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chester, or Eaton, or any of them, other than what is prescribed there, at the place appointed for his said Lecture or Sermon, and appointed to be used in and by the said Book ; and That the before his said Lecture or Sermon, openly, publickly, and solemnly present Governour, or Head of every Colledge and Hall in the Read the Common Prayers and Service in and by the said Book said Universities, and of the said Colledges of Westminster, Win. appointed to be read for that time of the day, at which the said chester, and Eaton, within one month after the Feast of Saint Lecture or Sermon is to be Preached, and after such Reading Bartholomew, which shall be in the year of our Lord, One thereof, shall openly and publickly, before the Congregation there thousand six hundred sixty and two: And every Governour or assembled, declare his unfeigned assent and consent unto, and Head of any of the said Colledges, or Halls, hereafter to be approbation of the said Book, and to the use of all the Prayers, elected, or appointed, within one month next after his Election, Rites and Ceremonies, Forms and Orders therein contained and or Collation, and Admission into the same Government, or Head. prescribed, according to the form aforesaid; and, That all and ship, shall openly and publickly in the Church, Chappel, or other every such person and persons who shall neglect or refuse to do Publick place of the same Colledge, or Hall, and in the presence the same, shall from thenceforth be disabled to Preach the said, of the Fellows and Scholars of the same, or the greater part of or any other Lecture or Sermon in the said, or any other Church, them then resident, Subscribe unto the Nine and thirty Articles Chappel, or place of Publick worship, until such time as he and of Religion, mentioned in the Statute made in the thirteenth they shall openly, publickly, and solemnly Read the Commonyear of the Reign of the late Queen Elizabeth, and unto the said Prayers and Service appointed by the said Book, and Conform in Book, and declare his unfeigned assent and consent unto, and all points to the things therein appointed and prescribed, accordapprobation of the said Articles, and of the same Book, and to ing to the purport, true intent, and meaning of this Act. the use of all the Prayers, Rites, and Ceremonies, Forms, and  Provided alwaies, that if the said Sermon or Lecture be to Orders in the said Book prescribed, and contained according to be Preached or Read in any Cathedral, or Collegiate Church or the form aforesaid ; and that all such Governours, or Heads of Chappel, it shall be sufficient for the said Lecturer openly at the the said Colledges and Halls, or any of them as are, or shall be in time aforesaid, to declare his assent and consent to all things holy Orders, shall once at least in every Quarter of the year (not contained in the said Book, according to the form aforesaid. having a lawful Impediment) openly and publickly Read the  And be it further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That Morning Prayer, and Service in and by the said Book appointed if any person who is by this Act disabled to Preach any Lecture or to be Read in the Church, Chappel, or other Publick place of the Sermon, shall during the time that he shall continue and remain same Colledge or Hall, upon pain to lose, and be suspended of, so disabled, Preach any Sermon or Lecture; That then for every and from all the Benefits and Profits belonging to the same such offence the person and persons so offending shall suffer Three Government or Headship, by the space of Six months, by the months Imprisonment in the Common Gaol without Bail or Visitor or Visitors of the same Colledge or Hall; And if any mainprise, and that any two Justices of the Peace of any County Governour or Head of any Colledge or Hall, Suspended for not of this Kingdom and places aforesaid, and the Mayor or other Subscribing unto the said Articles and Book, or for not Reading | chief Magistrate of any City, or Town-Corporate, within the of the Morning Prayer and Service as aforesaid, shall not at, or same, upon Certificate from the Ordinary of the place made to before the end of Six months next after such suspension, Sub him or them of the offence committed, shall, and are hereby rescribe unto the said Articles and Book, and declare his consent quired to commit the person or persons so offending to the Gaol thereunto as aforesaid, or read the Morning Prayer and Service of the same County, City, or Town Corporate accordingly. as aforesaid, then such Government or Headship shall be ipso  Provided alwaies, and be it further Enacted by the Aufacto void.
thority aforesaid, That at all and every time and times, when any  Provided always, That it shall and may be lawful to use the Sermon or Lecture is to be Preached, the Common Prayers and Morning and Evening Prayer, and all other Prayers and Service Service in and by the said Book appointed to be Read for that time prescribed in and by the said Book, in the Chappels or other of the day, shall be openly, publickly, and solemnly Read by some Publick places of the respective Colledges and Halls in both the Priest, or Deacon, in the Church, Chappel, or place of Publick Universities, in the Colledges of Westminster, Winchester, and worship, where the said Sermon or Lecture is to be preached, Eaton, and in the Convocations of the Clergies of either Province before such Sermon or Lecture be Preached ; And that the Lecin Latine ; Any thing in this Act contained to the contrary not. | turer then to Preach shall be present at the Reading thereof. withstanding.
[237 Provided nevertheless, That this Act shall not extend to  And be it further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the University-Churches in the Universities of this Realm, or no person shall be, or be received as a Lecturer, or permitted, suf either of them, when or at such times as any Sermon or Lecture fered, or allowed to Preach as a Lecturer, or to Preach, or Read is Preached or Read in the same Churches, or any of them, for, or any Sermon or Lecture in any Church, Chappel, or other place of as the publick University-Sermon or Lecture; but that the same Publick worship, within this Realm of England, or the Dominion | Sermons and Lectures may be Preached or Read in such sort and of Wales, and Town of Berwick upon Tweed, unless he be first manner as the same have been heretofore Preached or Read; approved and thereunto Licensed by the Archbishop of the Pro- | This Act, or any thing herein contained to the contrary thereof vince, or Bishop of the Diocess, or (in case the See be void) by in any wise notwithstanding. the Guardian of the Spiritualties, under his Seal, and shall in the  And be it further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That presence of the same Archbishop, or Bishop, or Guardian Read the several good Laws, and Statutes of this Realm, which have the Nine and thirty Articles of Religion, mentioned in the been formerly made, and are now in force for the Uniformity of Statute of the Thirteenth year of the late Queen Elizabeth, with Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments, within this Realm Declaration of his unfeigned assent to the same; and That every of England, and places aforesaid, shall stand in full force and person, and persons who now is, or hereafter shall be Licensed, strength to all intents and purposes whatsoever, for the establishAssigned, Appointed, or Received as a Lecturer, to preach upon ing and confirming of the said Book ; Entituled, The Book of any day of the week in any Church, Chappel, or place of Publick Common Prayer, and Administration of the Sacraments, and worship within this Realm of England, or places aforesaid, the other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, according to the use first time he Preacheth (before his Sermon) shall openly, pub of the Church of England ; together with the Psalter or Psalms lickly, and solemnly Read the Common Prayers and Service in of David, Pointed as they are to be sung or said in Churches ; and by the said Book appointed to be Read for that time of the and the form or manner of Making, Ordaining, and Consecrating day, and then and there publickly and openly declare his assent of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons ; herein before mentioned to unto, and approbation of the said Book, and to the use of all the be joyned and annexed to this Act; and shall be applied, prac. Prayers, Rites and Ceremonies, Forms and Orders therein con. tised, and put in ure for the punishing of all offences contrary to tained and prescribed, according to the Form before appointed in the said Laws, with relation to the Book aforesaid, and no other. this Act; And also shall upon the first Lecture-day of every  Provided alwaies, and be it further Enacted by the Aumonth afterwards, so long as he continues Lecturer, or Preacher thority aforesaid, That in all those Prayers, Litanies, and Collects, which do any way relate to the King, Queen, or Royal Progeny, | Chapters, and their Successors kept and preserved in safety for the Names be altered and changed from time to time, and fitted ever, and to be also produced, and shewed forth in any Court of to the present occasion, according to the direction of lawful Record, as often as they shall be thereunto lawfully required ; Authority.
And also there shall be delivered true and perfect Copies of this  Provided also, and be it Enacted by the Authority afore Act, and of the same Book into the respective Courts at Westsaid, That a true Printed Copy of the said Book, Entituled, The minster, and into the Tower of London, to be kept and preserved Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments, for ever among the Records of the said Courts, and the Records and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, according to the of the Tower, to be also produced and shewed forth in any Court use of the Church of England; together with the Psalter, or as need shall require ; which said Books so to be exemplified Psalms of David, Pointed as they are to be sung or said in under the Great Seal of England, shall be examined by such Churches; and the form and manner of Making, Ordaining, and persons as the Kings Majesty shall appoint under the Great Seal Consecrating of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, shall at the costs of England for that purpose, and shall be compared with the and charges of the Parishioners of every Parish-Church, and | Original Book hereunto annexed, and shall have power to correct, Chappelry, Cathedral Church, Colledge, and Hall, be attained and and amend in writing any Error committed by the Printer in the gotten before the Feast-day of Saint Bartholomew, in the year of | printing of the same Book, or of any thing therein contained. our Lord, One thousand six hundred sixty and two, upon pain of and shall certifie in writing under their Hands and Seals, or the forfeiture of Three pounds by the month, for so long time as they Hands and Seals of any Three of them at the end of the same shall then after be unprovided thereof, by every Parish, or Chap Book, that they have examined and compared the same Book, pelry, Cathedral Church, Colledge, and Hall, making default and find it to be a true and perfect Copy; which said Books, and therein.
every one of them so exemplified under the Great Seal of Eng Provided alwaies, and be it Enacted by the Authority afore land, as aforesaid, shall be deemed, taken, adjudged, and exsaid, That the Bishops of Hereford, Saint Davids, Asaph, Bangor, pounded to be good, and available in the Law to all intents and and Landaff, and their Successors shall take such order among purposes whatsoever, and shall be accounted as good Records themselves, for the souls health of the Flocks committed to their this Book it self hereunto annexed ; Any Law or Custom to the Charge within Wales, That the Book hereunto annexed be truly contrary in any wise notwithstanding. and exactly Translated into the Brittish or Welsh Tongue, and  Provided also, That this Act or any thing therein contained that the same so Translated and being by them, or any three of shall not be prejudicial or hurtful unto the Kings Professor of the them at the least viewed, perused, and allowed, be Imprinted to Law within the University of Oxford, for, or concerning the such number at least, so that one of the said Books so Trans Prebend of Shipton, within the Cathedral Church of Sants, lated and Imprinted, may be had for every Cathedral, Collegiate, united and annexed unto the place of the same Kings Professor and Parish Church, and Chappel of Ease in the said respective for the time being, by the late King James of blessed memory. Diocesses, and places in Wales, where the Welsh is commonly  Provided always, That whereas the Six and thirtieth Article spoken or used before the First day of May, One thousand six of the Nine and thirty Articles agreed upon by the Arch-bishops, hundred sixty five; and, That from and after the Imprinting and and Bishops of both Provinces, and the whole Clergy in the publishing of the said Book so Translated, the whole Divine Ser Convocation holden at London, in the year of our Lord, One vice shall be used and said by the Ministers and Curates through thousand five hundred sixty two, for the avoiding of diversities out all Wales within the said Diocesses, where the Welsh Tongue of Opinions, and for establishing of consent, touching true Reis commonly used, in the Brittish or Welsh Tongue, in such ligion, is in these words following, viz. manner and form as is prescribed according to the Book hereunto That the Book of Consecration of Archbishops, and Bishops, annexed to be used in the English Tongue, differing nothing in and Ordaining of Priests and Deacons, lately set forth is the any Order or Form from the said English Book ; for which Book, time of King Edward the Sixth, and confirmed at the same time 80 Translated and Imprinted, the Church-wardens of every of the by Authority of Parliament, doth contain all things necessary to said Parishes shall pay out of the Parish-money in their hands such Consecration and Ordaining, neither hath it any thing that for the use of the respective Churches, and be allowed the same of itself is superstitious, and ungodly; And therefore whosoever on their Accompt; and, That the said Bishops and their Suc are Consecrated or Ordered according to the Rites of that Book, cessors, or any Three of them, at the least, shall set and appoint since the second year of the aforenamed King Edward unto this the price, for which the said Book shall be sold ; And one other time, or hereafter shall be Consecrated or Ordered according to Book of Common Prayer in the English Tongue shall be bought the same Rites; We decree all such to be rightly, orderly, and and bad in every Church throughout Wales, in which the Book | lawfully Consecrated and Ordered ; of Common Prayer in Welsh is to be bad, by force of this Act,  It be Enacted, and be it therefore enacted by the Authority before the First day of May, One thousand six hundred sixty and aforesaid, That all Subscriptions hereafter to be bad or made unto four, and the same Book to remain in such convenient places, the said Articles, by any Deacon, Priest, or Ecclesiastical person, within the said Churches, that such as understand them may or other person whatsoever, who by this Act or any other Law resort at all convenient times to read and peruse the same, and now in force is required to Subscribe unto the said Articles, shall also such as do not understand the said Language, may by con be construed and taken to extend, and shall be applied (for and ferring both Tongues together, the sooner attain to the know touching the said Six and thirtieth Article) unto the Book con. ledge of the English Tongue; Any thing in this Act to the | taining the form and manner of Making, Ordaining, and Conse. contrary notwithstanding; And until Printed Copies of the said crating of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons in this Act mentioned, Book so to be Translated may be had and provided, the Form of in such sort and manner as the same did heretofore extend unto Common Prayer, established by Parliament before the making of the Book set forth in the time of King Edward the Sixth, men. this Act, shall be used as formerly in such parts of Wales, where tioned in the said Six and thirtieth Article ; Any thing in the the English Tongue is not commonly understood.
said Article, or in any Statute, Act, or Canon heretofore had a  And to the end that the true and perfect Copies of this Act, made, to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding. and the said Book hereunto annexed may be safely kept, and per |  Provided also, That the Book of Common Prayer, and Adpetually preserved, and for the avoiding of all disputes for the ministration of the Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies of time to come; Be it therefore Enacted by the Authority afore. | this Church of England, together with the form and manner of said, That the respective Deans and Chapters of every Cathedral, Ordaining, and Consecrating Bishops, Priests, and Deacons here or Collegiate Church, within England and Wales shall at their tofore in use, and respectively established by Act of Parliament proper costs and charges, before the twenty fifth day of December, in the First and Eighth years of Queen Elizabeth, shall be still One thousand six hundred sixty and two, obtain under the Great used and observed in the Church of England, until the Feast of Seal of England a true and perfect printed Copy of this Act, and Saint Bartholomew, which shall be in the year of our Lord God, of the said Book annexed hereunto, to be by the said Deans and One thousand six hundred sixty and two.
TT hath been the wisdom of the Church of England, ever since the first com
1 piling of her Publick Liturgy, to keep the mean between the two extremes, of too much stiffness in refusing, and of too much easiness in admitting any variation from it. For, as on the one side common experience sheweth, that where a change hath been made of things advisedly established (no evident necessity so requiring) sundry inconveniences have thereupon ensued; and those many times more, and greater than the evils, that were intended to be remedied by such change : So on the other side, the particular Forms of Divine worship, and the Rites, and Ceremonies appointed to be used therein, being things in their own nature Indifferent, and alterable, and so acknowledged; it is but reasonable, that upon weighty and important considerations, according to the various exigency of times and occasions, such changes and alterations should be made therein, as to those that are in place of Authority should from
THE PREFACE. This was placed before the Book of Common Prayer in 1661, and with a special regard to the circumstances of the times, the country having just emerged from the Great Rebellion, and the Church of England from a very great persecution. Under such circumstances it is impossible not to admire the temperate and just tone which characterizes it throughout.
The writer of this Preface was Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln, who was probably chosen on account of qualifications such as would fit him for composing in this tone an explanation of the course which it had been necessary to take, and which had been taken, with reference to the Book of Common Prayer. He is, and was then, well known for his works on Conscience, and on the Obligation of an Oath: and he was looked up to with great respect by all parties in those days of religious division.
“For the satisfying all the dissenting brethren and other,” says Kennett, in his Register (p. 633), “the Convocation's reasons for the alterations and additions to the Liturgy were by them desired to be drawn up by Dr. Sanderson, which being done by him, and approved by them, was appointed to be printed before the Liturgy, and may be now known by this Title, The Preface, and begins thus, It hath been the wisdom of the Church, fc.” In the Acts of the Upper House of Convocation it is recorded that “on Monday the 2nd of December, the Preface or Introduction to the Common Prayer Book was brought in and read.” It was referred to a Committee composed of Wren, Bishop of Ely; Skinner, Bishop of Oxford; Henchman, Bishop of Salisbury; and Griffith, Bishop of St. Asaph, and some amendments were made in it as it passed through their hands.
first compiling] This is a phrase which could hardly have dropped from Sanderson's exact pen. No doubt the period referred to is that of the Reformation; but as every page of the following work will show, the change which then took place in the Divine Worship of the Church of England was founded on offices which were re-formed out of the old ones, not “compiled” in any true sense; and that the addition of "first” to the word adopted is calculated to misrepresent the true origin of our “ publick Liturgy."
in their own nature Indifferent] This and other apologetic expressions of the Preface must be read by the light of contemporary history. But it is undoubtedly true that in their own nature, Rites and Ceremonies are “indifferent." Their importance arises from the relation in which they are placed with reference to God as the Object of worship, and man as the
worshipper of God. That relation being established, what was indifferent in its own nature becomes of high import through the new character which is thus given to it.
alterable)] In the 34th Article of Religion this statement is more elaborately set forth: “Of the Traditions of the Church.It is not necessary that Traditions and Ceremonies be in all places one, and utterly like ; for at all times they have been divers, and may be changed according to the diversities of countries, times, and men's manners, so that nothing be ordained against God's Word. Whosoever through his private judgment, willingly and purposely, doth openly break the traditions and ceremonies of the Church, which be not repugnant to the Word of God, and be ordained and approved by common authority, ought to be rebuked openly, (that others may fear to do the like,) as he that offendeth against the common order of the Church, and hurteth the authority of the Magistrate, and woundeth the consciences of the weak brethren.
“Every particular or national Church hath authority to ordain, change, and abolish, ceremonies or rites of the Church ordained only by man's authority, so that all things be done to edify. ing."
those that are in place of Authority] Who are the properly authorized persons may also be known from the 20th Article of Religion : “Of the authority of the Church.-The Church hath power to decree Rites or Ceremonies, and authority in Controversies of Faith: And yet it is not lawful for the Church to ordain any thing that is contrary to God's Word written, neither may it so expound one place of Scripture, that it be repugnant to another. Wherefore, although the Church be a witness and a keeper of holy Writ, yet, as it ought not to decree any thing against the same, so besides the same ought it not to enforce any thing to be believed for necessity of Salvation.”
As will be seen from the Historical Introductiou to this volume, this principle was carried out by throwing the whole responsibility of revising the older Prayer Book on the Convocations of Canterbury and York, which officially represented the Church of England. Statutable authority was given to the work of the Church by the Crown in Parliament, in 14 Carol. II. The principle is further enunciated in the succeeding words of the Preface, where the “Princes” or reigning Sovereigns are named, but the whole work of revision during their respective reigns is attributed to the Church, which “upon just and weighty con. siderations her thereunto moving, hatb yielded to make such alterations in some particulars, as in the respective times of those sovereigns were thought convenient.”
time to time seem either necessary or expedient. Accordingly we find, that in
By what undue means, and for what mischievous purposes the use of the
cais attempts and impetuous assaults] The unreasonable con- | pamphlets, next to the Prayer Book itself, was “A Collection of doset of those who opposed the restoration of the Church and her | Articles, Injunctions, Canons, Orders, Ordinances, and Constidevotional system was scarcely more conspicuous than the fierce | tutions Ecclesiastical, with other Public Records of the Church energy by which it was characterized. For four months these of England; chiefly in the times of K. Edward Vith, Q. Elisa* itapet ons assaults” were carried on in the Savoy Conference; beth, and K. James. Published to vindicate the Church of and abrandant evidence was given that “private fancies and England, and to promote Uniformity and Peace in the same. interests” kad much stronger influence than the public good. And humbly presented to the Convocation.” This collection was Baxter, the chief leader of the opposition, composed a substitute made by Dr. Sparrow, afterwards Bishop successively of Exeter for the Prager Book which dissenting congregations could not and Norwich. It was published in 1661, and was a kind of legal the got to me, any more than the Church of England could be or constitutional sequel to a well-known work which he had prevailed on to adopt it; and yet on such a private fancy as this printed in December, 1660, “A Rationale upon the Book of racnt of that bitter opposition centred. Nor must it be for. Common Prayer, wherein that Service is vindicated from the raten that “private interest” was deeply concerned, since the grand accusation of Superstition, by showing that it is a Reasonestutitutional restoration of the Church and the Prayer Book able Service, and so not Superstitious.” Deressarily involved the restoration of the surviving clergy to the great importunities] This refers to the deputations set to the bendlies which men wbo were not priests of the Church of King before and after he came into England, by the Presbyte Pagland had wrenched out of their hands. These facts are re- rians; which led to the Savoy Conference. The word “perseeferred to simply to show that the expressions here used in the Preface are not those of bitterness or controversy, but plain Reasons showing the necessity of Reformation of the public doctrine. Ofered statements of what actually occurred; and which it was necessary to the consideration of Parliament by divers Ministers of sundry Counties of
England. 4to. 1660. to mention for the sake of explanation, as ordered by Con.
The Common Prayer unmasked. 4to. 1660. vocation.
The Common Prayer Book no Divine Service; or, a small Curb to the divers Pamphlete'] The most important reply to these Bishops' Career, &c. By Vavasour Powell. 4to. 1660.
Beams of former Light, discovering how evil it is to impose doubtful and " It may be interesting and useful to append the titles of some of these disputable Forms and Practices upon Ministers. 4to. 1660. Pamphlets that were published before December, 1660 :
Reasons showing the Necessity of the Reformation of the Public Doctrine, The Old Nonconformist, touching the Book of Common Prayer and Cere Worship, Rites and Ceremonies, Church government and discipline. Re monies. Ito. 40 pp. 1660.
puted to be (but indeed are not) established by Law. By Cornelius Burgess Prebyterial Ordination vindicated ...., with a brief discourse concern 4to. 1660. ing imposed Forms of Prayer and Ceremonies. 4to. 48 pp. 1660.
Smectymnuus Redivivus. 4to. 1660. Erastu Junior, by Josiah Webb, Gent., a serious detester of the dregs of A Treatise of Divine Worship. Tending to prove that the ceremonies the Anti-christian Hierarchy yet remaining among us. 4to. 1660. [The imposed upon the Ministers of the Gospel in England in present Cantra author was supposed to be a Romanist.)
versy, are in their present use unlawful. Printed 1604. 4to. 1660. The Judgment of Foreign divines, as well from Geneva as other parts, (“Exceptions against the Common Prayer" was not printed until 1881. touching the Discipline, Liturgy, and Ceremonies of the Church of England. after the King had yielded to the "importunities” referred to: and was not With a letter from Calvin to Knox on the same subject. 4to. 1660.
therefore one of these pamphlets.)
thought requisite for the ease of tender Consciences : whereunto His Majesty,
In which review we have endeavoured to observe the like Moderation as
Our general aim therefore in this undertaking was, not to gratify this or that party in any their unreasonable demands; but to do that, which to our best understandings we conceived might most tend to the preservation of Peace and Unity in the Church; the procuring of Reverence, and exciting of Piety, and Devotion in the publick Worship of God; and the cutting off occasion from them that seek occasion of cavil or quarrel against the Liturgy of the Church. And as to the several variations from the former Book, whether by Alteration, Addition, or otherwise, it shall suffice to give this general account, That most of the Alterations were made, either first, for the better direction of
sion” was introduced at this time to indicate one or the other side wish you some of our experience of one sort (by more converse of those who supported and those who opposed the Prayer Book. | with all the members of the flock) though not of the other. But
In which review WE have endeavoured] This is the language | we would here put these three or four Questions to you. of men who were sure of the ground, constitutional and eccle “1. Whether such of ourselves as cannot stand still in the siastical, upon which they were treading. They could speak as cold winter at the grave, half so long as the Office of Burial rethe Church of England, because the Convocations of Canterbury quireth, without the certain hazard of our lives (though while and York faithfully represented her.
we are in motion we can stay out longer), are bound to believe Catholick Church of Christ] This is one of many places in your Lordships, that a Cap will cure this better than a Rubr., which the position of the Church of England towards the Catho though we have proved the contrary to our cost ? and know it as lic Church is taken for granted as sound and firm. Another such well as we know that cold is cold. Do you think no place but has been pointed out already in the Title-page of the Prayer Book. that which a cap or clothes do cover, is capable of letting in the
frivolous and vain] It is very remarkable to see how trifling excessively refrigerating air ? these objections, officially made at the Savoy Conference, often “2. Whether a man that hath the most rational probability, if were. One of them was to the reading of any part of the Burial not a moral certainty, that it would be his death, or dangerous Service at the grave, as the minister was sure to catch cold by sickness (though he wore 20 caps) is bound to obey you in this doing so. The Bishops replied that a cap would remedy this case ? inconvenience; and this was the reply given by the Dissenting “3. Whether usually the most studious, laborious ministers, Ministers : which, though long, is inserted as being very charac be not the most invaletudinary and infirm ? and teristic of the tone of the whole objections that were offered : “4. Whether the health of such should be made a jest of, by “ We marvel that you say nothing at all to our desire (that it be the more healthful; and be made so light of, as to be cast away, expressed in a Rubrick, that prayers and exhortations there used, rather than a ceremony sometime be left to their discretion ? be not for the benefit of the dead, but only for the instruction And whether it be a sign of the right and genuine spirit of Re. and comfort of the living). You intend to have a very indiscreet ligion, to subject to such a ceremony, both the life of godliness, Ministry, if such a needlesse Circumstance may not be left to and the lives of ministers, and the people's souls? Much of this their discretion. The contrivance of a Cap instead of a Rubr. concerneth the people also, as well as the ministers.” - Grand showeth that you are all unacquainted with the subject, of which | Debate, p. 145. you speak : and if you speak for want of experience of the case of It is to be hoped the time can never return when such trifling souls, as you now do about the case of men's bodies, we could and selfish arguments can be used on such a question.