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And, again, on a smaller block is written,

"This garden is called the happy ;

May its beauties ever remain so !" The dream of Moslem grandeur, however, and the luxurious indulgences of its princes, are now at an end, and the beautiful Furruh Bhaug has long been subservient to supposed purposes of utility and improvement. A grant of its acres having been made to a medical officer of Government, mulberry-trees were planted in great quantities for the growth and cultivation of the Italian worm and silk. The plan, to a certain degree, failed; perhaps in consequence of the sanguine enthusiasm of its originator, as expenses were entered into that the results of the early trial could not justify, and debt became the consequence. Feebleness and discouragement followed, and as the world generally take some advantage of misfortune and disappointment in the plans of others, so a number of private mallees set about digging up the young trees and selling them for a trifling remuneration to the amateur garden cultivators of Camp. The collector, however, interfered; fortunately for the delightful shades of the Furruh Bhaug, the trees were restored, and the system still works in a trifling degree; the fine foliage becoming every day more luxuriant from the abundance of sweet water, while the worms slumber in the chambers of kings.

Nuggur, January, 1845.


اندر دل ما تسوئسي نگارا غیر تو گلوخ و سنگ خارا

عاشق شاهدي گزیدست ما جز تو ندیده ایم یارا هر گر غیر تو ماه باشد ای جان بر غیر تو نیست رشک مارا أي خلق حدیث او مگوئید باقي همه شاهدان شما را بر نقش فنا چه عشق بازد آنکس که ندید کبریارا بر غیر خدا حسد نیارد آنکس که گمان برد خدارا

دست انبسيارا حسد بري برو بر کین رشت رشک و گر شمس تبریز جا روان کن گردان کن سنگ آسيارا


Tae British public are not aware of the extraordinary progress which Christianity has recently made amongst the natives of Tinnevelly. This district of southern India has been the scene of the labours of many able and excellent missionaries, including Mr. Jæniké and Mr. Gerické; the seed sown by whom appears to be now germinating. A communication from the Bishop of Madras* to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel incloses a letter addressed to him by the Rev. A. F. Cæmmerer, dated Nazareth, Tinnevelly, Dec. 9, 1844, of which the following is an extract :

The extensive movements in favour of Christianity, of which your Lordship has already heard, call for my warmest gratitude to the bountiful Giver of all good. I was unwilling to communicate to your Lordship the joyful news until I could report the hopeful change as real and permanent, assured that, after a trial of a few months, the facts would tell with more value. Nor was it my intention to refer at all to the matter before January, but, being called upon by your Lordship, I have great pleasure in furnishing the following particulars of the very encouraging state of things in my neighbourhood.

Your Lordship will remember my stating, in my last half-year's schedule, that there was then every appearance of a favourable opening soon presenting itself for introducing the Gospel among the important villages to the orth of Nazareth ; I am truly thankful to say the time has arrived. It is now my privilege to report that nearly the whole of the Shanar population, scattered about from my station as far as to the river which forms the northern boundary of my district, and is about four miles distant, have embraced the Gospel. Since October last, 227 families residing in seven villages have renounced idolatry. The number of converts in them amounts to 832, and I have little doubt that many more will soon be added. In other villages also, already in connection with Nazareth, there have been considerable accessions; the number is between 500 and 600. So far as I can judge, all appear sincere and promise well : although several have been reproached and deserted by their heathen relatives, and in a few instances have even been persecuted, all have continued firm and unmoved. In one of the villages only, there are four or five misguided young men who cause me great trouble. They are doing their utmost to disturb and unsettle the people ; but, as yet, I am very thankful to say, with

I sincerely trust they will soon be brought to a better mind. It was in the village of Mavadepum that Christianity met with so much opposition a few years ago. Some families, at that time in connection with me, were expelled the village ; and their prayer-house was demolished by the very people of this place who are now desirous to join me, and ready to receive that instruction which they before

• Missions to the Heathen, No. V.

no success.

despised. Such a wonderful change has been wrought in them! A conviction of their guilt has forced itself on their minds, and they say they have never since been prosperous in their worldly undertakings. They attribute it all to their desecration of the Christians' place of worship.

A few proofs which have been given by the new converts of their sincerity will not be uninteresting. On the 9th October the principal men and the whole village of Mavadepum, which is about three miles from Nazareth, having signified their intention to embrace Christianity, and having requested me to visit them, I rode over on the 11th, accompanied by my brother. On my arrival there I was conducted to the river side, where there were five temples belonging to the village. Here I found the people and a great crowd beside of heathen, of all classes, assembled under a large peepul tree, adjoining one of the larger temples. I entered into conversation with those who had invited me, and I soon discovered that the subject of their joining me in a body had been canvassed in the village, and that all were unanimous in begging me for a Christian teacher and a schoolmaster. They promised, from that day forth, “to renounce Idolatry, to serve God only, and to learn the way of salvation.” They promised also 100 rupees in money, and materials towards their future prayer-house, which is to be built in January ; and begged I would assist them with 150 rupees more, as they required a commodious large place for their congregation, which amounts to 502. I asked them what further test they were prepared to give of their sincerity and disinterestedness. Their reply was, « Take our temples and dumb idols, which have ruined us.” I am sure no better test could have been given. Inquiry having been made for the keys, they were immediately brought and delivered into my hands. The temples were opened, and, although it was then mid-day, the interior was so dark that the idols could not be distinguished. With the help, however, of a torch, thirty-six idols, large and small, were brought out and thrown against each other with great violence, by which several were broken ; and, but for my checking them, not one would have been left whole. I took occasion to speak of the helplessness of idols, and the folly of such as put their trust in them. Some of the heathen were heard to say, “We are not to blame-our forefathers left us as a legacy such a religion ; and the time will come when not only such temples, but even the Trichendore Pagoda will come into the possession of the missionaries. What is it to us? Where shall we then be?” The new converts were next directed to convey the idols to Nazareth, and after a couple of days their bandies brought them all away, and they are now heaped up in my compound.

By an early opportunity I hope to send to Madras a few of the principal ones, together with a large knife used in sacrificing, with a request that they may be transmitted to the parent society, as evidences of the triumph of the gospel. The five temples, a Sockalingum and Menacshi Kovil, a Christnu Kovil, a Pilleir Kovil, a Nagaswamy Kovil, and an Ammun Kovil, which have been transferred to me, are important ones, and much larger and more substantial than any I have yet seen made over. They are of long standing, and have always been served by a Soodra, which is not the case in ordinary small temples. They are built partly of granite and partly of brick and chunan, and must have cost more than a thousand rupees. A few of the stone pillars have figures carved on them. The small inner temple and the portico before it, all of which is granite, the people tell me were built 230 years ago; the other parts are of later date. On removing the idols, small pieces of turquoise, ruby, moonstone, and coral, inclosed in thinly-beaten gold, were found under them. I have the pleasure to forward them to your Lordship in No. 1. In two other villages, also, inferior devil temples have been made over.

The people broke the idols to pieces, and gave me the small gold ornaments that were on them, which also I have the pleasure to send to your Lordship in No. 2. At another village I have promise of a piece of ground to build a prayer-house upon. All these circumstances hold out most encouraging hopes. On the society and its friends devolve the duty of providing the necessary funds, if I am to extend my borders and occupy this most inviting field. The new villages have been regularly and frequently visited. Many have been found who can read fluently portions of scripture, and suitable books have been put into their hands. The want of places of worship is very much felt. Three or four are immediately and urgently required, and not one has yet been built.

Mr. Cæmmerer (Dec. 12, 1844) reports an increase under Chris. tian instruction of 1,500, since the returns made in Juve of that year.

loyal Asiatic Society. This Society held an ordinary meeting on the 15th of February; the Right Hon, the Earl of Auckland in the chair.

The Secretary read a communication from the Rev. C. Gutzlaff, containing extracts and translations by him from papers of the Secret Triad Society of China, procured from members of that body at Hong-Kong.

The extracts commence with a translation of certain verses used at the initiation of a new member into the fraternity, expressive of his readiness to march with the rest of the brotherhood in battle array to Nanking, when the fitting time arrives, to reinstate the Chinese dynasty on the throne of the imperial empire-the ostensible object of the society. After taking the oath of fealty, the novice is anointed with blood; repeating an imprecation that his own blood may flow should he ever reveal the secrets of the society.

The account which the Hong-Kong branch give of themselves is, that about the end of the 17th century, a tribe of Tartars, named Seloos, invaded the country, and greatly disturbed the peace of the empire. The Emperor Kang.he was induced to offer a large reward to any able general who would lead an army against the invaders; and on the imperial proclamation reaching a Buddhist monastery in Füh-këen, where there were above 1,200 friars, these friars at once proceeded to the capital, and were admitted to the impe. rial presence. One of their number was immediately appointed commanderin-chief; and routed the Seloo army. For this service the Emperor liberally rewarded the friars, and sent them to their home. Their good fortune, however, excited the envy of some of the ministers of the court, who soon con. trived to poison the Emperor's mind towards them, and to gain permission 10 burn down their monastery ; only eighteen escaped the conflagration, and of these, thirteen died of hunger; the remaining five hid themselves in seclusion, until a youth of thirteen, who described himself as the son of a deceased em. peror of the Ming dynasty, joined them. In the hope of placing this youth on the throne, and thereby gaining power to avenge the destroyers of their temple, they joined other bonzes, and founded the Secret Triad Society to aid them in their plans. Their numbers gradually increased to thousands; and towards the close of the reign of Kang-he, they engaged in many an arduous struggle with the Manshoo army. In the 13th year of Yang-ching (1736), however, they were obliged to disperse, after agreeing upon the means of keeping up a secret correspondence with each other. For this purpose they organized them. selves into lodges, similar to those of the Freemasons of Europe, appointing to each lodge a distinctive standard, with directions as to what parts its members should take when the great struggle for vengeance arrived. Every one of the brotherhood is initiated in a variety of secret and symbolical signs and language; so that the way in which they perform the commonest acts may make them known to each other, without endangering their discovery by the most inquisitive eye, to whom the key is not known. They have emissaries in every part of the empire, who enlist proselytes, drill them for arms, and initiate them into the mysteries of the brotherhood. Individuals of any class are permitted to join; their leading maxim being, “ we are all the children of the same parent." Every member is enjoined to obey implicitly the regulations of the fraternity; and fines and punishments are ordained for disobedience. Any member receiv. ing a bribe to betray another member, will be discarded from the society, and outlawed ; no brother must have connection with two sisters; none shall betray the principles of the association, under pain of being “scattered to the winds ;" and all improper and opprobrious language is forbidden. They have songs and hymns for all occasions, the principal themes of which are the restoration of the Ming dynasty. To facilitate the travelling of the members, every brother is required to entertain a stranger associate gratuitously in his house for two days. He is also required to keep money in store for emergencies; and to contribute to the public treasury of the society. To maintain unanimity, and to keep up the spirit which should animate the body, frequent meetings of the lodges are convoked, and the oaths of fidelity are renewed. Like the celebrated German Femgerichte of the middle ages, every traitor to the society is summoned to meet the charge against him in full conclave, and if found guilty, sentence of death is at once pronounced against the offender. Mr. Gutzlaff gives the following as their religious principles :-“We consider Heaven as our father, the Earth as our mother, the Sun as our elder brother, and the Moon as our elder sister; we pay respect to the true Lord of Heaven ; we worship our five founders; we treat with deference our brethren; and we devote ourselves to a life of pleasure." He states also, that to heaven, earth, and mankind (their Triad), the three powers constituting the universe, they pay peculiar homage, and recite certain hymns in their praise. On the admission of a candidate, a certificate is given him, signed by several present when he took the oath of allegiance. A girdle and badge are also tendered to him: a translation of one of

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