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Have the goodness to consider also, that the heretics are increasing in arms; and that if you do not disband them by clerical measures, and replace them in their primitive state, there will not be left a possibility of doing it by any other means whatever. Those who have advised you to adjourn the council have not assuredly understood the grievous evils that may result from that measure. Would to God they were sensible of the dangerous consequences at this moment arising from delay! Should they fear that laics would usurp power belonging to the church, they would deceive themselves, for this is only a subtlety to retard the council; which measure, if carried into effect, would indeed force the laics to act against the church. “This can only be prevented by continuing the sittings of the council; for then the laics will be effectually restrained, when they shall see the clergy abstain from all considerations of personal profit. You should also consider, that perhaps the holy council will not consent to adjourn itself, and that in this it will be followed by the kings, princes, and common people; and your holiness, who has hitherto been held in respect, and considered as spotless by the members of the Christian church, will fall under suspicion, and your mandates be disregarded. For this adjournment, without any essential cause, will stain your innocence; and it may be said that you nourish heresies among Christians, a perseverance in wickedness, and in the sins of the people. Disobedience may, therefore, be consequently expected to the church of God; for there are some who will not scruple to publish that you have been the cause of these evils, and many more than you are aware of will agree with them. It would be very useful and good, if your holiness would attend the council in person; but if that cannot be, send your immediate commands for it to continue its sittings in the manner in which it has commenced; for there are measures before it, affecting the very vitals of Christianity, that cannot and ought not to suffer a moment's delay. “Should your holiness require, in future, any measures to be discussed that do not demand such haste, such as touching a union with the Greek church, – another council may be called better inclined towards it ; for should this council be now dissolved, it is to be doubted whether another can be assembled within the eighteen months, from events that may arise. Your holiness will be pleased to weigh maturely all that we have written to you, and give directions for the continuation of this council; and have the goodness to receive our admonitions paternally and kindly; for it has been our conscience, and the great difficulties into which the church of God has fallen, and also our anxiety that your character may not be liable to the least suspicion, that have urged us to make them. This we will more clearly demonstrate to you when we shall be in your presence, which we hope will shortly happen." This remonstrance had its due effect on the holy father, who re-established the council at Basil, which was attended by great multitudes of ecclesiastical and secular lords, ambassadors, princes, and prelates, and common people out of number.

cHAPTER CVII.--THE DUKE of BAR ENTERs THE county of vaudeMont To conquer. It BY Force.

I HAve before mentioned that a serious quarrel * had taken place between René duke of Bar and Anthony de Lorraine count de Vaudemont. In consequence, thereof, the duke of Bar had collected a great body of men-at-arms, as well from his own duchy as from other parts of Germany, to the amount of six thousand men. The principal leaders were, the counts de Salmes, de Salivines and de Linanges, the bishop of Metz, sir Thibaut de Barbey, and other noblemen of high rank. The duke had also with him that gallant and renowned

• The duchy of Bar having passed to the house of Anjou, René, in the year 1431, sent his bailiffs from Bar and St. Michel to receive from Anthony of Lorraine, count de Vaudemont, his acknowledgment of him as lord paramount. The duke insisted on having full obedience of all places within the county that had been held as fiefs from the dukes of Bar, under pain of confiscation. Dict, de Martinière. This was probably the cause of quarrel. René claimed the duchy of Lorraine in right of his wife

Isabella, only daughter of Charles the late duke; and Heuterus, relating the cause of this quartel, says, that Anthony, count of Vaudemont, brother of the deceased, refused to admit René's pretensions, alleging that the duchy could not descend to heirs-female. For some reasons, however, it would appear probable that Heuterus is mis. taken, and that the dispute related to the affairs of the county of Waudemont only.

knight the lord de Barbasan, by whose advice he ordered his army, for he had great knowledge and experience in war. Having provided a sufficiency of artillery, provision, and stores, the duke marched his army before Vaudemont *, the capital of that country, which was naturally strong, and had been repaired with additional fortifications, by the count, who had likewise well victualled and garrisoned it, knowing that it was intended to be attacked by his enemies. He had appointed, as governors in his absence, Gerard de Passenchault, bailiff of the county, and Henry de Fouquencourt, who made great exertions to put the place in a proper state of defence. They were, however, in spite of their efforts, soon besieged on all sides, by reason of the superior numbers of their enemies. The besiegers also overran and destroyed by fire and sword most part of the county of Vaudemont, which, although very vexatious to the count, he could no way resist for the present. He garrisoned all his strong places as well as he could, and resolved to wait on duke Philip of Burgundy, whose party he had always supported, and humbly request aid from him to deliver his country from his enemies. He found the duke in Flanders, to whom having told his distress, the duke replied, that he would willingly lay the case before his council, and give him a speedy answer, and the best assistance he could afford. A short time before the count's arrival, sir Anthony de Toulongeon, the marshal of Burgundy, and other noble persons from that country, had come to remonstrate with the duke on the state of affairs in that duchy, and on the devastations there done by his enemies the French and Bourbonnois, who were daily committing murders and mischiefs by fire and sword, having already conquered some of his towns and castles, and intending further inroads unless they were checked. They earnestly solicited that he would, for the salvation of the country, send thither some of his Picard captains, accompanied by a certain number of men-at-arms, more particularly archers, of whom, they said, they were in much need. The duke held several councils on these two demands, and on the means of complying with them. They caused many debates, and his ministers urged the necessity of non-compliance, saying that the French were on the borders of Picardy, eager to make an inroad on Artois, and the moment they should know that his Picards had left their country, they might do him very great mischief. Notwithstanding all the dangers that might ensue, it was resolved, as a matter of necessity, that a thousand or twelve hundred combatants should be given to the marshal, who should have the chief command, with the Picardy captains under him ; and when they were arrived in Burgundy they should afford the count de Vaudemont the strongest support they could. When this had been resolved upon, it was necessary to seek for captains to conduct the expedition; for there were few of any rank willing to undertake it, because it was to a distant country, where the enemy was in great force, and they did not expect to be well paid, according to the custom in those parts. However, the duke of Burgundy, the count of Vaudemont, and others of weight in Picardy, determined to accept of such as they could find willing to go; and they sounded Matthieu de Humieres, Robinet de Huchechien, the bastard de Fosseux, the bastard de Neufville, Gerard bastard de Brimeu, and some other gentlemen and men-at-arms of the middle ranks, who had no great properties in their own country, to know if they were inclined to assemble men-at-arms, and to follow their leader whither he pleased, to seek adventures. Some presents and greater promises being added to this proposal, they agreed to accept of the offers. They collected, therefore, about the beginning of May, as many men-at-arms as they could, in various parts, to the amount of a thousand or twelve hundred, and had the duke of Burgundy's commands to keep them on foot for a certain time; the most of them were poor soldiers, accustomed to support themselves by living on their neighbours, when they could not find wherewithal in their own countries, but strong, healthy, and vigorous, and accustomed to war. When they were assembled in companies, they marched for the Cambresis, and were mustered in a large village called Solames, belonging to the abbot of St. Denis in France. They thence advanced under the command of the marshal, and other Burgundian lords, to Rethel, where they received a proportion of their pay, and thence returned through St. Menehould to Burgundy, where they remained some little time, waiting until the Burgundian forces were ready. In the meantime, while these preparations were going forward, the duke of Bar was besieging, with his numerous army, the town of Vaudemont. He had remained before it for three complete months, and had greatly damaged the walls by his cannon and other engines. The besieged were in the utmost distress; but, as they had hopes of being speedily relieved by the count, from whom they had secret messages, they bore all with much patience. Their two governors made great exertions to defend the place, that their lord might not reproach them with having any way neglected their duty.

* Vaudemont, a small town in Lorraine. It had been the capital of the county, but had given up that honour to the little town of Wezelize.



WHEN the marshal of Burgundy had assembled all his men, he marched them toward Langres; and thence the Burgundians and Picards advanced toward the Barrois, where they were joined by the count de Vaudemont with all the forces he could collect. When united, they might amount to about four thousand combatants, and their chief captains were the said Anthony de Toulongeon, marshal of Burgundy, the count de Vaudemont, the lord d'Antoing, Gerard de Marigny, the count de Fribourg", the lord de Mirabeaut, the lord de Sez, the lord de Roland, sir Imbert Marechal, a Savoyard, the bastard du Vergy, Matthieu de Humieres, nephew to the above-mentioned lord d'Antoing, sir John de Cardonne lord de Bichancourt, Boort de Bazentin, a gallant English knight called sir John Ladan, and sir Thomas Gergeras.

Sir John Ladan was governor of Montigny-le-Roi, and had with him six score combatants at the least, with many notable gentlemen renowned and expert in war. They advanced in handsome array into the Barrois, followed by sixteen or twenty carts laden with stores and provision. They announced their entrance into the Barrois by setting fire to different parts of that country; and thus they advanced to a large village called Sandacourt, within seven leagues of their adversaries, where they arrived on a Saturday night. On the morrow, Sunday, they expected an attack from the enemy, and, consequently, they formed their men in order of battle, and remained in this state the most part of that day, having their archers posted behind sharp stakes to prevent the charge of the cavalry. As the enemy did not appear, they retired, about vespers, to the village to refresh themselves, and called a council to consider how they should act. It was resolved that since, from the badness of the roads, and from the country being so intersected with hedges, they could not, without danger, march to meet the enemy, who were superior to them in numbers, they should return through the Barrois to Burgundy, destroy the country they marched through, and reinforce themselves with men and everything necessary to enable them to combat the enemy.

This resolution was very displeasing to the count de Vaudemont, but he was, through necessity, forced to abide by it. The captains then ordered all things to be packed and ready for the march on the ensuing day, Monday, the feast of St. Martin in the summer; but the duke of Bar, having heard of their arrival, quitted the siege of Vaudemont, leaving a sufficient body to blockade it until his return, and marched his army to offer them battle before they were reinforced. His strength consisted of about six thousand combatants, under some of the highest rank in Bar, Lorraine, and Germany, and advanced in handsome array. The scouts of the marshal of Burgundy fell in with those of the duke of Bar, attacked and conquered them; and this was the first intelligence the marshal had of their intentions.

* The county of Freyburg became united with that of daughter oftheprince of Orange, but died 1458, withoutissue. Neufchâtel by the marriage of Egon XIV, count of Furs- f Henry de Bauffremont married Jane, sister and heir tenburg and Freyburg, with Werena, heiress of Neufchâtel. to John, last lord of Mirabeau, of the family of Wergy, Their grandson John, count of Freyburg, &c. married a about 1388.

He gave instant notice of the coming of the enemy to his captains, who drew up their men in good order, chiefly under the directions of the English knight. The archers were posted in front, and on the wings, with their stakes before them. The Burgundian men-atarms wanted to remain on horseback, but the Picards and English would not suffer them; and at last it was ordered, that every man, whatever might be his rank, should dismount,and all who should disobey should be put to death. The horses and carriages were placed in the rear, in such wise as to prevent the enemy from making any attack on that quarter. While this was passing, the duke of Bar had advanced his army to within half a quarter of a league of them, and thence sent his heralds and trumpets to announce to them his approach, and to say, that if they would wait for him, he would offer them battle. The Burgundian captains sent for answer, that they were ready to receive him, and wished for nothing better than what he had proposed. The heralds returned with this answer to the duke, who then advanced to within crossbow shot of his enemies, although the lord de Barbasan had frequently advised him to avoid an open combat, but to force them to retreat from his country by famine and other means. He added many arguments in support of his advice; but the duke would not listen to them, trusting to superiority of numbers, notwithstanding the greater part of his men had not been accustomed nor experienced in war like to his adversaries, the Burgundians, Picards, and English. The duke, partly by the advice of the lord de Barbasan, drew up his army handsomely; for he had a great desire for the combat, though he had with him but very few archers. When this was done, many new knights were created on his side. Preparatory to the battle, the marshal of Burgundy and the count de Vaudemont had two tuns of wine brought to the front of their line, which, with bread and other victual, were delivered out to their men in what quantity they pleased; and all who had any hatreds made peace with each other. They had also some cannon and culverines on the two wings and in the centre of their army, and they remained for two hours fronting each other. While they were thus situated, a stag, as I was informed, came between their battalions, and, stamping thrice with his feet on the ground, paced along the Burgundian line,—and then, returning, dashed through that of the Barrois, when great shoutings were made after it. Some new knights were now created by the Burgundians and Picards, such as Matthieu de Humieres, Gerard de Marigny, his son, and others. The count de Vaudemont, during this ceremony, rode on a small hackney along the line, entreating the men “to combat bravely, assuring them, on the damnation of his soul, that his cause was good and just,that the duke of Bar wanted to disinherit him, and that he had ever been strongly attached to the party of duke John and duke Philip of Burgundy.” The Burgundians and Picards were well pleased with this address, and determined to remain as they were, and not advance on the enemy. On the other hand, the duke of Bar, having finished his preparations, and drawn up his army mostly on foot, observing that the enemy did not move, resolved to begin the combat, and marched toward them, who still remained in their position. When the Barrois were advanced to within twelve or sixteen diestres* of their line, they discharged the cannons and culverines before-mentioned, and set up a loud shout. This caused such an alarm among the Barrois that they flung themselves on the ground, and were greatly frightened. Shortly after, the battle raged on all sides, and it might then be about eleven o'clock. The Picard-archers made excellent use of their bows, and killed and wounded numbers with their arrows. The violence of the combat lasted about a quarter of an hour, and the two parties were engaged in different quarters; but at length that of the duke began to give way, and to fly in various directions,—which being observed by the enemy, it renewed their courage, and they made fiercer attacks than before. The Picard archers especially killed and wounded an incredible number, so that the disorder and defeat very soon became general on the side of the Barrois. The duke of Bar was made prisoner by one named Martin Fouars, belonging to the count de Conversan, lord d'Enghien, who had all the honour and profit of such a prize, although * Diestres. See Du Cange, Supplement, Dertri.

some said he was not taken with his own hand. Together with the duke were made prisoners, the bishop of Metz, John de Rodemaque, sir Everard de Salebery, the viscount d'Arcy, the lord of Rodemaque, sir Colard de Sausy, sir Wilin de la Tour, and others, to the amount of more than two hundred. There remained dead on the field of battle, and including those slain in the pursuit, which lasted for two good leagues, from five-and-twenty hundred to three thousand men. The principal among them were the counts de Salmes and de Salme-Salmes, de Linanges, Germans,—the lord de Barbasan, sir Thibault de Barbey, two brothers to the bishop of Metz, George de Banastre and his two brothers, and others, to the amount aforesaid, the greater part of whom were gentlemen. This defeat and pursuit lasted two or three hours; and when all were re-assembled, the Burgundian lords, with the count de Vaudemont, returned their most humble thanksgiving to their Creator for the great victory they had obtained through his means. They did not lose more in killed than forty men, the chief of whom was sir Gerard de Marigny. They remained that night on the field of battle. The marshal of Burgundy was slightly wounded in the face, and the duke of Bar above the nose. On the morrow they marched away for Burgundy, carrying with them their prisoners.


About the end of November, in this year, the young king Henry came from Pontoise to St. Denis, with the intent of proceeding to Paris, to be anointed and crowned king of France. He was accompanied from England by his uncles the cardinals of Winchester and of York, the duke of Bedford, the rich duke of York, the earls of Warwick, Salisbury, and Suffolk. He was likewise attended by many of the great lords of France, such as sir Louis de Luxembourg bishop of Therouenne, master Peter Cauchon, bishop of Beauvais, master John de Mailly, bishop of Noyon, the bishops of Paris and of Evreux, sir John bastard de St. Pol, sir Guy le Bouteiller, the lord de Courcelles, sir Gilles de Clamecy, sir James de Painel, sir John de Pressi, the lord de Passy, the bastard de Thian, and several more. King Henry was escorted by about two or three thousand combatants, as well from England as from the country round St. Denis, for the security of his person. He left that town for Paris about nine o'clock in the morning, and was met at La Chapelle, half way between Paris and St. Denis, by sir Simon Morier, provost of Paris, with a numerous company of the burghers, dressed in crimson satin doublets with blue hoods, to do him honour and respect: there were also very many of the inhabitants dressed in scarlet. When the provost and his company had made their obeisances, the king was next saluted by persons on horseback, representing the nine worthies , armed each according to his manner. Then by the commandant of the watch, the provost of merchants, with the officers of the court, dressed in silk and crimson hoods. At a small distance came master Philip de Morvillers, first president of the parliament, in his robes of ceremony, followed by all the lords of the parliament in flowing robes of vermilion. Then came the members of the chamber of accounts, the directors of the finances, the masters of requests, the secretaries, in robes of the same colour. As they advanced they made their reverences to the king, each according to his rank, and to the lords who accompanied him. With regard to the common people, they were numberless. When the king arrived at the entrance of the gate of St. Denis, the arms of the town were on so large a scale that in the body of them were enclosed six men, one to represent a bishop, another the university, and a third the burghers: the others personated sergeants. The king was presented, on his passing the gate, with three crimson hearts: in one were two doves; in another small birds, which were let fly over the king's head; and in the third, violets and other flowers, which were thrown over the lords who accompanied him. The provost of merchants and the sheriffs now brought a handsome azure-coloured canopy,

* Nine worthies. According to the Encyclopédie, Julius Cæsar, Charlemagne, and Godefroy de Bouillon. vol. iv. supplement, the neuf preur were named Joshua, For further particulars, I refer to the Encyclopédie, where Gideon, Samson, David, Judas Macchabeus, Alexander, mention is made of this procession to meet Henry VI.

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