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Further, it may be mentioned, as probably indicating the effect which Ecclesiastical customs produced or helped to perpetuate, that Red, Violet, and Black are mentioned, as colours worn on the Judicial Bench, according to the Term, in some Regulations made by the Judges in 1635. [See Gentleman's Magazine, Oct. 1768.] Green, also, appears to have been at one time a favourite colour with them.
Moreover, the retention of Red, Purple, and Green—and especially the prevalence of Red—in the rich and decent, no less than (as was once too common) in the miserable and dirty coverings of handsome or unsightly Altar-tables in the churches, are in all likelihood the traditional use of these same colours which formerly were more commonly and more variously employed in the Services of the Church of England, and that, too, not without regard to some written or unwritten rule as to the Services and Seasons at which they should be used.
That a desire has long existed, and increases, again to adopt a greater variety of colour in the Ornaments of the Church, and especially in the coverings of the Altar, is plain from what has been accomplished and is still doing : one object of this wished-for variety is the very useful one of distinguishing, and so teaching, by outward tokens, the changes of the Church Seasons and the occurrence of Ecclesiastical Holydays. For lack of any existing Rule on this subject in the Church of England, the Rule of the rest of the Western Church has not unnaturally been followed in many cases, especially as the ancient English rule or practice was either not at all known, or not easily to be collected, even by those who were aware that some leading points of it were to be found without much difficulty. As the need of some guide in this matter is becoming more general, it may not be without a really practical use to compare the old English rules with those of the Roman and the Eastern Churches : by doing this a somewhat uniform principle will probably be found, sufficient also to furnish a general rule for those who, while rightly wishing to be not out of harmony with the rest of Christendom, would with equal propriety prefer to follow any older practice of the Church of England which would afford a satisfactory direction in the absence of any definite rule authorized by living Ecclesiastical Authority.
The Roman rule is laid down with precision: the old English rule can in part be definitely ascertained, and the rest may be, with some probability, analogically conjectured from the Rubrics of the Sarum Missal compared with St. Osmund's Register and the Inventories of Church goods already noticed. The Eastern Church, as a learned Priest of it states (in reference to the Vestments of the Clergy), does not give “in her Ritual books" any such “minute rules with regard to the colours of the Vestments, as are to be found in the Western Ritual. The Church enjoins her ministers to care more for the simple purity and propriety of the vestments than for their richness. In those cases where means are at hand, she bids the ministers to wear richer vestments of any colour for the joyful seasons of the year, and Black or Red ones for the times of fasting and sorrow. Thus, in Passion week, and Great Lent, at Burials, &c., Black or Purple Vestments are worn. It is customary to wear White Silk Vestments (if possible) at Epiphany and Easter.” In this description of the general and unspecific character of the Eastern rule, there is a considerable correspondence with the features of the Sarum rule just noticed.
The following Table may be considered as furnishing a fairly reliable view of these three Rules ; though, for the reasons above given, the Roman rule alone is the fullest and most explicit:
COMPARATIVE TABLE OF COLOURS ACCORDING TO THE SARUM, ROMAN, AND
Sarum. | Roman. Eastern.
Sarum. | Roman. Eastern.
Advent-Sundays in .... Red.
White. , Week-days in .... Blue
Festival of the Name of Jesus . White. White. (prob.).
colour. Festivals of the Holy Cross .. Red. Red. Christmas-Octave of .. White. White. White Festivals of the B. V. Mary .. White
White. » rest of . .., White
(perhaps some Blue). (prob.).
colour. St. Michael and All Angels .. White. | White. Epiphany-Octave of..... White.
White it St. John Baptist-Nativity of . uncertain White. rest of . . . . . . uncertain Green. possible.
Beheading of . Red Septuagesima to Easter Sundays Red. Violet. Violet
(prob.). Red. , Week-days (Ferial). | Red or Violet. or dark Apos les-out of Easter-tide. Řed. Red.
colour. St. John Evangelist-in ChristAsh-Wednesclay . .
Red. Violet. do.
mas-tide . . . . . . . White. White. Maundy Thursday. ..
Red. | Violet. Black all St. John Evangelist, ante port. lat. uncertain Red.
for Mass. White, All Martyrs . . . . . . . Red. Red, Easter-throughout (ex. Gr. Fe.). / White. | White. ) bright, l!
in Paschal time. . / White. | White,
No precise practical rule can be given for these: the general principle which regulates the colour for seasons applies to Festivals which are observed
COMPARATIVE TABLE OF COLOURS, &c.—(continued.)
Sarum. Roman. Eastern. Ascension-Octave of... White. |
and Holy Innocents—if not Sunday . Red Violet. by the , rest of . . . . White
if Sunday : . l (prob.). | Red. Eastern (prob.).
colours. Confessors . . . . . . . . Yellow. White. Church. Vigil of Pentecost. ... Red (R) Violet, White Bishops. . . . . . . . . uncertain White. Red for or Green, Doctors . . . . . . . .
Red (3) White. mixed. All Saints ....... White. White.
Violet. Dark coWeek-days (Ferial) in Trinity · . Green Green.
do. Violet. lour. (perhaps). Masses for the Dead.
Black. Black. Black or Offices for the Dead . .
Blue or Black.
Purple ** In further illustration of the principle which (in the absence
(ex. East. of detailed rules) serves to direct the Eastern Church in the
week). choice of Colours for use in Divine Service, it may be mentioned||
... luncertain Violet. Dark cothat White is regarded as symbolical of Truth, Red of ardent Love Dedication of a Church-Octave of White. and Passion, Green of the Life of Grace, and Violet of Peni-|| Processions . ....... Red. Violet. tence.
o rtave of White.
Having thus given some description of the Material and Colour of the “Ornaments of the Ministers," their [c] Form may be best shown by reference to the Illustrations and accompanying descriptions which will be found in the General Appendix to this volume: and some further remarks are made as to their use in the Communion Service at p. 159.
This, then, is a general outline of the Legal and Historical grounds on which may be rested the claim to use in the Church of England such principal Accessories of Divine Service as can be fairly considered to form part of the Ritual and Ceremonial heritage of the Church. The fact that the Anglican Communion is an integral portion of that Mystical Body-furnishes the most valid reason for not being indifferent to the aspect which she should present when viewed, as is essential to a right estimate of her position, in connexion with the rest of Christendom. And the further fact—that the external features of her Public Services have come to be a subject of common and public discussionrenders it necessary that reliable information should be given to those whose opportunities of research are unavoidably, more or less, limited.
These are the considerations which have chiefly influenced the line of argument taken in this portion of the Ritual Introduction to a Volume which professes to deal more or less completely with all the various subjects contained in the Book of Common Prayer. It is hoped that what has been advanced will assist the reader in forming a satisfactory judgment on points which, it seems clear, are acquiring year by year an increasingly practical character. Much more might have been stated in explanation or proof of the several matters considered, but an essay of this kind must bear a reasonable proportion to the other contents of the Book, and moreover it cannot advantageously be very detailed or greatly antiquarian. Those who desire to investigate more fully and particularly the various points here discussed will find in the List of Authorities at the beginning of the Volume a reference to works which may be usefully consulted.
It should be mentioned in conclusion that, while from the nature of the case an account of Ritual Accessories belonging to the Book of Common Prayer now in use, could not merely be a notice of antiquated Ecclesiastical Usages, it is nevertheless not the object of this Section specially to advocate the restoration of what it has endeavoured to prove to be conformable to the law, and consistent with the character of the English Church. The reasons which must influence, and the conditions which must regulate, the revival of long disused, however lawful, Accessories of Divine Service, are so many and so varied as of themselves to relegate the question of their re-introduction to a sphere beyond the legitimate bounds of these pages. The purpose of this Introduction is fulfilled in the attempt to show what Accessories the Church of England apparently designed “to be retained.” Where and when they may profitably “be in use" can only be determined by those who, being satisfied with the truth and reasonableness of what is here or elsewhere stated, are in a legitimate position to decide upon the practical application of information thus obtained
according to the use of the Church of England) This right THE TITLE OF THE PRAYER BOOK.
was acted upon so freely in ancient days that there was a con. Common Prayer? This familiar term seems first to have been
siderable variation in the details and ceremonial of Divine Service ei antboritatively in a rubric to the English Litany of 1544:
as it was celebrated in different parts of England. Each Prayer " It is thought convenient in this Common Prayer of Procession
Book took its name from the place of its origin, and was thus to have it set forth and used in the Vulgar Tongue, for stirring
called the “ York use," the “ Bangor use," the “Hereford use, ** the people to more devotion.” It is again found in the Injunc
the " Salisbury use," and so forth: but when uniformity of Comtions of Edward VI., issued in 1546-7. But it is a very ancient
mon Prayer was established upon the basis of these old service term, being found in use as far back as A.D. 252, in St. Cyprian's
books, one “ use ” only retained its authority, that of the Church Treatise on the Lord's Prayer; of which he writes, “ Publica est
of England. nobis et Communis Oratio."
In modern prayer books the words "the United Church of Common Prayer and Public Prayer are not theologically iden.
England and Ireland” are substituted for the words “the Church tical, although the terms are used in the same legal sense in the of England," under an Order of Council, dated January 1, 1801; respective titles of the two Acts of Uniformity. In an exact sense,
but this exercise of the Royal authority goes beyond that permit. Common Prayer is defined by the authoritative words of our Lord,
ted by the Act of Uniformity; and is very misleading The “Where two or three are gathered together in My Name, there
two Churches are, and always have been, in communion with each amn I in the midst of them.” (Matt. xviii. 20.] The Name of
other, the interchange of friendly relations has always been very God is an expression used with great frequency in Holy Scripture
free, and they have been united in a common political bond since to denote the authority of God; in the same manner as we say,
1801. The formularies of the Church of England have also been that the official agents of the Sovereign act in the Name of the
adopted in the Church of Ireland, but a false gloss is put upon Sovereign, when they engage in the duties of their office. To be
the real title of the Prayer Book when it is printed in the anmet together in the Name of Christ is to be met together under
justifiable form referred to. The Church of England can alter His authority, not as an accidental or promiscuous assembly; and
its own “use,” and so can the Church of Ireland, but neither can officially, that is, in the presence and with the aid of His authorized
control the customs of the other : and, in fact, there are some imagents.
portant variations in the Prayer Books of the two countries which Thus, true Common Prayer is that which is offered in Divine
make the expression “the use of the United Church of England Service in the Church, by a Bishop or Priest (or a Deacon as
and Ireland” a misnomer. The Prayer Book as it now exists is locum tenens in some cases), in the presence and with the aid of |
an adaptation of ancient formularies made by the Church of three, or at least two other Christian persons. Such prayer pre
England alone. Its adoption by other Churches cannot alter the supposes a reverent assent to our Lord's application of the words,
fact, and therefore cannot justly influence the title. However “My House 1 shall be called the house of prayer,” and to those
much it may be adopted therefore in Ireland, Scotland, and other already quoted. To it also may be applied the words of St.
possessions of the English crown, America, the Book of Common Cyprian ? :-“ They continued with one accord in prayer, mani.
Prayer is still “ according to the use of the Church of England." festing at the same time the instancy of their praying, and the
together with the Psalter] In the earlier Prayer Books the agreement. Because God, who maketh men to be of one mind in
Psalter was printed with a separate Title-page, as distinct from an house,' admits into the house divine and eternal those only
the Services. The first of Bishop Cosin's “ Directions to be given among whom is unanimous prayer."
to the Printer,” is also, “Set a fair Frontispiece at the beginning This kind of prayer is therefore the highest kind of all. Other
of the Book, and another before the Psalter ; to be designed as prayer is exalted in kind, and probably in efficacy, in proportion
the Archbishop shall direct, and after to be cut in brass." Such as it connects itself with that which is Common; as it is offered
an engraved Title-page is affixed to the Sealed Books, and a proof in that sense in which we are taught to say Our Father; as it is
copy is bound up with Cosin's own volume: but that to the offered under the conviction that Christian individuals stand
Psalter was not provided. The Ordinal was bound up with the not alone, each one for himself before God, but are parts of one
Prayer Book for the first time in 1661. Body whereof all the members are in communion one with an. The following Tables will illustrate some of the preceding reother through the One Intercessor, of Whom the ministers of the marks, and show at a glance what changes have been authorized. Church are the earthly representatives.
The table of the Contents of the Prayer Book is not in itself of and administration of the Sacraments) This does not ex.
much interest, but it has been so freely handled by modern clude the Sacraments from Common Prayer. The corporate printers that a work like the present cannot go forth without an work of the Church is distinctly recognized in the administration
accurate copy of the authorized form. The successive changes of Baptism, and the Holy Communion is the root and apex of made in it have a certain interest, and they are therefore Common Prayer. But it puts forward prominently the idea of a arranged in parallel columns in the following Table. There is never-ccasing round of Divine Service as distinguished from the
thus given also a sort of bird's-eye view of the History of the occasional (however frequent) offering of the Holy Eucharist. Prayer Book.
other rites and ceremonies of the Church] These words claim, as a matter of course, that the substance of the Prayer Book is in accordance with the theological and devotional system of the
Sunday ; creeping to the Cross, and kissing it, and offering unto Christ Catholic Church : and, in connexion with those which immediately
before the same on Good Friday; setting up the sepulchre of Christ; hal
lowing the font, and other like exorcisms, and benedictions, and laudable follow, they plainly enunciate the principle set forth more at large
customs : that these are not to be condemned and cast away, but continued, in the Thirty-fourth Article of Religion, that while that system is to put us in remembrance of spiritual things. But that none of these cerebinding on the whole Church, yet particular Churches have a right monies have power to remit sin."-Strype's Memorials of Cranmer, i 89. to carry it out in their own way, according to their own "use” as
Eccl. Hist. Soc. Ed. to detail and ceremonial',
A rubric at the end of the Elizabethan Prayer Books enjoins also that "every parishioner shall communicate at the least three times in the year, of which Easter to be one, and shall also receive the Sacraments and other
Rites according to the order in this book appointed." 1 To Kuprakov, Kyrke, Church, the house of the Lord.
+ The Act of Uniformity empowers the Sovereign to alter the names of 2 On the Lord's Prayer, iv. .
the King, Queen, and Royal Family, as occasion shall require ; but to alter 3 The phrase "Rites and Ceremonies" is not at all equivalent to our | the name of the Church itself is a very different thing. In Marriage modern words Ritual and Ceremonial : but refers to the minor services of Licences, and in Letters of Orders, the old form is used: but in many docuthe Church, such as the Commination, or the Churching of Women Arch ments the alteration has been adopted. It is right to add that in the titlebishop Cranmer's fourth article of 1536 is a good illustration of the meaning page of Edward VI.'s Injunctions he is called “in earth under Christ, Intended : IV. Or Rites and Ceremonies. As vestments in God's service; of the Church of England and of Ireland the supreme head." sprinkling holy water; giving holy bread; bearing candles on Candlemas 5 The distinctive title, "Church of England," is very ancient, being found Day: Kiving of ashes on Ash-Wednesday ; bearing of palms on Palm in Magna Charta, where it appears to be used as a familiar phrase.
The Contents of this Book.
The Contents of this Book. 1. A Preface. 1. A Preface.
1. An Act for the Uniformity of Com2. A Table and Kalendar for Psalms 2. Of Ceremonies, why some be abolished mon Prayer. and Lessons, with necessary rules per- and some retained.
2. The Preface. taining to the same.
3. The order how the Psalter is ap. 3. Concerning the Service of the Church. 3. The Order for Matins and Evensong, pointed to be read.
4. Concerning Ceremonies. throughout the year.
4. The Table for the order of the Psalms 5. The Order how the Psalter is ap4. The Introits, Collects, Epistles, and to be said at Morning and Evening Prayer. pointed to be read. Gospels, to be used at the celebration of 5. The order how the rest of holy Scrip 6. The Order how the rest of the holy the Lord's Supper and holy Communion ture is appointed to be read.
Scripture is appointed to be read. through the year, with proper Psalms and 6. Proper Psalms and Lessons at Morn. 7. A Table of proper Lessons and Psalms. Lessons, for divers feasts and days. ing and Evening Prayer, for certain feasts 8. Tables and Rules for the Feasts and 5. The Supper of the Lord and holy and days.
Fasts through the whole year. Communion, commonly called the Mass. 7. An Almanack.
9. The Kalendar, with the Table of 6. The Litany and Suffrages. 1 8. The Table and Kalendar for Psalms Lessons. 7. Of Baptism, both public and private. | and Lessons, with necessary rules apper 10. The Order for Morning Prayer. 8. Of Confirmation, where also is a taining to the same.
11. The Order for Evening Prayer. Catechism for children.
9. The order for Morning Prayer and 12. The Creed of S. Athanasius. 9. Of Matrimony.
Evening Prayer, throughout the year. 13. The Litany. 10. Of Visitation of the Sick, and Com 10. The Litany.
14. Prayers and Thanksgivings upon munion of the same.
11. The Collects, Epistles, and Gospels, several occasions. 11. Of Burial.
to be used at the ministration of the holy 15. The Collects, Epistles, and Gospels, 12. The purification of women.
Communion, throughout the year. to be used at the Ministration of the holy 13. A declaration of Scripture, with 12. The order of the ministration of the Communion throughout the year. certain prayers to be used the first day of holy Communion.
16. The Order of the Ministration of Lent, commonly called Ashwednesday. 13. Baptism, both public and private. the holy Communion.
14. Of Ceremonies omitted or retained. 14. Confirmation, where also is a Cate. 17. The Order of Baptism, both publick 15. Certain notes for the more plain | chism for children.
and private. explication and decent ministration of
18. The Order of Baptism for those of things contained in this book.
16. Visitation of the Sick.
riper years. 17. The Communion of the Sick.
19. The Catechism, with the Order for 18. Burial.
Confirmation of children. 19. The Thanksgiving of Women after 20. Matrimony. childbirth.
21. Visitation of the Sick, and Com. 20. A Commination against sinners, munion of the Sick. with certain Prayers to be used divers 22. Burial. times in the year.
23. Thanksgiving for Women after 21. The form and manner of making child-bearing. and consecrating of Bishops, Priests, and 24. A Commination or Denouncing of Deacons.
God's anger and judgments against sinners.
25. The Psalter.
26. The Order of Prayers to be used at Sea.
27. A Form and Manner of Ordaining Bishops, Priests, and Deacons.