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The pope having given an answer to the ambassadors from France, very different indeed from what they expected, they set out on their return to Paris much displeased with him. On their arrival, they related all that had passed. The patriarch, however, had remained at Marseilles, with the hope of inclining pope Benedict to a union of the church.

CHAPTER XXXIV.-THE DUKE OF ORLEANS RECEIVES THE DUCHY OF AQUITAINE, As A
PRESENT, FROM THE KING OF FRANCE.-A TRUCE CONCLUDED BETWEEN ENGLAND AND
FRANCE.
[A. D. 1407.]

At the beginning of this year, the duke of Orleans, by means which he had long practised, prevailed on his brother, the king of France, to give him the duchy of Aquitaine, which he had long been wishing for. Truces were at this time concluded between the kings of France and England, for one year only, and were proclaimed at the accustomed places.

PRoclamation of A PEace.—From a MS. illumination of the Fifteenth Century.

The Flemings were much rejoiced thereat, for they thought that their commerce would now be more securely carried on. Ambassadors from England arrived at Paris from king Henry, the principal of whom was sir Thomas Erpingham, having with him an archdeacon, and several noblemen. He was presented to the king by Tassin de Servillers, and required in marriage one of the princesses, a nun at Poissy, for the prince of Wales, eldest son to king Henry. But as they demanded too great concessions with the princess, they returned without success. The lord de Hangest, whom the king had lately for his merit made master of the cross-bows, escorted them as far as Boulogne-sur-mer". * See the Foedera. The ambassadors were, sir Thomas Other credentials are given in December of this year,

Brpingham, John Cateryk, clerk, and Hugh Mortimer, wherein the bishop of Durham is added to the above amtreasurer to the prince of Wales. bassadors.

[graphic]

CHAPter xxxW.—The PRINCE OF WALES *, Accompanied BY HIS Two UNCLES, MARCHES A CONSIDERABLE FORCE TO WAGE WAR AGAINST THE SCOTS.

THE prince of Wales, son to king Henry, assembled, about the feast of All-Saints, one thousand men at arms and six thousand archers, to make an incursion into Scotland. His uncles, the dukes of York and Somerset, and the lords Mortimer, Rós, Cornwall, and many other nobles attended him. Their object was to retaliate on the Scots, who had lately broken the truce, and done much mischief with fire and sword in the duchy of Lancaster. They entered Scotland, and committed great carnage wherever they passed; for the Scots were quite unprepared to receive them, nor had they any intelligence of their coming until they were in the midst of their country.

When news of this invasion was brought to the king of Scotland, he was at his town of St. Jangont, in the centre of his realm. He assembled in haste his nobles, and as large a force as could be collected on so short notice, which he sent under the command of the earls of Douglas and Buchan, with his constable, to meet the English and combat them, should they think it advisable. When they were within six leagues of the enemy, they were informed, that the English were far superior in numbers, and they adopted other measures. They sent ambassadors to the prince of Wales to treat of peace, and they managed so well that the truce was renewed for one year. The prince of Wales, having done great mischief to Scotland, returned to England; and the Scots disbanded their army.

CHAPTER xxxvi.--THE DUKE of orleANs, only BROTHER To chARLEs v1. THE wellBELovED, KING of FRANCE, Is INHUMANLY AssassiNATED IN THE Town of PARIs.

This year there happened the most melancholy event in the town of Paris that had ever befallen the Christian kingdom of France by the death of a single man. It occasioned the utmost grief to the king and the princes of the blood, as well as to the kingdom in general, and was the cause of most disastrous quarrels between them, which lasted a very long time, insomuch that the kingdom was nearly ruined and overturned, as will more plainly be shown in the continuation of this history. This event was nothing less than the murder of the duke of Orleans, only brother to Charles the well-beloved, king of France.

The duke was, on a Wednesday, the feast-day of pope St. Clement, assassinated in Paris, about seven o'clock in the evening, on his return from dinner. This murder was committed by about eighteen men, who had lodged at an hôtel having for sign the image of our Lady, near the Porte Barbette, and who, it was afterward discovered, had for several days intended this assassination. On the Wednesday before-mentioned, they sent one named Scas de Courteheuze, valet-de-chambre to the king, and one of their accomplices, to the duke of Orleans, who had gone to visit the queen of France at an hôtel which she had lately purchased from Montagu, grand master of the king's household, situated very near the Porte Barbette. She had lain in there of a child, which had died shortly after its birth, and had not then accomplished the days of her purification.

Scas, on his seeing the duke, said, by way of deceiving him, “My lord, the king sends for you, and you must instantly hasten to him, for he has business of great importance to you and him, which he must communicate to you.” The duke, on hearing this message, was eager to obey the king's orders, although the monarch knew nothing of the matter, and immediately mounted his mule, attended by two esquires on one horse, and four or five valets on foot, who followed behind bearing torches; but his other attendants made no haste to follow him. He had made this visit in a private manner, notwithstanding at this time he had within the city of Paris six hundred knights and esquires of his retinue, and at his

*

* It is not very easy to say to what this chapter can refer. Monstrelet P I have looked at Hollingshed, Stowe, and There appears to have been no expedition into Scotland at Henry. this period, nor at any other, to which the facts here related + St. Jangon—Perth, being probably a French corrupbear the least resemblance. Is it entirely a fabrication of tion of St. John's Town.

expense. On his arrival at the Porte Barbette, the eighteen men, all well and secretly armed, were waiting for him, and were lying in ambush, under shelter of a pent-house. The night was pretty dark; and as they sallied out against him, one cried out, “Put him to death " and gave him such a blow on the wrist with his battle-axe as severed it from his arm. The duke, astonished at this attack, cried out, “I am the duke of Orleans !" when the assassins, continuing their blows, answered, “You are the person we were looking for.” So many rushed on him that he was struck off his mule, and his skull was split that his brains were dashed on the pavement. They turned him over and over, and massacred him that he was very soon completely dead. A young esquire, a German by birth, who had been his page, was murdered with him : seeing his master struck to the ground, he threw himself on his body to protect him, but in vain, and he suffered for his generous courage. The horse which carried the two esquires that preceded the duke, seeing so many armed men advance, began to snort, and when he had passed them set out on a gallop, so that it was some time before he could be checked. When the esquires had stopped their horse, they saw their lord's mule following them full gallop; having caught him, they fancied the duke must have fallen, and were bringing it back by the bridle; but on their arrival where their lord lay, they were menaced by the assassins, that if they did not instantly depart they should share his fate. Seeing their lord had been thus basely murdered, they hastened to the hotel of the queen, crying out, “Murder!" Those who had killed the duke, in their turn bawled out, “Fire!” and they had arranged their plan, that while some were assassinating the duke, others were to set fire to their lodgings. Some mounted on horseback, and the rest on foot, made off as fast as they could, throwing behind them broken glass and sharp points of iron to prevent their being pursued. Report said, that many of them went the back way to the hotel d'Artois to their master the duke of Burgundy, who had commanded them to do this deed, as he afterward publicly confessed, to inform him of the success of their murder, when instantly afterward they withdrew to places of safety. The chief of these assassins, and the conductor of the business, was one called Rollet d'Auctonville”, a Norman, whom the duke of Orleans had, a little before, deprived of his office of commissioner of taxes, which the king had given to him, at the request of the late duke of Burgundy. From that time the said Rollet had been considering how he could revenge himself on the duke of Orleans. His other accomplices were William Courteheuze and Scas Courteheuze, before mentioned, from the county of Guines, John de la Motte and others, to the amount of eighteen. Within half an hour, the household of the duke of Orleans, hearing of this horrid murder, made loud complaints; and, with great crowds of nobles and others, hastened to the fatal spot, where they found him lying dead in the street. His knights and esquires, and in general all his dependants, made grievous lamentations, seeing him thus wounded and disfigured. With many groans, they raised the body and carried it to the hotel of the lord de Rieux, marshal of France, which was hard by ; and shortly afterward the body was covered with a white pall, and conveyed most honourably to the church of the Guilleminst, where it lay, as being the nearest church to where the murder had been committed. Soon afterward, the king of Sicily, and many other princes, knights, and esquires, having heard of this foul murder of the only brother of the king of France, came with many tears to visit the body. It was put into a leaden coffin, and the monks of the church, with all the late duke's household, watched it all night, saying prayers, and singing psalms over it. On the morrow, his servants found the hand which had been cut off, and collected much of the brains that had been scattered over the street, all of which were inclosed in a leaden case and placed by the coffin. The whole of the princes who were in Paris, except the king and his children, namely, the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, the marquis du Pont, the counts de Nevers, de Clermont, de Vendôme, de St. Pol, de Dammartin, the constable of * Raoul d’Oquetonville, a knight of Normandy. succeeded to the church-convent of the Blanc-Manteaus, France, and several others, having assembled, with a large body of the clergy and nobles, and a multitude of the citizens of Paris, went in a body to the church of the Guillemins. Then the principal officers of the late duke's household took the body and bore it out of the church, with a great number of lighted torches carried by the esquires of the defunct. On each side of the body were, in due order, uttering groans and shedding tears, the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, each holding a corner of the pall. After the body followed the other princes, the clergy and barons, according to their rank, recommending his soul to his Creator, and thus they proceeded with it to the church of the Celestins... When a most solemn service had been performed, the body was interred in a beautiful chapel he himself had founded and built. After the service, all the princes, and others who had attended it, returned to their homes. Many suspicions were formed as to the authors of this assassination of the duke of Orleans; and at first it was thought to have been perpetrated by sir Aubert de Canny, from the great hatred he bore the duke, for having carried off his wife", by whom he had a son, of whom, and his education, I shall say more hereafter. The truth was soon known who were the guilty persons, and that sir Aubert was perfectly innocent of the crime. The queen Isabella was so much alarmed the day she heard of this murder being committed thus near her hotel, that, although she was not recovered from her lying-in, she had herself carried, by her brother Louis of Bavaria, and others, to a litter, and thence conveyed to the hotel de St. Pol, where she was lodged in the adjoining chamber to that of the king for her greater security. The night this murder was committed the count de St. Pol and many others of the nobility armed themselves, and went to the hotel de St. Pol, where the king resided, not knowing how far these matters might be carried. When the body of the duke of Orleans had been interred, as has been related, the princes of the blood assembled at the hotel of the king of Sicily, with the council of state, whither the provost of Paris and others of the king's lawyers were summoned, and ordered by the princes to make the most diligent inquiries, by every possible means, after the perpetrators and accomplices of this base act. All the gates of Paris were commanded to be closed, except two, and those to be well guarded, that all who might pass them should be known. Having given these orders, the lords and the council retired to their hotels in much sorrow and grief. On the morrow the council was again assembled at the king's palace of St. Pol, in the presence of the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, and other great lords. On the entrance of the provost of Paris, he was asked by the duke of Berry what measures he had taken to discover the murderers of so great a prince as the king's brother. The provost replied, that he had used all diligence in his researches, but in vain; adding, that if the king and the great lords present would permit him to search their hotels, and those of other great lords in Paris, he made no doubt but that he should discover the murderers and their accomplices. The king of Sicily, and the dukes of Berry and Bourbon, gave him instant orders to search wherever he pleased. The duke of Burgundy, hearing such positive orders given, began to be alarmed, and, drawing king Louis and his uncle, the duke of Berry, aside, brieflyt confessed to them what he had done, saying, that by the temptation of the devil he had committed the murder by means of Auctonville and his accomplicest. The two princes were so much astonished and grieved at this confession that they were scarcely enabled to make him any reply, but what they did say was reproving him bitterly for having committed so base an act against his cousin-german $. After this confession of the duke of Burgundy, they returned to the council chamber, but did not immediately declare what had passed between them, when the council broke up, and all retired to their hotels. On the ensuing day, which was Saturday, the lords before-mentioned again assembled at ten o'clock in the morning, at the hotel de Nesle, where the duke of Berry resided, to hold another council. The duke of Burgundy came thither as usual, attended by the colunt Waleran de St. Pol; but when he was about to enter the council-chamber, the duke of Berry said to him, “Fair nephew, do not now enter the council-chamber, for it is displeasing to all the members that you should come among them." On saying this, the duke of Berry re-entered the council-chamber, ordering the door to be closed, according to the resolutions of the council. The duke of Burgundy was greatly confused at this; and, being unresolved how to proceed, said to the count de St. Pol, “Good cousin, what should I do *" The count replied, “My lord, you have only to return to your hotel, since it is not agreeable to the lords of the council that you should sit among them.” The duke said, “Good cousin, return with me, to bear me company;” but the count answered, “My lord, you must excuse me; for I shall go to the council, since I have been summoned to attend it.” After these words the duke of Burgundy, in great fear, returned to his hotel of Artois; and to avoid being arrested, on his arrival there, he mounted a fresh horse, and, attended by six men, hastily quitted Paris by the gate of St. Denis; and only changing horses, but not stopping at any place, he travelled onwards until he reached his castle of Bapaume. When he had slept some little, he again continued his route with all speed to Lille in Flanders, Those whom he had left in his hotel at Paris followed him as speedily as they could, to avoid being imprisoned, of which they were greatly afraid. In like manner, Rollet d’Auctonville and his accomplices changed their clothes, and disguised themselves, and escaped from Paris by different ways, and went to quarter themselves in the castle of Lens in Artois, by orders of their lord and master John duke of Burgundy With so mean an attendance did this duke quit Paris after the death of the duke of Orleans, leaving the great lords of France in the utmost tribulation and distress. When those of the household of the late duke of Orleans heard of the secret departure of the duke of Burgundy they armed themselves, to the amount of six score, having at their head sir Clugnet de Brabant, and, mounting their horses, sallied out of Paris in pursuit of the duke of Burgundy, with the intent of putting him to death, could they overtake him. The king of Sicily, learning their intentions, sent after to forbid them executing their plan, on which they returned, very indignant, to their hotels. It was now publicly known throughout Paris that the duke of Burgundy had committed this murder; but the Parisians were not well pleased with the duke of Orleans, for they had learnt that he was the author of all the heavy taxes that oppressed them, and began to say among themselves in secret, “The knotty stick is smoothed.” This melancholy event took place in the great winter of the year 1407, when the frost lasted for sixty-six days with the greatest severity. On the thaw, the new bridge at Paris was destroyed, and fell into the Seine; and the floods did very great mischief to many parts of the kingdom of France. I have no need, in this chapter, to speak of the great hatred and jealousy that had taken place between the dukes of Orleans and Burgundy, prior to the death of the former, as it would occupy too much room; and besides, they will be fully spoken of in the proceedings which were shortly afterward instituted, namely, in the justification which the duke of Burgundy proposed offering publicly, in the presence of the princes of the blood, the nobility, both ecclesiastical and secular, showing the causes why he openly avowed being the author of the death of the duke of Orleans, and likewise from the answers which the dowager-duchess of Orleans and her children made in exculpation of the late duke, which shall all be written in this present chronicle exactly in the manner in which they were proposed in the presence of the whole royal council, and great numbers of others of different ranks. greater token of union and love, the duke of Burgundy, extreme indignation at so horrible a procedure: they therehearing that the duke of Orleans was indisposed, visited him fore refused to listen to his excuses,—and the next mornwith all the marks, I do not say of civility, but of tender ing, when he came to the parliament-chamber, they forbade affection, and even accepted an invitation to dine with him him entrance.” See Bayle, Art. “Petit.” The reconci

f The Guillemins were an order of hermits, instituted instituted by St. Louis. by Guillaume, duke of Guienne, and count of Poitou. They

* The name of the adulteress was Marietta d'Enguien, and the son he had by her the famous John, count of Dunois and of Longueville. Sir Aubert de Canny was a knight of Picardy.

+ Praesenti animo, says Heuterus.

: Consult Bayle and Brantome for a singular anecdote respecting the private reasons which urged the duke to commit this murder.

§ The monk of St. Denis, author of the History of Charles VI. adds the following damning clause to his account of this foul transaction :-" But what raised to

the highest pitch the horror of the princes at the blackness of soul displayed by the duke was, that very shortly before. he not only was reconciled but entered into an alliance of brotherly love with the duke of Orleans. They had yet more recently confirmed it, both by letters and oaths, insomuch that they called God to witness it, and received the communion together. They had every appearance of an entire union in the conduct of the war which was committed to their charge : they had defended one another's honour from the bad success which attended them : it seemed as if they had only one interest; and, for a yet the next day, being Sunday. The other princes of the liation here mentioned is also alluded to, ch. xliv. blood, knowing all this, could not but conceive the most

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