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been congratulated on the advantages which will accrue from the conditions of the treaty, and I must say that it is honourable to England that we shewed as much moderation after victory as we did ability and gallantry during the con. test; and that we did not impose heavier terms on the conquered enemy than we had proposed to that power before the contest commenced. When, after a successful war, hard terms are imposed on a vanquished enemy, terms inconsistent with the interests and independence of the country with whom we have been contending, -I maintain that those terms, however they may flatter the vanity and pride of the conquering nation, cannot, in the long run, be advantageous even to the party proposing them. But here we have the satisfaction of knowing that, while we have secured to ourselves advantages of commerce, the extent of which it is difficult for any man to suffer himself to anticipate, we cannot derive those advantages from the treaty without conferring equal benefits on the Chinese themselves. We are, therefore, not only benefiting ourselves, but the means of introducing civilization and commerce to the mul. titudes who inliabit those vast and distant regions. I shall only again express the satisfaction which I derive from being allowed to be present on an occasion like this, and how proud I feel in being one of this great assembly met here to acknowledge the distinguished services of Sir Henry Pottinger.”

Before the dinner, on Sir Henry Pottinger entering the reception room, Sir G. Larpent, on behalf of the merchants of London trading to the East-Indies and China, presented to him an address signed by seventy-three firms of this city, comprising nearly the whole of the commercial houses of any eminence in town, as a testimony of the distinguished sense they entertain of the ability and zeal shewn by him during the negotiations in China. The address, which eulogized the skill and ability displayed by Sir H. Pottinger in the conduct of the negotiations, which had gained facilities for trade in general in China, concluded thus: “We hope that the same liberality which has been displayed by the Chinese on one side in the arrangements of the tariff, from which we anticipate great advantages to our trade, will, as far as practicable, be imitated in this country with reference to that great staple article of the Chinese market tea.” In the course of his reply to this address, Sir Henry observed: “I rejoice that it has been my good fortune to be the humble, though zealous, instrument of removing to a certain extent the barrier which has hitherto excluded China from social and cordial intercourse with the rest of the world, and I will only add, that I see no reason to doubt but that, the first step having been made, it will depend on ourselves and the other nations who may henceforward join in that intercourse to perfect it in due time.”

On the 17th December, a grand public entertainment was given to Sir Henry at Liverpool, in the Town Hall, by the leading merchants : Mr. James Lawrence, the mayor, presided, having on his right Sir H. Pottinger, Lord Sandon, Mr. Wilson Patten, M.P., &c.; on his left Lord Stanley, the High Sheriff, Mr. W. Entwistle, M.P., &c. Covers were laid for about 400.

The Chairman, in proposing the health of their guest, said : “ There are, I am sure, few here who are not feelingly alive to the great importance of the trade with China. Many, to their cost, I fear, have felt the difficulties and prejudices with which that trade was for a long series of years surrounded, and all will bail with gratitude the man who has so greatly contributed to place it on a firm and permanent basis. The benefits of the China trade will not be confined to the British merchant: the manufacturer will feel its powerful stimulus, Asiat.Journ.N.S. VOL.IV.No.21.

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and the artizan will derive his full share in its advantages. Its effects will be felt throughout every portion of the empire, and I trust that even that great world of people who hitherto have been so adverse to intercourse with strangers will obtain a full share in the blessings likely to follow from the labours of our distinguished guest. I therefore beg to propose the health of the Right Hon. Sir H. Pottinger, whose sagacious, enlightened, and successful policy, has opened a new world to British enterprise and capital.”

Sir Henry Pottinger, in his response to the toast, observed: “When I was graciously selected by her Majesty to discharge the duties of Envoy in China, I went out with a firm determination, not of forcing any unpleasant treaty on the Chinese after the great objects of war were obtained by the prowess of her Majesty's arms, but rather to act as an umpire between the two empires. I found those attached to my mission cordially entered into my views, and I also had the great happiness of meeting with a corresponding congenial feeling in the Imperial Commissioner Key-ing, than whom a more enlightened statesman I believe is not to be found in any country in the world-a man fully alive to all the amenities of life, and particularly distinguished by a high sense of honour and good faith, which dictated his conduct throughout his negotiations with

I could tell you of such instances of Key-ing's high feeling and noble conduct as would astonish you; and I trust at some future period it may please her Majesty's Government, not merely to do him, but the Chinese people, justice, by making his despatches and letters public. It would astonish not only you, but all the world, to find such sentiments coming from a mandarin, amongst a people who hitherto have been considered shut out from the pale of civilization. One great point in the treaty was to throw the Chinese trade open, as far as rested with me, to all other nations. That, you must be aware, I could not have done without the cordial approbation and sanction of the Chinese authorities; but the moment I explained the subject, the moment I pointed out to the Imperial Commissioner the advantages to be derived by all other nations, and the Chinese themselves, from throwing it open to all, he most cordially assented, and before I left China he entreated me, as representative of England, to act as mediator, in case any unforeseen difficulty should arise between China and any other European power. This is a strong proof of the confidence I won, and I hope I won that confidence not by succumbing in any way to unjust demands made by the Chinese, but by letting them see that there was only one rule for my conduct as an Englishman-that was true faith and true honour. There is one other point on which I may perhaps be allowed

a very few words, and that is the conduct we ought to pursue towards the Chinese in our maritime intercourse with them. We must remember they have been for 3,000 or 4,000 years, as we are led to believe, totally secluded by themselves ; that they do not understand us, and that a mere treaty with them is by no means a ground to expect that they will at once adopt our notions. But I am quite certain, from what I saw of the Chinese character, that if they are kindly treated by the English, and by all the other nations resorting to China, in due time, with God's blessing, they will enter readily and warmly into all those feelings and relations of social and commercial intercourse with us which are so desirable between man and man."

Lord Stanley, in returning acknowledgments for the compliment paid to her Majesty's ministers, said : “ There is one point to which the right hon. bart. (Sir H. Pottinger) has peculiarly adverted, though he has modestly abstained from stating the full share he had in it. I allude to that decision to which he came


on his own responsibility (and without instructions), not only not to demand exclusive privileges-for that he was prohibited from doing-but to insert as a stipulation in the treaty that all other nations should alike partake in the commercial advantages which had been gained for this country by the power of the British arms, and by the prudence of British negotiations. I beg to express my great satisfaction at the allusion made by the right hon. gentleman : I mean, the necessity of great caution and great prudence in our dealings with our new allies, lately brought within the pale of civilization—the vast Chinese empire. When I say 'pale of civilization,' I should rather say of European commerce and intercourse; because I believe there is no nation in the world to which, as far as civilization goes, greater injustice has been done than to the great empire of China. Among those subjects which particularly struck the Chinese during the course of our warlike operations against them, and since, in our diplomatic intercourse with them, has been the strict, accurate, liberal fulfilment, in the spirit as well as in the letter, of every engagement into which we have entered. We have heard the Chinese spoken of as a tricky, over-reaching people. That there are such among them, among the inferior dealers, I do not for a moment doubt; but I do disbelieve that such is the general character of the nation. I believe, so far as our later experience has gone, that there is no nation which more highly values public faith in others; and up to the present moment I am bound to say that there never was a government or a nation which more strictly and conscientiously adhered to the literal fulfilment of the engagements into which it had entered.”

Previous to the dinner, an address was presented to Sir Henry from the East-India and China Association of Liverpool, by Mr. C. Turner, the chairman of the association.

On the 20th December, the Town Council and principal merchants of Manchester entertained Sir Henry at a sumptuous festival at the Town Ilall, to which 210 gentlemen sat down.

On the dinner tickets (price two guineas each) there was a very neatly executed engraving of the signature of the Chinese treaty, Sir Henry, with his staff, secretaries, &c., being represented within an Oriental pavilion, holding out the treaty, while the Chinese Commissioner, with his guard of honour, approaches to receive it.

Mr. Alexander Kay, the Mayor, presided; on his right sat Sir Henry Pottinger, Major-General Sir Thomas Arbuthnot, K.C.B., the General commanding the northern district, Sir George Larpent, Mr. John Wilson Patten, M.P., &c. On the left were Mr. W. Entwistle, M.P., Mr. J. M'Gregor, of the Board of Trade, Mr. J. Loch, M.P., &c.

The Chuirman, in introducing the particular toast of the evening, adverted to the extent and populousness of the Chinese empire, and the consequent advantages which the opening of that empire to British enterprise conferred upon their manufacturing districts. “I have heard,” observed the Chairman, exclamation which proceeded from one of our country manufacturers upon the subject, which I dare say will convey some idea to the minds of gentlemen present of the advantages which we are likely to derive from the extension of our intercourse with China.—'Why,' said the worthy manufacturer, 'all the mills we now have will hardly make yarn to find them with nightcaps and socks.' Without entertaining any very extravagant notions upon the subject myself, or at all wishing to excite any spirit of speculation by any remarks I may make


upon the present occasion, I may state that I have been furnished, by the kindness of my friend, Mr. Macvicar, with a statement of the exports to China during the years 1843 and 1814. From that account I perceive, that in 1813, of plain cotton piece goods there were shipped to China, from the ports of London, Liverpool, and Clyde, 1,148,381 pieces, and in the corresponding period, namely, for the year ending 30th November, 1814, the number of pieces amounted to 2,250,795; making an advance of 1,102,414 pieces. The value of all the articles enumerated in this statement amounted, in 1813, to 1,468,1151., and that of the same descriptions in the year ending 30th November, 1844, amounted to 2,064,0931. ; shewing an increase in value of the exports of this country to China, in a single year, of 595,9781. I am quite persuaded, that, for many years to come, our manufacturers will find, by the state of their balance sheet every Christmas, they will have to bless the exertions of Sir Henry Pottinger. I am also quite delighted to have to express my conviction upon this occasion, that the successful efforts of Sir Henry Pottinger will bave given many a large loaf, and, at the same time, a vast amount of comfort, to the operatives and artisans of this district. I know no other instance besides the present where a treaty of this magnitude has been concluded which lias had not merely the approbation of bis own countrymen, of every class and grade who have given any attention to the subject, but of all the nations in the world. He has softened down all those rival and hostile feelings upon this occasion which we should all have expected to see rife if he had not introduced that memorable treaty, which I hope will hereafter become known to all time as 'the Pottinger treaty,' which extended the advantages of the trade with China to all those empires and states which had had no previous communication with China.”

Sir Henry Pottinger, in acknowledging the compliment, said, — " When I was first appointed to go to China, it was, I am proud to say, totally unsolicited. I had been in India from the time I was a boy of thirteen years of age. I came home to England ; and I had had very little intercourse with any of the leading men in both or either parties; in fact, I hardly knew any of them personally, when I received an intimation from her Majesty's ministers at the time to the purport that I should go out to China. Although my health was not quite established, I was ready and forward to do any service to my country; and I embarked for China with the full intention of doing all that I could by a full and anxious exertion to carry out the instructions that I had received. Upon my arrival in China, I need hardly tell you things were in a very unpleasant and awkward state ; but through the valour of her Majesty's arms, and the distin. guished services of her Majesty's navy, they soon came to have a better appearance. And as soon as that sort of persuasion induced the Chinese Government to listen to our terms, I was more than ready to meet them balfway, and to shew that moderation, which I am sure was best worthy of England, and which I am quite certain every person in this room would highly approve of. I met with assistance which I could hardly have promised myself. Some of the gentlemen attached to the former mission were quite competent to give me every information, and they undoubtedly did so. One of them, alas ! now no more, was peculiarly a person likely to be of use to me upon the occasion : I speak of Mr. Morrison. The other is a gentleman with whom, I dare say, some of you are acquainted-Mr. Thom, a gentleman from Glasgow. To these two gentlemen, I am glad to bave this public opportunity of saying, I was greatly indebted for all the information upon which the tariff and the commercial part of the negotiations were regulated. My own opinion of the treaty was, that it would take some time, at all events, to mature itself; and there are one or two questions as to what returns China will make to us that are of the most important nature. But if that difficulty can be got over, I trust, as England can equally benefit herself by benefiting China-and it will be in a great measure-I believe I may say that the advantages of the treaty to England, and to all other manufacturing countries, will be almost unlimited. I calculate, from my own personal observation, that the immediate effect of the treaty will be to bring us into direct contact with not less than from 120,000,000 to 150,000,000 of people. I speak of the seaboard ; and my own firm belief is, that if we do not go too fast for the Chinese, if we allow them to see we have no object beyond kindness and commercial intercourse, that we have no exclusive feelings, do not look to any thing beyond a mere mercantile settlement in their country, I do believe that in the lapse of a very few years they will be as ready, or perhaps more so, to trade with us as we are with any other country.”

Addresses were presented to Sir Henry at Manchester from the council of the borough ; from the merchants and manufacturers of the town; and from the operatives in the cotton manufactories, this address bearing 10,438 signatures. The merchants and manufacturers have also entered into a subscription to purchase a piece of plate, or some other suitable testimonial, to be presented to Sir Henry.

East-India Civil and Military Services.



Bengal Eslab. - Mr. Charles Horne.
Madras Estab.-Mr. James D. Sim.

Bengal Estab.—Lieut. James G. Gaitskell, 26th L.T.

Ens. John M. P. Montagu, 26th L.I.
Lieut. Henry M. Williams, 27th N.J.
Lieut. John Kendall, 28th N.I.
Capt. William Mitchell, 32nd N.I.
Lieut. Henry P. Wildig, 31th N.I.
Surg. Henry Bousfield, 65th N.I.

Ens. John J. Murray, 71st N.I.
Madras Estab.- Capt. Charles B. Lindsay, 3rd L. Cav.

Lieut. Arthur G. Garland, 4th L. Cav.
Lieut. Vicentio C. Taylor, 3rd L.I.
Lieut. Charles C. McCallum, 7th N.I.
Ens. Richard J. Blunt, 25th N.I.
Lieut. Hamilton H. McLeod, 27th N.I.
Capt. James V. Hughes, 39th N.I.
Lieut. George R. Rolston, 47th N.I.
Ens. William Southey, 48th N.I.
Lieut. Francis J. Loughnan, 50th N.I.
Assist. surg. Robert P. Linton.

Assist. surg. Ambrose Blacklock.
Bombay Estab.- Capt. Pbilip C. N. Amiel, Ist

gren. reg. N.I.
Brev. capt. Henry Rudd, 5th L.I.
Lieut. Christopher P. Rigby, 16th N.I.
Capt. Henry Creed, artillery.
Surg. Robert Brown,

Assist. surg. Richard Woosnam, on duty with Sir H. Pottinger. Bombay Estab.–Lieut. Henry W. Grounds, I.N.


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