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them that are to officiate in any part of Divine Service; which is chiefly done in the Kalendars and Rubricks: Or secondly, for the more proper expressing of some words or phrases of ancient usage in terms more suitable to the language of the present times, and the clearer explanation of some other words and phrases, that were either of doubtful signification, or otherwise liable to misconstruction : Or thirdly, for a more perfect rendering of such portions of holy Scripture, as are inserted into the Liturgy; which, in the Epistles and Gospels especially, and in sundry other places, are now ordered to be read according to the last Translation : and that it was thought convenient, that some Prayers and Thanksgivings, fitted to special occasions, should be added in their due places; particularly for those at Sea, together with an office for the Baptism of such as are of riper years : which, although not so necessary when the former Book was compiled, yet by the growth of Anabaptism, through the licentiousness of the late times crept in amongst us, is now become necessary, and may be always useful for the baptizing of Natives in our Plantations, and others converted to the Faith. If any man, who shall desire a more particular account of the several Alterations in any part of the Liturgy, shall take the pains to compare the present Book with the former ; we doubt not but the reason of the change may easily appear.

And having thus endeavoured to discharge our duties in this weighty affair, as in the sight of God, and to approve our sincerity therein (so far as lay in us) to the consciences of all men; although we know it impossible in such variety of apprehensions, humours, and interests, as are in the world) to please all; nor can expect that men of factious, peevish, and perverse spirits should be satisfied with any thing that can be done in this kind by any other than themselves : Yet we have good hope, that what is here presented, and hath been by the Convocations of both Provinces with great diligence examined and approved, will be also well accepted and approved by all sober, peaceable, and truly conscientious sons of the Church of England.

the growth of Anabaptism] The effect of this upon the genera- | be believed that it was this privation of the grace of Baptism tion in which this Preface was written must have been very which led to such fearful profligacy and infidelity in the time of awful: and the necessity for the Service spoken of was strongly Charles II. and his immediate successors. felt by the Convocation. In a work on the Bills of Mortality, Convocations of both Provinces] For greater expedition in the written in 1665, there are some incidental remarks which work of revision certain Commissioners were appointed by the strikingly corroborate those of this Preface : “The keeping of | Convocation of York to sit in the Convocation of Canterbury as Parish Registers having been taken out of the hands of every their representatives ; and thus was accomplished a selection of Parish Minister, and committed to some inferior fellow elected representatives from the whole body of the Church of England by the people, and confirmed by the Justices of Peace, had been clergy. much neglected, and was again reduced into better order. And The last words of this Preface contain an appeal to other times till this year the account of Christenings had been neglected than those in and for which they were written. The safe path more than that of Burials; one and the chief cause whereof was which was marked out so wisely by the Reformers has proved to a religious opinion against the baptizing of Infants, either as be one which has approved itself to all subsequent generations, unlawful or unnecessary. If this were the only reason, we and it was the effort of the 1661 Revisers to walk in it faithfully, might, by our defects of this kind, conclude the growth of this by returning, wherever they could, to the original English Prayer opinion, and pronounce that not half the people of England be Book of 1549. Had they attempted to do this to a greater tween the years 1650 and 1660 were convinced of the need of extent, there might have been danger of their whole work being baptizing..... Upon the whole matter it is most certain that set aside. Sobriety in wild and fanatical times, peace in a conthe number of heterodox believers was very great between the troversial age, and conscientiousness when so many were unscru. said year 1650 and 1660, and so peevish were they as not to pulous, were wise watchwords. have the births of their children registered ....!" It may well

Grant's Observations on the Bills of Mortality. 8vo. 1665.

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nal Quignonez' Reformed Roman Bre

shall find, thit a good purpes godliness: *


* * * * * MVHERE was never any thing by N IHIL enim humano elaboratum Preface of Cardi,

1 the wit of man so well devised, W ingenio, tam exactum initio unor so sure established, which, in cou- quam fuit, quin postea, multorum ac- viary, tinuance of time hath not been cor- cedente judicio, perfectius reddi possit, rupted: As, among other things, it ut in ipsis etiam ecclesiasticis institutis may plainly appear by the Common circa primitivam præsertim ecclesiam Prayers in the Church, commonly contigisse videmus. called Divine Service. The first original | and ground whereof if a man would ! Et profecto si quis modum precandi search out by the ancient Fathers, he olim a majoribus traditum diligenter shall find, that the same was not or consideret, plane intelligat horum omdained but of a good purpose, and for nium præcipuam ab ipsis habitam a great advancement of godliness. esse rationem. For they so ordered the matter, that all the whole Bible (or the greatest Tertia, ut religionis quoque futuri part thereof), should be read over once magistri quotidiana sacræ scripturæ et every year; intending thereby, that ecclesiasticarum historiarum lectione the Clergy, and especially such as were erudiantur, complectanturque (ut Ministers in the congregation, should Paulus ait) eum, qui secundum doc(by often reading, and meditation in trinam est, fidelem sermonem, et poGod's word) be stirred up to godli- tentes sint exhortari in doctrina sana, ness themselves, and be more able to et eos, qui contradicunt, arguere. exhort others by wholesome doctrine, and to confute them that were Adversaries to the Truth; and further, that the people (by daily hearing of holy Scripture read in the Church) might continually profit more and more in the knowledge of God, and be the more inflamed with the love of his true Religion.

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But these many years passed, this godly and decent Order of the ancient Fathers hath been so altered, broken,

Sed factum est nescio quo pacto precantium negligentia, ut paullatim a sanctissimis illis veterum patrum in

This explanatory introduction is the original Preface of the Library of Durham University, one in the Public Library at
Prayer Book, and is supposed to have been written by Cranmer. Cambridge, and one in Queen's College, Oxford; but none of
It was moved to this place when the present Preface was inserted these are earlier than 1537. Others are in private hands.
in 1661. Two short sentences were also erased.

It has already been mentioned, in the Historical Introduction By whomsoever it was written, there can be no doubt that it (p. XX), that this Reformed Roman Breviary exercised some inwas composed with the Reformed Roman Breviary of Quignonez fluence upon the reformed English offices. It set us the example lying open before the writer. The passages in the right-hand of compression in the services, and also of method. Quignonez column are, with two exceptions, taken from an edition of 1537, removed the ancient Confession and Absolution to the beginning belonging to Queen's College, Oxford, and the preface to this of the daily services, and in this too he was followed by our edition agrees with all the later copies. But the Paris edition of Reforniers. His Breviary, again, established a system of two 1536 (probably following the Roman one of 1535) differs con lessons on ordinary, or ferial days; the first of which was taken siderably. Our English Preface is most like the later edition from the Old Testament, and the second from the New Testaof Quignonez; but the paragraph enclosed in brackets appears ment. On festivals, a third lesson was added, which was geneto show that the earlier one was also known to the Reformers of rally a short passage from a homily of St. Gregory or some other our Services. There are six copies of this Breviary in the Bod. patristic author. The two former were seldom entire chapters, leian Library, one at the British Museum, one at the Routh but were taken in a regular succession, like our own daily lessons.

In some respects the changes made by Cardinal Quignonez, and 1 The writer has not been able to meet with this, but copies from Gue

sanctioned by Paul III. in a Papal bull, were more sweeping in ranger's Institutions Liturgiques, p. 398.

| their character than those of our own reform. It is evident rom Missa de oct. S. Andreæ dicitur in capitulo. vain Repetitions] See Historical Introduction, p. xxvii.

and neglected, by planting in uncertain stitutis discederetur. Nam libri
Stories, and Legends, with multitude Scripturæ sacræ, qui statis annis tem-
of Responds, Verses, vain Repetitions, poribus legendi erant more majorum
Commemorations, and Synodals; that ..... vix dum incepti omittuntur in
commonly when any Book of the Bible alio breviario. Tum historiæ sancto-
was begun, after three or four Chapters rum quædam tam incultæ, et tam
were read out, all the rest were unread. sine delectu scriptæ habentur in eodem,
And in this sort the Book of Isaiah ut nec authoritatem habere videantur
was begun in Advent, and the Book nec gravitatem. [Ut exemplo esse
of Genesis in Septuagesima ; but they possunt liber Genesis, qui incipitur in
were only begun, and never read Septuagesima, liber Isaiæ, qui in Ad-
through: After like sort were other ventu, quorum vix singula capitula
Books of holy Scripture used. And perlegimus : ac eodem modo cetera
moreover, whereas St. Paul would Veteris Testamenti volumina degusta-
have such language spoken to the mus magis quam legimus. Nec secus
people in the Church, as they might accidit in Evangelia, et reliquam
understand, and have profit by hearing Scripturam Novi Testamenti, quorum
the same; The Service in this Church in loco successerunt alia, nec utilitate
of England these many years, hath cum his, nec gravitate comparanda,
been read in Latin to the people, which quæ quotidie agitatione linguæ magis
they understand not; so that they have quam intentione mentis inculcantur.]
heard with their ears only, and their
heart, spirit, and mind, have not been

* * * * *
edified thereby. And furthermore, not-
withstanding that the ancient Fathers
have divided the Psalms into seven
Portions, whereof every one was called
a Nocturn: Now of late time a few of ..... et psalmorum plerisque omissis,
them have been daily said, and the pauci singulis fere diebus repeterentur.
rest utterly omitted. Moreover, the
number and hardness of the Rules Accedit tam perplexus ordo, tamque
called the Pie, and the manifold chang- difficilis precandi ratio, ut interdum

his preface that others, beside himself, were engaged on the work the Pie] The following is exactly one-third of the Pica or of revision; and this, as well as the long time occupied over it, Pie for a single Sunday, the first of Advent. Maskell observes offers another point of comparison between the two reformed that it was not possible for the same service to occur on the same service-books, those of Rome and England.

Sunday of the year twice running; and it will be seen that more majorum] Later on occur also the following words: Quignonez and our Reformers did not overstate the case in “Ac illud ante omnia visum nobis est in consuetudinem revocare, respect to the complexity of this ancient rule. In York Minster ut Scriptura Sacra maxime omnium toto anno, et omnes psalmi Library there is a volume containing the Pie only. singulis septimanis perlegerentur.”

“Pica de Dominica Prima Adventus. Ut exemplo] This passage is in the earlier edition of 1536, but not in that from which the rest is quoted. The writer has been

“LITERA DOMINICALIS A.–Tertia Decembris tota canobliged to quote it from Gueranger, not being able to meet with tetur Historia Aspiciens. Secundæ Vesperæ erunt de Sancto this edition in England.

Osmundo, cum pleno servitio in crastino ; et solennis memoria de Responds] These were short anthems, similar to that which is octava, et de Dominica, et de Sancta Maria cum antiphona Ace ten times sung during the reading of the passage of Scripture Maria.-Feria 2 de S. Osmundo: ix. lectiones : omnia de Comwhich contains the Ten Commandments. Theoretically they gave muni unius Confessoris et Pontificis. Sec. vesp. erunt de comthe key-note of the Lection; but this principle was often deviated memoratione, et mem. de Sancto, de octava, de Adventu, et de from, and the sense was frequently broken up rather than illus S. Maria, cum ant. Ave Maria.-Feria 3, 5, et sabbato, de com. trated. The practice, in moderation, is a very excellent one'. memorationibus, et Responsoria ferialia prætermittantur; et Verses) Versicles, a short form of respond.

“LIT. DOM. B.-Quinto Cal. Dec. tota cantetur hist. Aspiciens, Commemorations] Anthems commemorative of festivals. et mem. de S. Maria.-Fer. 2, 6, et sabb. de commem.-Fer. 3 de

Synodals] The provincial constitutions or canons which were feria, et nihil de martyribus nisi mem. ad vesp. et ad matutinas read in parish churches after the conclusion of synods. The read de S. Maria. Missa de vigilia.—Fer. 4. de Apostolo, et solen. ing of them after the lessons was probably the origin of the corre. mem. de Adv. et de S. Maria.-Fer. 5 de fer, cnm Resp. ferisponding custom of giving out notices after the Second Lesson. alibus, et mem. de oct. et Missa de 4 fer." And so on, through

the seven Sunday Letters. " See p. 11, where the 9th Respond for Festivals in Advent is given in a It was, perhaps, from the confused appearance which a page of note.

| Pica presents that printers came to call any portion of type which is in utter disorder through accident or otherwise by the name of “pie.” The ecclesiastical use of the word is thought to have been derived from alvat, an index, or table, from the wooden boards on which the directions for service were written out in primitive days. It is identical with "ordinale” and with “ Directorium sacerdotum.” The “Pica” type of later days took its name from the large letters in which the pica of the Anglican Portiforia was printed.

ings of the Service was the cause, that | paulo minor opera in requirendo ponato turn the Book only was so hard and tur, quam, cum inveneris, in legendo. intricate a matter, that many times

* * * * there was more business to find out what should be read, than to read it when it was found out.

These inconveniences therefore considered, here is set forth such an Order, whereby the same shall be redressed. And for a readiness in this matter, here is drawn out a Kalendar for that purpose, which is plain and easy to be understood ; wherein (so much as may be) the reading of holy Scripture is so set forth, that all things shall be done in order, without breaking one piece from another. For this cause be cut Versiculos, responsoria, et capitula off Anthems, Responds, Invitatories, omittere idcirco visum est .... et leand such like things as did break the gentes sæpe morentur cum molestia continual course of the reading of the quæritandi, locum relinqui voluimus Scripture.

continenti lectioni Scripturæ Sacræ ... Yet, because there is no remedy, but that of necessity there must be some Rules; therefore certain Rules

* * * * * are here set forth ; which, as they are few in number, so they are plain and easy to be understood. So that here Habet igitur hæc precandi ratio tres you have an order for Prayer, and for maximas commoditates. Primam, quod the reading of the holy Scripture, precantibus simul acquiritur utriusque much agreeable to the mind and pur Testamenti peritia. Secundum, quod pose of the old Fathers, and a great res est expeditissima propter summam deal more profitable and commodious, ordinis simplicitatem et nonnullam than that which of late was used. It brevitatem. Tertiam, quod historiæ is more profitable, because here are sanctorum nihil habeant, ut prius quod left out many things, whereof some graves, et doctas aures offendat. are untrue, some uncertain, some vain and superstitious; and nothing is or- quasdam omisimus illis nec probadained to be read, but the very pure bilitate nec gravitate pares .... Word of God, the holy Scriptures, or that which is agreeable to the same; and that in such a language and order as is most easy and plain for the understanding both of the readers and hearers. It is also more commodious, both for the shortness thereof, and for the plainness of the Order, and for that the Rules be few and easy.

few and easy] The following passage was omitted from the

Preface at the last revision :-“Furthermore, by this order the Curates shall need none other books for their public service, but this book and the Bible. By the means whereof, the people shall not be at so great charges for books as in times past they have been.” It was crossed out by Bishop Cosin; not, probably, from any idea that the passage was an unworthy one, but because it was so entirely out of date when the press had made the advance it had in 1661. Although, moreover, the passage was applicable to the case of poor parish churches, it was not so in that of richer

And whereas heretofore there hath been great diversity in saying and singing in Churches within this Realm; some following Salisbury Use, some Hereford Use, and some the Use of Bangor, some of York, some of Lincoln; now from henceforth all the whole Realm shall have but one Use.

And forasmuch, as nothing can be so plainly set forth, but doubts may arise in the use and practice of the same; to appease all such diversity (if any arise) and for the resolution of all doubts, concerning the manner how to understand, do, and execute, the things contained in this Book; the parties that so doubt, or diversely take any thing, shall alway resort to the Bishop of the Diocess, who by his discretion shall take order for the quieting and appeasing of the same; so that the same order be not contrary to any thing contained in this Book. And if the Bishop of the Diocess be in doubt, then he may send for the resolution thereof to the Archbishop.

T HOUGH it be appointed, That all things shall be read and sung in the

| Church in the English Tongue, to the end, that the congregation may be thereby edified; yet it is not meant, but that when men say Morning and Evening Prayer privately, they may say the same in any language that they themselves do understand.

ones and cathedrals, where as many books as formerly are required | the Bishop of the Diocese to deviate from the rules laid down in for the use of the choirg. There are practically in use by most of the Book of Common Prayer. He is the administrator, not the the clergy and choirs in one or other class of Churches, separate | maker, of the ritual law of the Church. Breviaries, Missals, Manuals, Antiphonaries, “Service"-books, Psalters, and Lectionaries; the whole volume of the Holy Bible being now used for the latter, instead of those parts only wbich

THE LATIN PRAYER BOOK". are needed for the daily and proper Lessons.

In the first Act of Uniformity (2 & 3 Edward VI. c. 1), the but one Use] Another part of the Preface erased by Cosin

fifth clause was as follows : “Provided always that it shall be was this; and it seems to have been suggested by a passage in

lawful to any man that understandeth the Greek, Latin, and that of Quignonez :

Hebrew tongue, or other strange tongue, to say and have the And if any will judge this Si cui autem in hoc Breviario

said prayers heretofore specified of Matins and Evensong in Latin way more painful, because that laboriosum videbitur pleraque

or any such other tongue, saying the same privately as they do all things must be read upon omnia ex libro legi, cum multa understand. And for the further encouraging of learning in the the Book, whereas before, by in alio quæ propter frequentem tongues in the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford, to use and the reason of so often repetition repetitionem ediscuntur memo exercise in their common and open prayer in their Chapels, being they could say many things by riter pronuntientur, compenset

no Churches or other places of Prayer, the Matins, Evensong, heart: if those men will weigh cum hoc labore cognitionem Litany, and all other prayers, the Holy Communion, commonly their labour, with the profit and Scripturæ Sacræ, quæ sic indies called the Mass, excepted, in the said book prescribed in Greek, knowledge which daily they augescit; et intentionem animæ,

Latin, or Hebrew ; any thing in this present Act to the conwball obtain by reading upon quam Deus ante omnia in pre trary notwithstanding." the book, they will not refuse cantibus requiret : hanc enim

In the Act of Uniformity at present in force (14 Car. II.), this the pain, in consideration of the majorem legentibus, quam me- | clause is also enacted : “ Provided always, That it shall and may grent profit that shall ensue moriter prosequentibus adesse be lawful to use the Morning and Evening Prayer, and all other thereof. necesse est : et hujusmodi labo

Prayers and Service prescribed in and by the said book, in the rem non modo fructuosum, sed

Chapels or other Publick Places of the respective Colleges and etiam salutarem indicabit. shall resort to the Bishop] There is no power bere given to

· A Greek version was printed in 1573.

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