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lance and ardour were eminently evinced; in 1811 he commanded at the battles of Fuentes d'Onoro and Badajos. In the respective years of 1822, 1826, and 1830, he was returned as one of the members for the County of Sligo; in 1835 was appointed a Knight Companion of the Bath ; and in 1838, obtained the rank of Lieutenant-General, but died in the following year at his seat near Windsor. He married first, in 1802, Mary, eldest daughter of the Honourable and Very Reverend Dean Hewitt, who was the son of Viscount Lifford, Lord High Chancellor of Ireland in 1767, a nobleman of ancient and honourable ancestry in Warwickshire. By this lady Sir Henry King had issue, three sons. 1. Henry, born in 1808, who has died without issue. 2. John Wingfield King, who entered the army in 1824, in the Northumberland Fusileers, obtained a Captaincy in 1831, and in the same year intermarried with Alicia, daughter of Chidley Coote, Esq. (by whom he has issue). 3. Edward Robert, who entered the army in 1826, in the 36th regiment of foot, and was promoted to a captaincy in 1832; and four daughters, viz.: Caroline, married in 1827 to John Odell of Carriglea, County Waterford, Esq.; Louisa Mary, married in 1837 to the Rev. Charles Leslie, eldest son of the Bishop of Kilmore (his second wife); Sydney Jane, married in 1835 to Henry Coe Coape, Esq.; and Alicia, lately married to Henry Hamilton O'Hara, of Crebilly, County Antrim, Esq.—Sir Henry, in 1832, married his second wife, Elizabeth, relict of J. Richardson, Esq., and aunt of the Countess of Lichfield, by whom he has left no issue.
5th. Reverend Richard Fitzgerald King, fifth son of Earl Robert, married, in 1800, Williamina, eldest daughter of the late William Ross, and by her has issue.
6th. John King, the sixth son, was, in 1805, appointed Secretary of Legation to the Elector of Wirtemburg. He died unmarried.
7th. James William, the youngest son of Earl Robert, was also distinguished in the navy. He received his first commission in 1804, and in 1809 was appointed to the command of the Jason, which ship bore the flag of the Duke of Clarence, when his Royal Highness escorted Louis XVIII. to the French shore. She subsequently conveyed the Emperor Alexander, the King of Prussia, and the Duchess of Oldenburgh, to Calais. In 1815, Captain King intermarried with Caroline, the daughter of the late Most Reverend Doctor Euseby Cleaver, Archbishop of Dublin, and niece of the Right Reverend Doctor William Cleaver, successively Bishop of Chester, Bangor, and St. Asaph. Captain King has issue by her, two sons and three daughters.
The daughters of Earl Robert were: Margaret, who intermarried with the late Earl of Mountcashel ; Caroline, married in 1800 to the late General Morrison ; Mary, married to George G. Meares, Esq., died in 1819; Jane Diana, married first to Count de Witzingerode, minister of the Elector of Wirtemburgh, and Knight of several orders,—-secondly to Monsieur Ricci; and Louisa Eleanor, who in 1803 was married at the Court of Stutgard to the late Baron Spaen, the Batavian minister there, and who is now a widow.
Immediately adjoining Rockingham is the townland of Erris, from which Viscount Lorton took his before-mentioned early title of Baron. Here, on an eminence, near the residence of Captain Duckworth, is one of these circular ecclesiastical fortresses, so frequently met with, both in this country and in England. This exhibits a circular massy wall of uncemented stone, about eight feet and a half in thickness, widening in one part to twelve. The diameter of the enclosure measures about thirty feet, and it was evidently once surrounded by a fosse and mound, thus assimilating it in character to those of Cornwall, described by Borlase. At a short distance from this, on a higher land called Carrickmore (i. e. " the great rock”), is a similar, but much larger, and
more perfect, circular enclosure, also of uncemented stone, and measuring in diameter upwards of 150 feet; the walls, in some places of very massy stone, are generally 12 feet in thickness, and in one place 16; there are now no traces of fosse or mound, but there are some as of the foundations of cells within it. There is another in the adjoining parish of Kill-bryan, on the townland of Keelogues. Thus encircled, the simple churches of Christ were, on the first efforts of piety, erected, and, while convenience or custom led to a preference of wood in their formation, it does appear, from several existing remains, that they were frequently defended, like those that here occur, with massy enclosures of stone. In those parts of Ireland, where they occur, they are generally called “ casiols.” Venerable Bede illustrates the use and motive of such buildings, and defines them to be ecclesiastical; one particularly alluded to by him, as erected in 684 by Cuthbert, an Irish Bishop of Lindisfarn, is described, like the above, as a round structure of four or five perches diameter, the wall of which was, on the outer side, somewhat higher than a man erect, while within, it was made in effect higher, by deepening the enclosed space, with a design of restraining the eyes and thoughts of the pious occupants from earthly objects and desires, to look only to heaven. This wall, he adds, was not built of hewn stone, or with mortar, but with rough stones of a huge size and the earth that was dug out of the enclosed space.
“ Within this circle," adds
Bede, were two structures, one an oratory for prayer, and the other for the ordinary uses of a dwelling”(a). There are several remains of such "casiols” over Ireland, and especially in this province; one of monstrous unhewn stones, without cement, and capable of containing (as O'Flaherty describes its size) two hundred beeves, is found at Dun Ængus, in the greater isle of Aran, on a cliff over the sea, and a second in the middle isle. Tradition confirms the ecclesiastical use of this edifice, as that it was built by St. Endeus, at the close of the fifth century, around his little churches. There is another in the island of Inismurry, off the coast of Sligo, expressly called “the casiol,” the enclosing wall there is also wholly without mortar, but the stones so admirably inserted into each other as to need none. It is from five to eight feet thick, and about ten feet high, containing within it some rude subterranean cells, and three stone chapels, but the latter appear of a more recent date than the rest of the workmanship. There is a very fine specimen of this species of building called cul-casiol, near the village of Kilmovee, in the County Mayo, and a similar, but much dilapidated structure, on the lands of Mr. Phillips, of Clonmore, in the same county, which imparts its generic name to the townland of Cara-Casiol. On the aforesaid townland of Erris is a well of ancient reverence called Tobber-na-driney, i. e. “ the well of
(a) Bede, “ Vita Cuthberti,” c. 17.
the black thorns," and near it stood a church, for the same reason styled Teampul-na-driney. All traces of this edifice have disappeared, but, in recently excavating its site, Captain Duckworth found, about two feet below the surface of the soil, a considerable portion of cut stone, which seemed to have belonged to the door and windows. A group of old trees, in a circle adjacent, evidently marks the situation and antiquity of the cemetery. On this townland is a fine quarry of black marble, exhibiting to the geologist not unfrequent specimens of fossils, and other petrefactions; cockles especially have been found, very perfectly developed, incrusted in the stone.
Between Erris and the river of Boyle, near a fall of that water, about a mile from the town, once stood the ancient Columbian house of Eas-macneirc (sometimes confounded with Inchmacnerin), of which many notices will be found in the subsequent history of the district. The walls of a small church, about 50 feet by 25, are all that now mark this once fine establishment. Below it, and nearer the river, surrounded by some very old ash trees, the ground having been accidentally laid open, a succession of those caves, so frequently met with in Ireland, has been exposed to view. The work of exfodiation was carried on under the immediate inspection of Captain Duckworth, who thus reports: “ On clearing out the accumulated rubbish and fillings of ages, I found a room of 26 feet in length, connected with a similar apartment at one end, and