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And all Priests and Deacons are to say daily the Morning and Evening Prayer, either privately or openly, not being let by sickness, or some other urgent cause.

And the Curate that ministereth in every Parish-Church or Chapel, being at home, and not being otherwise reasonably hindered, shall say the same in the Parish-Church or Chapel where he ministereth, and shall cause a Bell to be tolled thereunto a convenient time before he begin, that the people may come to hear God's Word, and to pray with him.

Halls in both the Universities, in the Colledges of Westminster, than it has been in later times. These words are to be found at Winchester, and Eaton, and in the Convocations of the Clergies the close of the Letters Patent: “ Eadem etiam formula Latina of either Province in Latine ; Any thing in this Act contained to precandi privatim uti hortamur omnes reliquos Ecclesiæ nostre the contrary notwithstanding.”

Anglicanæ ministros, cujuscunque gradus fuerint, iis diebus, Letters patent were issued by Queen Elizabeth to the same quibus aut non solent, aut non tenentur parochianis suis, ad effect, and printed at the beginning of the Latin Prayer Book ædem sacram pro more accedentibus, publice preces vernacula issued by her authority in 1560; there being no limitation (as | lingua, secundum formam dicti Statuti, recitare.Which exthere is not in the present Act of Uniformity) with respect to hortation may be taken as a contemporary interpretation of the the Communion Service! Bishop Cosin added to the existing clause to which this note refers. rule the words “especially in the Colleges and Halls of either The Daily Services, the Psalter, and some additional Collects University, and in the Schools of Westminster, Eaton, and Win and Prayers were translated into Latin for the use of Christ chester," but the alteration was not printed, though not erased by | Church, Oxford, in 16604. But this is not a complete version of the Committee of Revision.

the Book of Common Prayer. The first Latin Version of the Book of Common Prayer was | A Latin Version, which is by far the most complete and exact made in 1551 by a former Canon of St. Andrew's, Edinburgh, that has ever been produced, was printed by Messrs. Rivington named Alexander Aless, and under the direction of Archbishop | in 1865. In this, the ancient and original Latin phraseology Cranmer. As some provision would certainly be made by is adopted wherever it can be traced, and the more recent authority for carrying out the proviso of the Act of Uniformity, portions are rendered into Latin of a similar character5. it is probable that the translation of Aless was made for this purpose; although, because Cranmer used it for giving Martin PRIVATE RECITATION OF THE SERVICES BY Bucer a knowledge of the English formularies, it is commonly

THE CLERGY. said that he had it done expressly for that object. Bucer in his

The second paragraph of the above Appendix to the Preface of Censura distinctly says “ librum istum Sacrorum, per inter.

1549 enjoins the Clergy to say the Daily Offices constantly either pretem, quantum potui, cognovi diligenter ;” and a comparison

privately or openly, unless hindered by some urgent cause. This of dates makes it almost certain that he gained what little know

direction has undergone the following changes :-
ledge he there had of our English services through an oral inter-
pretation, before he received the copy of Aless' version from

1549.
1552.

1661. Cranmer. But Aless was now a professor in a Lutheran, that is, Neither that any And all priests and And all priests and a Presbyterian, University; and his Latin version is very far man shall be bound deacons shall be deacons are to say from being rendered with that bona fides so ostentatiously put to the saying of bound to say daily daily the Morning forth on the title-page.

them, but such as the Morning and and Evening Prayer, This version was, however, the foundation of that issued by from time to time, in Evening Prayer, either privately or Queen Elizabeth in 1560, having been revised by Walter Haddons. Cathedral and Colle- either privately or openly, not being let But Queen Elizabeth's Latin Prayer Book differs considerably | giate churches, pa- openly, except they by sickness, or some from her English one; and although, in many respects, it better rish churches, and be letted by preach- other urgent cause. represents the original Prayer Book of 1549, it can hardly be taken chapels to the same ing, studying of dias having authority under our present Act of Uniformity. In annexed, shall serve vinity, or by some addition to the ordinary services, there were also added to this the congregation. other urgent cause. Latin version an Office, “ In commendationibus Benefactorum,"

In the Scotch Prayer Book of 1637 the words were added, "of and another, “ Celebratio cance Domini, in funebribus, si amici et vicini defuncti communicare velint." These two offices were

which cause, if it be frequently pretended, they are to make the

bishop of the diocese, or the archbishop of the province, the specially mentioned as “peculiaria quædam” in the Letters

judge and allower.” Bishop Cosin also added to "urgent cause,” Patent. The book was reprinted in 1574 and in 1596, and is to

“which the Bishop of the Diocese shall approve.” But the be found in a modern reprint among the Parker Society's pub

present form appears to be that which he ultimately adopted, lications; and no doubt it was adopted for the private recitation

and that which was accepted by the Committee of Revision. of the Daily Offices in days when Latin was more freely used

This rule was regarded by Bishop Cosin, as he tells us in his

notes to the Prayer Book [Works, vol. v. p. 9] as a continua1 An authorized French translation was printed by Archbishop Cranmer's tion of the ancient rule of the unreformed Church : and such order in 1552. In a letter to Secretary Cecil (Strype's Memorials, iii, 698, has been the opinion of most sound writers since his time. Eccl. Hist. Soc.) the Archbishop says that this was first done by Sir Hugh

The Letters Patent attached to the Latin Prayer Book of Queen Paulet's commandment (who was Governor of Calais), and overseen by the

Elizabeth confirm this view; and so also does the practice of Lord Chancellor (Goodrich, Bishop of Ely), and others, being afterwards revised by a learned Frenchman who was a Doctor of Divinity. This many holy clergymen at every period since the Reformation. revision was for the second book of Edward VI., and was printed in 1553. The principle of it is that the Clergy are bound to offer the

2 Ordinatio Ecclesiæ, seu Ministerii Ecclesiastici, in fiorentissimo Regno Angliæ, conscripta sermone patrio, et in Latinam linguam bona fide conversa, et ad consolationem Ecclesiarum Christi, ubicunque locorum ac 4 Liber Precum Publicarum in Usum Ecclesiæ Cathedralis Christi. Oxon. gentium, his tristissimis temporibus, edita ab Alexandro Alesio, Scoto, Oxoniæ. 1660. Sacræ Theologiæ Doctore. Lipsiæ. MDLI.

5 Libri Precum Publicarum Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ Versio Latina. A 3 Liber Precum Publicarum, seu Ministerii Ecclesiastice administrationis Gulielmo Bright, A.M., et Petro Goldsmith Medd, A.M. Presbyteris, Sacramentorum, aliorumque rituum & ceremoniarum in Ecclesia Anglicana. Collegii Universitatis in Acad. Oxon. Sociis, Facta. Apud Rivington, Cum privilegio Regiæ Majestatis.

Londini, Oxonii, Cantabrigiæ. 1865.

OF CEREMONIES,
WHY SOME BE ABOLISHED, AND SOME RETAINED.

N F such Ceremonies as be used in some at the first were of godly intent

the Church, and have had their and purpose devised, and yet at length beginning by the institution of man, turned to vanity and superstition :

prayers of the Church daily to the glory of God, and as inter- | offered in the Name of Christ by two or three gathered together cessors for their flocks, whether any come to join them in the under His authority, and according to His ordinance. offering or not. Such private recitation of the daily offices is, It may be noticed that the Act of Uniformity enjoins that the however, only to be used when the better way of “open prayer" | Common Prayer shall be said on Sundays and Holy Days, and on with a congregation cannot be adopted.

all other Days ; and that the title of our Morning and Evening

Service is, “ The Order for Morning or Evening Prayer DAILY DAILY MORNING AND EVENING PRAYER. throughout the year.” In the beginning of the “Form of The third paragraph of the above rule very clearly enjoins the

Prayer to be used at Sea,” there is also this rubric, “ The use of Daily Service. Bishop Cosin wished to define the hours at

Morning and Evening Service to be used daily at Sea, shall be which it was to be said within certain limits, by adding to “a

the same which is appointed in the Book of Common Prayer." convenient time before he begin,”_" which may be any hour

And the next rubric is, “These two following Prayers are to be between six and ten of the clock in the morning, or between two

also said in Her Majesty's Navy every day.” and six of the clock in the evening :” and although his alteration was not adopted, it serves to show us what were then considered

OF CEREMONIES. the canonical limits of the times for Mattins and Evensong.

This justification of the course taken at the Reformation The Laity should never allow their Clergy to find the House with respect to the Ceremonial part of Divine Worship was of God empty when they go there to carry out this most excellent probably written by Archbishop Cranmer, being included in rule of the Church. In the fifteenth Canon, which directs “the some early lists of his works. It was originally inserted at the Litany to be read on Wednesdays and Fridays,” there is an end of the Prayer Book, and was followed by some ritual direcinjunction which shows in what manner the practice of Daily tions reprinted below. In 1552, the part “Of Ceremonies” was Service ought to be kept up by the Laity as well as the Clergy: placed after the Preface, and these ritual directions were omitted. “The minister, at the accustomed hours of service, shall resort to the Church and Chapel, and, warning being given to the people

Certain Notes for the more plain Explication and decent by tolling of a bell, shall say the Litany prescribed in the Book

Ministration of Things contained in this Book. of Common Prayer; whereunto we wish every householder dwell.

"In the saying or singing of Matins and Evensong, baptizing ing within half-a-mile of the Church to come, or send one at the

and burying, the Minister, in parish churches and chapels anleast of his household, fit to join with the Minister in prayers."

nexed to the same, shall use a surplice. And in all cathedral It was undoubtedly the intention of the first Reformers, and of all

churches and colleges, the Archdeacons, Deans, Provosts, Masters, who, at any time, revised our Services, to have them used daily,

Prebendaries, and Fellows, being Graduates, may use in the Morning and Evening, openly in the Church, by the Clergy and

quire, beside their surplices, such hood as pertaineth to their as many of the Laity as may be able to attend. Many endow several degrees, which they have taken in any university within ments have been left for assisting to carry out this intention of

this realm. But in all other places, every minister shall be at the Church ; and the practice has been kept up in some parish

liberty to use any surplice or no. It is also seemly, that Gra. Churches (as well as in the Cathedrals) without any break,

duates, when they do preach, should use such hoods as pertaineti except during the persecution of the 17th century. In 1724,

to their several degrees. when the population of London was only one-sixth of what it is

" And whensoever the Bishop shall celebrate the holy Comat the present time, there were seventy-five churches open daily

| munion in the church, or execute any other public ministration, for Divine Service; and there are many proofs that the same

he shall hare upon him, beside his rochette, a surplice or albe, diligence in prayer was used in the country as well as in large

and a cope or vestment; and also his pastoral staff in his hand, cities.

or else borne or holden by his chaplain. Such continual public acts of Divine Worship are expedient for

“ As touching kneeling, crossing, holding up of hands, knockvarious reasons. (1) It is due to the honour of Almighty God

ing upon the breast, and other gestures, they may be used or that the Church in every place consecrated to His service should

left, as every man's devotion serveth, without blame. begin and end the day by rendering Him a service of praise.

“ Also upon Christmas Day, Easter Day, the Ascension Day, (2) Each Church and parish being a corporate centre and cor

Whit-Sunday, and the feast of the Trinity, may be used any porate whole, prayer for God's grace and His mercy should be

part of Holy Scripture hereafter to be certainly limited and offered morning and evening, for the body which the Church

appointed, in the stead of the Litany. and such congregation as can assemble represents. Thus the

“ If there be a sermon, or for other great cause, the Curate, Divine Presence is drawn down to the Tabernacle that It may

| by his discretion, may leave out the Litany, Gloria in Excelsis", thence sanctify the whole Camp. (3) The benefit to the Clergy is very great, of offering Divine Worship, prayer, and intercession, The omission of this is not quite so strange as it seems at first: "Ab in the presence of, and in company with, some of their flock. Adventu Domini usque ad Nativitatem ejus [ab Septuagesima usque in (4) There are advantages to those who frequently join in Divine

Cænam Domini, cap. xlvii.), Te Deum Laudamus, Gloria in Excelsis Deo,

Ite missa est, dimittimus, quia major gloria Novi Testamenti, quam Veteris, Service which can only be fully known by experience, but which

cujus typum infra Adventum Domini observamus." Micrologus de Ecc. will then be appreciated as blessings not otherwise to be ob. Observat. cap. XXX. It was likewise omitted in Septuagesima and on tained. (6) The service of the Sanctuary is the most real and Innocents' Day. There was also a limitation of its use on Palm Sunday, true form of that daily Morning and Evening worship for which

"in Ecclesiis in quibus chrisma conficitur, et non in aliis" (Durand. Ration.

div. off. vi. 75. 2): and one of the first rubrics in the Sacramentary of St. Family prayer has been originated as an imperfect substitute;

Gregory is, "Quando vero Litania agitur, neque Gloria in Excelsis Deo, for it is the true Common Prayer (see p. 2]) of the Church | neque Alleluia canitur.”

Some entered into the Church by un- And whereas in this our time, the
discreet devotion, and such a zeal as minds of men are so diverse, that some
was without knowledge; and for be- | think it a great matter of conscience
cause they were winked at in the be- to depart from a piece of the least of
ginning, they grew daily to more and their Ceremonies, they be so addicted
more abuses, which not only for their to their old customs; and again on the
unprofitableness, but also because they other side, some be so new-fangled,
have much blinded the people, and that they would innovate all things,
obscured the glory of God, are wor- and so despise the old, that nothing
thy to be cut away, and clean rejected : can like them, but that is new: It was
Other there be, which although they thought expedient, not so much to
have been devised by man, yet it is have respect how to please and satisfy
thought good to reserve them still, as either of these parties, as how to please
well for a decent order in the Church God, and profit them both. And yet
(for the which they were first devised), lest any man should be offended, whom
as because they pertain to edification, good reason might satisfy, here be
whereunto all things done in the certain causes rendered, why some of
Church (as the Apostle teacheth) ought the accustomed Ceremonies be put
to be referred.

| away, and some retained and kept
And although the keeping or omit- still.
ting of a Ceremony, in itself consi- Some are put away, because the
dered, is but a small thing; yet the great excess and multitude of them
wilful and contemptuous transgression hath so increased in these latter days,
and breaking of a common order and that the burden of them was intolera-
discipline is no small offence before ble; whereof St. Augustine in his time
God. Let all things be done among you, complained, that they were grown
saith St. Paul, in a seemly and due to such a number, that the estate of
order : The appointment of the which Christian people was in worse case
order pertaineth not to private men; concerning that matter, than were the
therefore no man ought to take in Jews. And he counselled, that such
hand, or presume to appoint or alter yoke and burden should be taken away,
any publick or common Order in as time would serve quietly to do it.
Christ's Church, except he be lawfully But what would St. Augustine have
called and authorized thereunto. | said, if he had seen the Ceremonies of

the Creed, the Homily, and the Exhortation to the Commu- / and the kiss of peace are illustrations of this assertion; so also is nion.”

the excessive use of the sign of the Cross, which provoked a There was a rubric printed at the beginning of the Commu- | recoil equally superstitious, leading to the disuse of it altogether. nion Service relating to the same subject: and as all three docu Some entered .... by undiscreet devotion] Of such a kind ments are of the same date (A.D. 1549), it also is here reprinted, were the ceremonies connected with images, and even with so as to bring them under one view :

relics. These ceremonies were prompted, in the first instances, " Upon the day, and at the time appointed for the minis. by the best of feelings; but, in the course of time, they became tration of the holy Communion, the Priest that shall execute the perverted into usages which can hardly be distinguished from holy ministry, shall put upon him the vesture appointed for that | idolatry, and thus “obscured the glory of God i” instead of preministration, that is to say, a white albe plain, with a vestment senting it more clearly to the eyes of His worshippers. or cope. And where there be many Priests or Deacons, there so Some are put away, because the great excess] The minute many shall be ready to help the priest in the ministration, as directions given in the rubrics of the old Service-books often shall be requisite; and shall have upon them likewise the vestures | occupy page after page, while the prayers to which they are appointed for their ministry, that is to say, albes with tunicles.” annexed occupy only a few lines; and it must be a matter of

The subject of Ceremonies being dealt with at large in the grave doubt, whether any more than a small fraction of the cereRitual Introduction, it is not necessary to go into much detail monies latterly used in the celebration of the Holy Eucharist respecting this document; but a few notes are annexed pointing were intelligible to any but experienced priests. Their excess out the principles which actuated the Reformers of 1549 as they | had become insupportable both to the clergy and the people, and are indicated in their explanation or apology.

the meaning of many had quite passed away. Nor is there any institution of man] The distinction implied in these words reason to doubt the assertion that many ceremonies were so shows that Archbishop Cranmer and his associates did not con- abused through ignorance on the one band, and corruption on sider themselves at liberty to alter any ceremonies of Divine the other, “ that the abuses could not well be taken away, the Institution, such as the Laying on of Hands, or the breaking of thing remaining still ;” a state of things had in fact grown up the Bread in the Consecration of the Holy Eucharist. turned to canity and superstition] The primitive love-feasts

1 Aug. Ep. 55 ad Januarium, c. xix. $ 35 (al. Ep. 110).

late days used among us; whereunto | anew : Then such men granting some the multitude used in his time was not Ceremonies convenient to be had, surely to be compared ? This our excessive where the old may be well used, there multitude of Ceremonies was so great, they cannot reasonably reprove the old and many of them so dark, that they only for their age, without bewraying did more confound and darken, than of their own folly. For in such a case declare and set forth Christ's benefits they ought rather to have reverence unto us. And besides this, Christ's unto them for their antiquity, if they Gospel is not a Ceremonial Law (as will declare themselves to be more much of Moses' Law was), but it is a studious of unity and concord, than of Religion to serve God, not in bondage | innovations and new-fangleness, which of the figure or shadow, but in the (as much as may be with true setting freedom of the spirit; being content forth of Christ's Religion) is always only with those Ceremonies which do to be eschewed. Furthermore, such serve to a decent Order, and godly Dis shall have no just cause with the Cerecipline, and such as be apt to stir up monies reserved to be offended. For the dull mind of man to the remem- as those be taken away which were brance of his duty to God, by some most abused, and did burden mens notable and special signification, where consciences without any cause; so the by he might be edified. Furthermore, other that remain, are retained for a the most weighty cause of the abolish Discipline and Order, which (upon just ment of certain Ceremonies was, That causes) may be altered and changed, they were so far abused, partly by and therefore are not to be esteemed the superstitious blindness of the equal with God's Law. And morerude and unlearned, and partly by over, they be neither dark nor dumb the unsatiable avarice of such as Ceremonies, but are so set forth, that sought more their own lucre, than every man may understand what the glory of God, that the abuses they do mean, and to what use they could not well be taken away, the do serve. So that it is not like that thing remaining still.

they in time to come should be abused But now as concerning those per- as other have been. And in these our sons, which peradventure will be of doings we condemn no other Nations, fended, for that some of the old Cere- | nor prescribe any thing but to our owi monies are retained still : If they con- people only: For we think it convesider that without some Ceremonies it nient, that every Country should use is not possible to keep any Order, or such Ceremonies as they shall think quiet Discipline in the Church, they best to the setting forth of God's hoshall easily perceive just cause to reform nour and glory, and to the reducing of their judgments. And if they think the people to a most perfect and godly much, that any of the old do remain, living, without error or superstition; and would rather have all devised and that they should put away other

been.

which required strong measures for its reformation : a state of were never likely to be abused as those which were set aside had things moreover, to which the present age can never offer a parallel; since, although it is possible to conceive of a great increase in we condemn no other Nations] This excellent sentence the ceremonies used by the Church, that increase could never strongly illustrates the temperate spirit in which the official again be accompanied by the same ignorance.

work of the Reformation of the Church of England was conducted. But now as concerning those persons] Extreme and super Recognizing the right which a national Church possessed to stitious opinions against ceremonies were beginning to be as make such changes as may be expedient (subject to the retention great a trouble to the Church as the extravagant and super of Catholic essentials), the Reformers acted upon it; but they also stitious use of them had been. The principles here enunciated recognized it for other Churches as well as for that of England, against the enthusiasts who held them are: (1) That some cere and claimed to be the advocates of change and reconstruction monies are absolutely essential to the order and decency of only within the bounds of their legitimate jurisdiction. So sound Divine Service. (2) That to invent new ones altogether would a principle deserves the highest respect, and should be acted be as presumptuous as unnecessary. (3) That the old ones which upon at all times. Had it been adhered to by the foreign party were retained under the new system of the Church of England as well as by the official guides of the Reformation, & great were of an edifying kind. (4) That the ceremonies retained' schism would have been prevented.

THE ORDER OF THE PSALTER, AND OF THE REST OF HOLY SCRIPTURE. [23

things, which from time to time they | ordinances it often chanceth diversely
perceive to be most abused, as in mens in divers countries.

diversely in divers countries] No doubt there are many | cumstances : but to those who use them they may be a true Ceremonies used in the Eastern Church, and in southern countries vehicle of adoration as regards Him Whom they worship, and of of Europe, which seem un profitable and even worse to persons wholesome religious emotion as respects themselves. brought up under a different system, and under different cir. |

THE ORDER
HOW THE PSALTER IS APPOINTED TO BE READ.
M HE Psalter shall be read through And, whereas the cxixth Psalm is

I once every Month, as it is there divided into xxii Portions, and is over-
appointed, both for Morning and Even- long to be read at one time ; It is so
ing Prayer. But in February it shall ordered, that at one time shall not be
be read only to the Twenty-eighth, or read above four or five of the said
Twenty-ninth day of the Month. Portions.

And, whereas January, March, May, And at the end of every Psalm, and
July, August, October, and December, of every such part of the cxixth Psalm,
have One-and-thirty days apiece; It shall be repeated this Hymn,
is ordered, that the same Psalms shall Glory be to the Father, and to the
be read the last day of the said months, Son : and to the Holy Ghost ;
which were read the day before : So As it was in the beginning, is now,
that the Psalter may begin again the and ever shall be : world without end.
first day of the next month ensning. | Amen.

Note, That the Psalter followeth the Division of the Hebrews, and the
Translation of the Great English Bible, set forth and used in the time of King
Henry the Eighth, and Edward the Sixth.

[See the Introduction to the Psalter for notes on the subject of the above.]

THE ORDER HOW THE REST OF HOLY SCRIPTURE IS APPOINTED TO BE READ.

M HE Old Testament is appointed. The New Testament is appointed for

1 for the first Lessons at Morning the second Lessons at Morning and and Evening Prayer; so as the most | Evening Prayer, and shall be read over part thereof will be read every year orderly every year thrice, besides the once, as in the Kalendar is appointed. | Epistles and Gospels; except the Apo

Lessons of the day were rarely taken from Holy Scripture, THE LESSONS.

some being usually extracts from Patristic writings, or the The old system of the Church of England, in respect to the Lives of Saints. reading of Holy Scripture in Divine Service, was very similar | The responsory system of reading Holy Scripture is still rethroughout all the offices in which it was read, to that now tained in its old form in the case of the Ten Commandments retained only in the Communion Service. Short selections were when said at the Communion Service: but one of the principal made from different books of the Holy Bible, and these were changes made in 1549, was the substitution for it of longer and read successively (sometimes three, and at others nine), “re continuous lessons,-generally whole chapters,—with responsory sponds," or short anthems (intended to answer in character to Canticles, sung at the end only. No doubt this was a return to the Lesson read), being sung after each. But the whole of the ancient practice, as it is said to be in the original preface to the

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