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says in his 8th chapter of Ethics, or in the 5th of his Politics, on the government of cities; and it is also declared, in his book on the ruling of princes, that they are bounden to preserve justice: “Justitia inquit regnantis utiliorest subditis quam fertilitas ipsius; which means, That the justice of the governing powers is more advantageous to the subject than fertility or riches. The Psalmist, on this matter, says, “Honor inquit regis judicium diligit;' that is, The honour of the king loves justice and judgment. The justice here spoken of is nothing clse than to preserve to every one his right, which is also declared by the emperor Justinian, in the first book of his Constitutions: “Justitia est constans voluntas unicuique jus suum tribuens,' meaning, that Justice is firm and stable, giving to every one his due ; and it should be considered that justice is not to be administered according to pleasure, but as the written laws prescribe. Weigh well, therefore, how much you are bounden to do justice. “To you, then, my lady of Orleans and her children address themselves, requiring from you justice, which is the brightest jewel in your crown. Recollect the numerous examples of kings, your predecessors, who so much loved justice, and particularly that bright instance of a king, who, seeing that his son had deserved, by the laws of that time, to lose both his eyes, ordered one of his eyes to be put out, and had at the same time one of his own destroyed, that the law might not be violated nor infringed. Valerius also mentions, in his 6th book, a king called Cambyses, who commanded a false judge to be flayed, and his skin to be placed on the judge's seat, and then ordered the son of the late judge to sit on the skin of his father, telling him, “When thou judgest any cause, let what I have done to thy father be an example to thee; and let his skin, forming thy seat, always keep thee in remembrance.’ “O, king of France thou rememberest what David said, when king Saul unjustly persecuted him, “Dominus inquit retribuet unicuique secundum justitiam tuam ; that is to say, The Lord God will repay every one according to his justice. These words are written in the second chapter of the first book of Kings. Thou oughtest, therefore, like a true follower of our Lord, to do in like manner according to thy power, and aid and support such as have been unjustly wounded and persecuted. Thou canst not have forgotten how Andronicus, a cruel murderer, was condemned to death on the spot where he had slain the high-priest, as it is written in the book of Machabees. “O, king of France take example from king Darius, who caused those that had falsely accused the prophet Daniel to be thrown into the lion's den to be devoured. Recollect the justice that was executed on the two elders who, from false charges, had accused and condemned Susanna. These examples are written in the sixth and fourteenth chapters of the book of Daniel the prophet, and ought to stimulate thee to do justice as king and sovereign; for it is in doing thus that thy subjects will be obedient to thee, and in such wise art thou bound to do them justice, and which will cause them to be highly criminal when disobedient to thee. Some indeed have doubted whether the subject may not withdraw his allegiance from the sovereign on a refusal of justice and equity. May it please thee, therefore, sire, to consider this well, for thou wilt not have anything to fear in doing justice, as I shall hereafter demonstrate ; and in conclusion of this my first reason, I shall quote the words of the third chapter of Job: “Cum justitia indutus sum, et vestivi me vestimento et diademate in coronatione mea;' that is to say, I am clothed with justice, and have invested myself with it, as the robe and diadem of my coronation. “Consequently, most noble prince, I say that fraternal love ought greatly to urge thee to do justice; for I do not believe that greater love ever existed between two brothers than what you both felt. Be then the true friend to thy brother in justice and judgment; for it will be the greatest disgrace to thee and to the crown of France, throughout the world, if justice and reparation be not made for the infamous and cruel murder of thy brother. It is now time for thee to show thy brotherly affection; and be not like to those friends spoken of by the wise man, in the 8th chapter of Ecclesiasticus, as follows: “Est amicus socius mensae et non permanebit in die necessitatis.' That is, There are friends who are companions at table, and in prosperity, but who are no longer such in the day of adversity. “At this moment, necessity and affection united call upon thee to prove thyself such a friend that the world may not call thee a faint-hearted friend, of whom Aristotle speaks, in his 9th chapter of Ethics: “Qui, inquit, fingit se esse amicum, et non est, pejor est eo qui facit falsam monetam.' A faint friend is worse than a coiner of base money. Should some tell thee, that our opponent is of thy blood, and thy relation, thou oughtest, nevertheless, to abominate his crime, and do strict justice between two friends, according to what Aristotle says, in his second book of Ethics: “Duobus existentibus amicis, sanctum est praehonorare virtutem."—That is, It is praiseworthy to give the preference to virtue between two friends. Thou rememberest the strong love that subsisted between thee and thy brother; not that I wish to obtain any favour by that remembrance, but solely to exhort thee-to justice and truth. Alas! it would be of little value the being son or brother to a king, if such a cruel murder were passed over without any punishment inflicted on the guilty, nor any reparation made for it, more especially as he who caused his death ought to have loved him as a brother; for in the holy Scriptures nephews and cousins-german are called brothers; as appears from the book of Genesis, where Abraham says to his nephew Lot, “Ne sit jurgium inter te et me, fratres enim sumus.' Let there be no strife between thee and me, for we are brothers. Saint James is also called the brother of our Lord, when they were only cousins-german. Thou mayest repeat to our adversary the words which God said to Cain, after he had murdered his brother, “Vox sanguinis fratris tui clamat ad me de terra. The voice of thy brother's blood cries to me from the earth; and certainly in our case the earth and blood do cry. “There cannot be a man of common feelings who has not compassion for such a death as that of my late lord of Orleans; and it must not be wondered at if I compare our adversary to Cain, for in them I see many features of resemblance. Cain, moved by envy, slew his brother, because the Lord had accepted of his brother's offerings, and had not received his sacrifice, because he was practising in his heart how he could kill his brother. In like manner, the duke of Burgundy, because my lord of Orleans was the more agreeable to the king, in his heart meditated his death, and in the end had him treacherously and infamously murdered, as shall be fully proved. As Cain, instigated by covetousness, committed his crime, so our adversary, urged on by similar passions, did the act we complain of, as shall be demonstrated from his conduct previous to and after the death of the late duke of Orleans. I find, likewise, that the word Cain, by interpretation, signifies, “acquired’ or “acquisition.’ By the same name our adverse party may be called, for vengeance is acquired by the king in body and goods; but let justice take its course, and events will happen according to the good pleasure of God. It therefore seems very reasonable that I compare the duke of Burgundy to Cain. “Sire, remember, I pray thee, the words addressed to Cain, namely, “Vox sanguinis: The voice of thy brother's blood. It is the voice of the lady of Orleans, and of her children, crying to thee, and demanding justice. Alas! my lord king, to whom wouldst thou wish to do justice, if thou refusest to do it for the love of thy own brother? If thou be not a friend to thy blood, to whom wouldst thou be a friend, seeing we ask no more than justice? O most noble prince, consider that thy brother has been torn from thee for ever ! Thou wilt never again see him, for the duke of Burgundy has cruelly caused him to be put to death. Recollect he was thy brother, and thou wilt find how greatly he is to be compassionated. He, like thee, was equally fond of the queen and thy children, and, from his natural good sense, honoured all the royal blood of France; and few could be found more eloquent than he was when addressing nobles, clergy, or laymen. “Our Lord had given him what king Solomon had demanded, prudence and wisdom; for every one knows, that he was adorned with an excellent understanding, and of him may be said as of David, in the chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, ‘Sapiebat sicut angelus Domini; He was endowed with wisdom like to an angel of God. Were I to speak of the beauty of his person, I could only say, that he was thy image and resemblance, with this good quality, that he was perfectly courteous to all, and never caused any one to be beaten, or put to death, nor did he ever procure the death of any one. He possessed, however, the power of so doing, even to his enemies, who were notoriously defaming him, and attributing to him evils which he never thought of: he could, more especially, have had our adversary put to death several times, had he so pleased,—for no great power is requisite to have any one treacherously murdered. But, in good truth, such thoughts were not in his heart; for the property of royal blood is to have such compassion and mercy that it cannot suffer any cruelty, murder, or treason whatever; and of this blood my late lord of Orleans had a large share, for he was the son of a king and queen. “O king Charles! if thou wert now alive, what wouldst thou say? What tears could appease thee ? What would have hindered thee from doing justice for so base a murder Alas! how hast thou loved, and to what honour hast thou diligently trained the tree that has brought forth the fruit which has put to death thy very dear son 2 Alas! king Charles, thou mayest now say with Jacob, “Fera pessima devoravit filium meum.” The worst of beasts has devoured my son. Our adversary has made a miserable return to thee, oh, Charles 1 for all the great riches thou hast heaped on his father. This is the gratitude for the expedition to Flanders, wherein thou and thy kingdom were in such peril, out of love to him. In truth, all the magnificent gifts thou madest the father are already forgotten. Sire, look down, and hear the lady of Orleans, crying in the words of the Psalmist, “Domine, deduc me in justitia tua propter inimicos meos.' Lord, lead me to thy judgment on account of mine enemies. “This concludes my second argument. My third is founded on pity, considering the desolate state of the supplicants; namely, the widowed lady of Orleans, in despair, with her innocent children, thy nephews, now become orphans, having no other father to look to but thee. It becomes thee, therefore, to incline thyself diligently to do them justice, as they have no other refuge but in thee, who art their lord and sovereign; and they are besides thy very near relations, as thou well knowest. “Let pity move thy breast; for as Saint James the apostle says, “Religio munda et immaculata est visitare pupillos et viduas in tribulatione eorum. To visit orphans and widows in their distress is the duty of a pure and undefiled religion. It is melancholy that so great a lady should suffer thus undeservedly; and she may be compared to her whom Valerius speaks of in the sixth book. A widow had a son who had been unjustly slain : she went to the emperor Octavian to demand justice, and said, “Sire, do me justice for the cruel death of my son. The emperor had already mounted his horse, to perform a long journey, but replied, ‘Woman, wait until I be returned, when I will do thee justice.” The woman answered instantly, “Alas! my lord, thou knowest not if ever thou shalt return, and I wish not justice to be delayed.’ The emperor said, “Should I not return, my successor will see thee righted; but the widow replied, “Sire, thou knowest not if thy successor would wish to see me righted: he may, perhaps, have something to prevent it like to thee; and supposing that he should do me justice, what honour would it be to thee, or what merit canst thou claim for it from the gods? Thou art bound to do me justice: wherefore then seekest thou to throw the burden on others?” The emperor, observing the firmness of the woman, and the reasonableness of her arguments, dismounted, and, without more delay, did her ample justice. It was for this meritorious conduct, that when the emperor died, five years after, in the pagan faith, he was brought to life again by the prayers of St. Gregory, then pope, and baptised, as the histories relate. The example of this emperor, O king of France thou oughtest to follow in regard to the disconsolate widow of the late duke of Orleans, who is now a supplicant to thee, and has formerly demanded, and now again demands, justice for the inhuman and barbarous murder of her lord and husband, who was thy brother. Delays, or reference to thy successors, will have no avail; for thou, as king, art singularly obliged to do this, considering the rank of the supplicants, the duchess of Orleans and her children. “This lady is like to the widow of whom St. Jerome speaks, in his second book against Jovinian; wherein he relates, that the daughter of Cato, after the death of her husband, was in the deepest sorrow, uttering nothing but groans and lamentations. Her relations and neighbours asked her how long this grief was to last,-when she replied, that her life and her sorrow would end together. Such, without doubt, is the state of my lady the duchess, —for she can have no remedy for her loss, but by means of the justice she is soliciting. In truth, she does not require any hostile measures,-for were that the case, she and her children, with their allies, are so much more powerful than the duke of Burgundy, that they are well able to avenge themselves. This act of justice thou canst not refuse, nor can the adverse party raise any objections to it, considering the persons who demand it. O, sovereign king ! act in such wise that the words the Psalmist spoke of the Lord may be applied to thee: “Justus Dominus et justitiam dilexit; acquitatem widit vultus ejus.' Our Lord is just, and loves justice: equity is the light of his countenance.—This concludes my third argument. “My fourth argument is founded partly on the act itself, which was so abominably cruel, the like was never seen; and all men of understanding must feel compassion for it. This, if duly considered, should incline thee the more to do justice, from the usages of the ancient kings, who, through compassion, bewailed even the death of an enemy: how much the more then does it become thee to bewail the death of thy brother, and to exert thy courage to punish the authors of it ! Should it not be so, great disgrace will attach to thee and to many others. We read, that Caesar seeing the head of his enemy Pompey, wept, and said, that such a man ought not to have died. He was also very much grieved at the death of Cato. though his enemy, and did all in his power to aid and console his children. O, most courteous king of France 1 thou oughtest likewise to give consolation for the death of thy brother, who was thy dear and loyal friend. Weigh well the manner of his death, which was piteously lamentable. Alas! my lord, could the spirit of thy brother speak, what would it not say? It would certainly address thee in words similar to these: ‘Oh, my lord and brother, see how through thee I have received my death, for it was on account of the great affection that subsisted between us! Look at my wounds, five of which are mortal. See my body beat to the ground, and covered with mud behold my arm cut off, and my brains scattered about ! See if any pains were equal to my sufferings. It was not, alas! sufficient for mine enemy to take away my life so cruelly, and without cause; but he suddenly surprised me when coming from the residence of the queen to thee, which has put me in danger of damnation; and even after my death, he has attempted to blast my reputation by his false and defamatory libel.’ “My sovereign king, attend to these words, as if thy brother had spoken them; for such they would have been, could he have addressed thee. Be then more active to do justice; and having heard the petition of my lady of Orleans, act so that thou mayest verify what is said in the second chapter of the first book of Kings : “Dominus retribuet unicuique secundum justitiam suam.' Our Lord will render to all according to his justice. And this concludes my fourth argument. “My fifth is grounded on the great evils and mischiefs that might ensue if justice be not done on such crimes, -for every one will in future take the law into his own hand, and be judge and party. Treasons and murders will be the consequence, by which the kingdom may be ruined, as I shall demonstrate; for, according to the doctors, the surest way to preserve peace in a country is to do equal justice to all. St. Cyprian declares this, in his book on the twelve errors, saying, “Justitia regis, pax populorum, tutamen pueris, munimentum gentis, terrae foecunditas, solatium pauperum, hereditas filiorum, et sibimet spes futura beatitudinis.' The justice of a king is peace to the people, the defender of orphans, the safety of the subject, the fertility of the earth, the comfort of the poor, the inheritance of sons, and to himself a hope of future happiness. It is an everlasting glory. And on this occasion the Psalmist says, “Justitia et pax osculatae sunt.' Righteousness and peace have kissed each other. Should it be urged, that if due punishment be inflicted on this crime, greater evils might ensue from the reputed power of the duke of Burgundy. To this, which has more of appearance than reality, it may be answered, that the duke of Burgundy is as nothing compared with the power of the monarch; for what power or force can he have but what thou givest him or sufferest him to enjoy! Justice and truth, however they may be delayed, always in the end, through Divine mercy, are the mistresses. and there is no security like working for them. Who are the knights or esquires that would dare to serve him against thee ? or where are the strangers that would risk their lives in his traitorous quarrel ? Certainly none. “O ye knights of Burgundy and Flanders, clerks and laymen, and all ye vassals of our adversary, send hither men unbiassed by favour or hatred to hear this cause pleaded, truth declared, and justice adjudged to the right, according as it shall be plainly shown. O most Christian king! ye dukes, counts, and princes, have the goodness to give your aid that justice may be administered, for which end you have been principally constituted and ordained. O my lord king ! consider how small a power, when compared with thine, thy ancestors enjoyed, and yet they punished criminals of yet superior rank to our opponent, as any one may see who shall read our history of former times. Besides, who are they that would dare to oppose their sovereign lord, who, doing an act of justice according to the evidence of truth, becomes a true and upright judge, as Tully showeth, in his second book of Offices: “Judicis est semper verum sequi. A good judge should give judgment according to truth. “The same author says, in one of his orations before he went into banishment, ‘Nemo tam facinorosus inventus est vita, ut non tamen judicum prius sententiis convinceretur, quam suppliciis applicaretur.' No one has led so wicked a life but that a verdict has been passed upon his case before he was put to the torture. Thou art bounden, most potent king, to do justice; and should any evil result from it, it will fall on the adverse party, on account of his crimes, as I shall show to you hereafter. The judgment of our Lord JESUS CHRIST will not certainly fail of having its effect: ‘Quide gladio percutit, gladio peribit.' Whoso kills with the sword shall die by the sword. And Ovid, in his Art of Love, says, “Neque lex est aequior ulla, quam necis artifices arte perire sua. No law is more just than that murderers should perish by their own arts. O my lord king ! open the gates of justice, and listen to the very reasonable complaints which my lady of Orleans makes to thee, that thou mayest verify in thyself the words of the prophet, ‘Dilexisti justitiam et odisti iniquitatem, propterea unxit te Deus tuus oleo laetitiae prae consortibus tuis;" that is to say, Thou hast loved justice, and hast hated iniquity, wherefore the Lord thy God has anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows;–and this finishes my fifth argument. “My sixth and last argument, for the present, is founded on the conduct and demeanour of our opponent after this cruel and detestable crime. There is nothing in this world a king should so much dread and check as the overbearing pride of any subject in regard to his government; and thou, O king! oughtest to follow, in thy governance, the example of the King of kings, of whom holy writ says, “Deus superbis resistit, humilibus autem dat gratiam.” God humbles the proud, and raises up the weak-hearted. Thou art therefore bound to humble the pride of our opponent, which has increased to such a pitch as to make him resist thy power in the support of this his wicked deed. “Oh! king of France, and all ye my lords, weigh well then the rebellion and disobedience of our adversary, not only against the commands of the king, but contrary to the orders of the whole royal council. It is a well known fact, that the king of Sicily, my lord of Berry, and several others, went lately to Amiens, notwithstanding the great severity of the season, to attempt bringing about a reconciliation between the parties, for the general good of the king and kingdom; but these lords, in truth, could not effect this, though they signified to our opponent the king's commands,--but he contended that he would not wait upon his sovereign until he should be sent for by the king himself. When the aforesaid lords advised him to obey the king's commands, they could scarcely obtain from him a promise not to come to the king with a great power of men-at-arms; and even then he delayed his coming for fifteen days. Consider, my lords, what sort of obedience this is, and what fatal consequences may ensue from it. After the conference at Amiens, what was his conduct? Why, he assembled so large a force of men-at-arms, that when he came to Paris, he seemed as if he would conquer the whole kingdom. It is true, indeed, that the king and the princes of his blood, hearing of this, collected a sufficient power to provide a remedy. But when the king had commanded him, by especial messengers, not to enter Paris with more than two hundred men-at-arms, he came accompanied by more than six hundred, in direct opposition to the king's orders.-On his arrival in Paris with so large a force, it seemed to him that the king, queen, and other princes, ought to act according to his will; and for certain, such was the state of affairs that nothing was refused him, but the whole court behaved courteously toward him, to appease his anger. “O government of France 1 if thou wilt suffer such things to pass with impunity, thou wilt soon have cause for lamentations. Our adversary next caused all the barricadoes and defences round the king's palace to be taken away, that.his wicked intentions, already begun, might be completed. Such deeds are strong proofs of subjects having evil designs against

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