those belonging to the lords of his party, by which the inhabitants were sorely oppressed and the country ruined. To remedy these evils, the countess dowager of Hainault had many conferences with the duke of Burgundy, her nephew, and with the ambassadors from the duke of Brabant at Douay, Lille and Oudenarde, when it was concluded that Hainault should be restored to the government of the duke of Brabant, who was to promise a general amnesty to the inhabitants. The duchess Jacqueline was also to be put under the wardship of the duke of Burgundy, who was to receive a certain sum of money for her establishment, and she was to remain under his guard until the suit pending at the court of Rome should be determined. While this treaty was negotiating, many of the principal towns revolted from their lady, and placed themselves under the obedience of the dukes of Burgundy and of Brabant, namely, Valenciennes, Condé, Bouchain and some others, so that there remained to her scarcely more than the bare town of Mons, which was nearly blockaded by her enemies, and very small quantities of provision permitted to be carried into the town. The inhabitants, seeing themselves in great danger, were much exasperated against their lady, and told her plainly, that if she did not make peace, they would deliver her into the hands of the duke of Brabant: at the same time, they imprisoned many of her attendants, some of whom they judicially put to death, as shall be hereafter told. The duchess Jacqueline, greatly alarmed at this sudden change, and fearing the worst, from what she had witnessed, and from what she had heard from her lady mother, namely, that she was to be put under the wardship of the duke of Burgundy, and carried to Flanders, sent letters in haste, describing her situation, to the duke of Gloucester; but these letters were intercepted, and carried to the duke of Burgundy. Their contents were as follow. “My very dear and redoubted lord and father, in the most humble of manners in this world, I recommend myself to your kind favour. May it please you to know, my very redoubted lord and father, that I address myself to your glorious power, as the most doleful, most ruined, and most treacherously-deceived woman living; for, my very dear lord, on Sunday the 13th of this present month of June, the deputies of your town of Mons returned, and brought with them a treaty that had been agreed on between our fair cousin of Burgundy and our fair cousin of Brabant, which treaty had been made in the absence and without the knowledge of my mother, as she herself signifies to me, and confirmed by her chaplain master Gerard le Grand. My mother, most redoubted lord, has written to me letters, certifying the above treaty having been made; but that, in regard to it, she knew not how to advise me, for that she was herself doubtful how to act. She desired me, however, to call an assembly of the principal burghers of Mons, and learn from them what aid and advice they were willing to give me. * “Upon this, my sweet lord and father, I went on the morrow to the town-house, and remonstrated with them, that it had been at their request and earnest entreaties that you had left me under their safeguard, and on their oaths that they would be true and loyal subjects, and take especial care of me, so that they should be enabled to give you good accounts on your return,-and these oaths had been taken on the holy sacrament at the altar, and on the sacred evangelists. “To this my harangue, my dear and honoured lord, they simply replied, that they were not sufficiently strong within the town to defend and guard me; and instantaneously they rose in tumult, saying that my people wanted to murder them; and, my sweet lord, they carried matters so far that, in despite of me, they arrested one of your sergeants, called Maquart, whom they immediately beheaded, and hanged very many who were of your party, and strongly attached to your interest, such as Bardoul de la Porte, his brother Colart, Gilet de la Porte, Jean du Bois, Guillaume de Leur, Sanson your sergeant, Pierre, Baron, Sandart, Dandre and others, to the number of two hundred and fifty of your adherents. They also wished to seize sir Baldwin the treasurer, sir Louis de Montfort, Haulnere, Jean Fresne and Estienne d'Estre; but though they did not succeed, I know not what they intend doing, for, my very dear lord, they plainly told me, that unless I make peace, they will deliver me into the hands of the duke of Brabant, and that I shall only remain eight days longer in their town, when I shall be forced to go into Flanders, which will be to me the most painful of events; for I very much fear that unless you shall hasten to free me from the hands I am now in, I shall never see you more. “Alas! my most dear and redoubted father, my whole hope is in your power, seeing, my sweet lord and only delight, that all my sufferings arise from my love to you. I therefore entreat, in the most humble manner possible, and for the love of God, that you would be pleased to have compassion on me and on my affairs; for you must hasten to succour your most doleful creature, if you do not wish to lose her for ever. I have hopes that you will do as I beg, for, dear father, I have never behaved ill to you in my whole life, and so long as I shall live I will never do anything to displease you, but I am ready to die for love of you and your noble person. “Your government pleases me much, and by my faith, my very redoubted lord and prince, my sole consolation and hope, I beg you will consider, by the love of God and of my lord St. George, the melancholy situation of myself and my affairs more maturely than you have hitherto done, for you seem entirely to have forgotten me. Nothing more do I know at present than that I ought sooner have sent sir Louis de Montfort to you; for he cannot longer remain here, although he attended me when all the rest deserted me; and he will tell you more particularly all that has happened than I can do in a letter. I entreat, therefore, that you will be a kind lord to him, and send me your good pleasure and commands, which I will most heartily obey. This is known to the blessed Son of God, whom I pray to grant you a long and happy life, and that I may have the great joy of seeing you soon. “Written in the false and traitorous town of Mons, with a doleful heart, the 6th day of June.” The signature below was, “Your sorrowful and well-beloved daughter, suffering great grief by your commands,-your daughter de Quienebourg.” With the above was found another of the following tenor : “Very dear and well-beloved cousin, I commend myself to you. May it please you to know, that at this present moment, I am grieved at heart from having been wickedly and falsely betrayed, and am so overwhelmed that I cannot write particulars; but if you will have the goodness to make enquiries from our very dear and redoubted lord, he will tell you more than you may wish to hear. I have nothing more to say, but that you retain in hand what you are possessed of, in case my dear lord should come. With regard to what you advise for me to cross the sea, it is now too late. Hasten as fast as you can, with the greatest force you can raise, to deliver me from the hands of the Flemings, for within eight days I shall be given up into their power. “Very dear and beloved cousin, I pray God to give you a long and happy life. Written in this false and traitorous town of Mons, the 6th day of June. Jacqueline de Quienebourg.” It appears by the above letters, that the duchess was much afraid of going to Flanders. When the deputies of Mons were returned from their conference with the dukes of Burgundy and of Brabant, it was known that many things had been agreed on contrary to the interest of the countess-dowager of Hainault, and of the duchess Jacqueline her daughter. And on the 13th day of June, Jacqueline, having no means of resistance, departed from the town of Mons, accompanied by the prince of Orange, and other lords commissioned for this purpose by the duke of Burgundy, who conducted her to the town of Ghent, where she was lodged in the ducal palace, and had an establishment suitable to her rank. Duke John of Brabant, according to the treaty, took on him the government of Hainault, whence he ordered all the men-at-arms, and published a general amnesty for all that had passed. Thus did the inhabitants of Mons deliver their lady and legal princess into the hands of the duke of Burgundy against her will, although they had, a short time before, promised and sworn to the duke of Gloucester that they would guard and defend her against all who should attempt any way to hurt her.

Chapter xxxii.--THE DUKES OF BEDFORD AND OF BURGUNDY MEET IN THE TOWN OF DOURLENS.—OTHER MATTERS.

ON the vigil of the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, the duke of Bedford, the regent, accompanied by his duchess, arrived in the town of Corbie, escorted by about eight hundred horsemen. There were with him the bishop of Therouenne, chancellor of France for king Henry, the president of the parliament, and many other noblemen members of the council.

Two days after, the duke of Burgundy came thither to see the regent and his sister, when they gave each other a hearty welcome, particularly on the part of the duke of Burgundy. Soon after, this duke went to Luchen, where his cousin-german the count de St. Pol resided ; and on the morrow, about four o'clock in the afternoon, he returned to Dourlens with the count de St. Pol". He thence conducted the regent and his sister to his castle of Hesdin, where he lodged them and their attendants, and entertained them magnificently. They all remained there for six days, passing the time joyously in feasting, drinking, dancing, hunting, and in divers other amusements. At the end of six days the duke and duchess of Bedford departed with their attendants, and went from Hesdin to Abbeville, where they staid sometime. They thence went to Crotoy, where the duke d'Alençon was prisoner, whom the regent sent for into his presence, and reasoned long to prevail on him to take

* John Hennequin, lord of Haltbourdin, son of Waleran, count de St. Pol, by Agnes de Bric, one of his mistresses. He married Jaqueline de la Tremouille.

PontRait of the Duke of Bedroad.—From an illumination in Gough's Bedford Missal.

the oath of allegiance to king Henry of Lancaster, as then he would be released from his confinement, and all his lands and lordships restored to him, adding, that should he refuse to comply, he would run much personal danger. The duke d'Alençon replied, that he was firmly resolved never, during his life, to take any oath contrary to his loyalty to king Charles of France, his true and legal lord. On hearing this answer, the regent ordered him from his presence into confinement, and then passing through the country of Caux, returned to Paris. During the time the regent was at Hesdin, the bastard de St. Pol and Andrew de Humieres" appeared there with silver rings on their right arms, whereon was painted a sun with its rays. They had put them on as a challenge to the English and their allies, maintaining that duke John of Brabant had a more just right to the government and possession of Hainault and the other territories of Jacqueline of Bavaria, his lady, than the duke of Gloucester. The regent was at first desirous that these rings should be taken from them by some of his men, for he had been given to understand that their wearing them was owing to another quarrel, for which they wanted to fight with the English; but, in the end, he was well satisfied with them,-and nothing farther was done in the matter. When the duke of Gloucester was returned to London, he was sharply reprimanded by the council, in presence of the young king Henry, on his expedition into Hainault, and on

* Dreux de Humieres, son of Philip, and brother of Matthew lord de Humieres.

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