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To find the Dominical or Sunday Letter for any given Year of our Lord, add to the year its fourth part, omitting fractions, and also the number, which in Table I. standeth at the top of the column, wherein the number of hundreds contained in that given year is found : Divide the sum by 7, and if there is no remainder, then A is the Sunday Let. ter; but if any number remaineth, then the Letter, which standeth under that number at the top of the Table, is the Sunday Letter.

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To find the Month and Days of the Month to which the Golden Numbers ought to be prefixed in the Calendar, in any given Year of our Lord consisting of entire hundred years, and in all the intermediate years betwixt that and the next hundredth year following, look in the second column of Table II. for the given year consisting of entire hundreds, and note the number or cypher which stands against it in the third column; then, in Table III. look for the same number in the column under any given Golden Number, which when you have found, guide your eye side-ways to the left hand, and in the first column you will find the Month and Day to which that Golden Num. ber ought to be prefixed in the Calendar, during that period of one hundred years.

The letter B prefixed to certain hundredth years in Table II. denotes those years which are still to be accounted Bissextile or Leap Years in the New Calendar ; whereas all the other hundredth years are to be accounted only common years.

seven letters of the alphabet, which are repeated throughout the § The Dominical or Sunday Letters.

year, beginning with A on the first of January. If the first of The second column of the Calendar is occupied by the first | January is on a Sunday, A is the Sunday Letter for that year ;

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if on a Saturday, B is the Sunday Letter, and so on in a , hence received its name. It extends over nineteen years, which retrograde order; the letter which indicates the first Sunday in | are numbered respectively from 1 to 19. These were formerly the year indicating it throughout, except in Leap Year. In marked throughout the year in the first column of the Calendar; Leap Year the letter which indicates the first Sunday of the but since 1752 they have been inserted only beside those days year indicates it up to the end of February only; and from March which are included within the Paschal full moon limits, i.e., onward to the end of the year the next letter backward is taken, between March 21st and April 25th. At the end of the cycle the so that if B is the Sunday Letter for January and February in phases of the moon begin to recur upon the same days of the Leap Year, A is that for the succeeding months; and G for the month, in the same succession, with a difference of one hour year following. The days of the year recur on the same days of and a half. This difference so far disturbs the application of the week throughout only after the lapse of twenty-eight years. the cycle of Golden Numbers that it will have to be re-adjusted The cycle of Sunday Letters extends therefore over this period, | in the year 1900, and one of the foregoing Tables is already as may be seen in “the Table of Moveable Feasts for the provided for the purpose of making the necessary alteration. remainder of the nineteenth century.” It is sometimes, but The Golden Numbers in the Calendar indicate the day on erroneously, called the “ Solar Cycle,” the name having doubt. which the Ecclesiastical Paschal Full Moon occurs ; the Sunday less arisen from “ Dies Solis," as the cycle has no relation to the Letter next after indicating (as has been already shown) the course of the Sun.

Festival of Easter itself.

The three “ General Tables” are only of use to those who have $ The Golden Numbers.

to make historical calculations, and all might well be left to the This title was given to the Lunar Cycle invented by Meton Act of Parliament, and to works on Chronology, but they have the Athenian (B.C. 432], which was called after him the Me- been printed here in deference to the custom which has placed tonic Cycle, and was anciently written in letters of gold, and them in all our Prayer Books for some time past.

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INTRODUCTION TO THE CALENDAR.

THE Ecciesiastical Calendar comprises two things: first, a ' Some changes were made in the Calendar by the “ Abrogation table of the order of days in the year; and, secondly, a catalogue of certain Holydays” in the reign of Henry VIII., great inof the saints commemorated in the Church. To this, in the convenience being found to arise from the number of days which Book of Common Prayer, there is also annexed a table of the were observed with a cessation from labour; and the two days daily lessons throughout the year.

dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury being especially obnoxious Calendars are known to have been in use at a very early date to the King were altogether expunged, though by very ques. in the Church. One was printed by Bouchier in his Commentary tionable authority. on the Paschal Cycle [Antwerp, 1634], which was formed about When the English Prayer Book was set forth in 1549, it was the middle of the fourth century, or perhaps as early as A.D. 336; | thought expedient to insert only the chief of the names which and another is given by Mabillon in his Analecta, which was had been contained in the Calendar of the Salisbury Use. Two of drawn up for the Church of Carthage, A.D. 483. Many others these were taken away (though the erasure of St. Barnabas was are preserved of early times, and a number are printed by Mar probably a printer's error), and four others added in 1552. In tene in the sixth volume of his Collection of Ancient Writers. the following year, 1553, the old Salisbury Calendar was re

The origin of Christian Calendars is clearly coeval with the printed (with three or four omissions) in the Primer of Edward commemoration of martyrs, which began at least as early as the VI., and in the “ Private Prayers” of Queen Elizabeth's reign, martyrdom of Polycarp, A.D. 168. [Euseb. iv. 15.] The names printed in 1584; but not in any Book of Common Prayer. In of these, and their acts, were carefully recorded by the Church 1559 the Calendar of 1652 was reprinted with one omission. in Martyrologies; and Diptychs-tablets of wood or ivory-were It seems now to have been felt by persons in authority, thst inscribed with their names, to be read at the time when the greater reverence ought to be shown for the names of those who memorial of the departed was made at the celebration of the had glorified God in a special manner by their deaths of their Holy Eucharist. From one or both of these, lists of names lives, and in the Latin Prayer Book of 1560 nearly every day of would naturally be transcribed for use at other times, and as a the year was marked by the name of a saint, the list being commemorial in the hands of private Christians, the names being piled from the old Salisbury Calendar and the Roman. This placed against the day on which the martyrs suffered, or that appears to have led to the appointment of a Commission, which (generally the same) on which they were annually commemorated. met in 1561, and, with a few changes in the Tables and Rules, To these two columns of the days of the year and the names of made also a revision of the list of Saints, bringing it into its the martyrs were afterwards added two others of Golden Num present state, with two exceptions, the names of St. Alban and bers and Sunday Letters, the use of which has been explained the Venerable Bede having been added since. These successive in the notes to the Tables.

changes (as far as is necessary to illustrate the transition from Several very ancient English Calendars exist in our public the ancient to the modern Calendar) are represented in the fort libraries; but the earliest known is one printed by Martene [Vet. lowing Table :Scrip. vi. 635), under the title “Calendarium Floriacense,” and attributed by him (with apparently good reason) to the Venerable

§ Transition of the English Calendar, from 1549 to 1559. Bede, with whose works it was found in a very old MS. at Fleury. Bede died at Jarrow, A.D. 735, so that this Calendar Circumcision. must date from the earlier half of the eighth century. There is Epiphany. a general agreement between this Calendar and the Martyrology Conversion of St. Paul. of Bede which seems to show that it is rightly attributed to him, Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary. and we may therefore venture to take it as the earliest extant St. Matthias. Calendar of the Church of England, dating it from the latest year Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. of Bede's life.

St. Mark,
In the course of ages the number of names recorded in the - Philip and St. James.
Martyrologies of the Church increased to a great multitude, as - John Baptist.
may be seen in the vast folio “Acta Sanctorum,” printed for

- Peter. every day of the year by the Bollandists, which was commenced - James.

In Calendars two hundred and twenty years ago, and is not yet nearly com - Bartholomew.

of plete, though it extends to fifty-eight volumes. The Calendars - Matthew.

1549, 1552, 1553 of the Church also began to be crowded, although there was - Michael. always a local character about them which did not belong to the - Luke. Martyrologies. In the twelfth century the original method of - Simon and St. Jude. recording the names of saints (which was by the Bishop of each All Saints. Diocese in some cases, and in others by a Diocesan Council) was St. Andrew. superseded by a formal rite of Canonization, which was performed - Thomas. only by the Popes; and from this time the names inserted in the Christmas. Calendar ceased to be those of Martyrs or Confessors only.

St. Stephen. The Calendar of the Church of England was always local in its - John Evangelist. character, and one of the eleventh or twelfth century, which is Innocents. preserved in the Durham Chapter Library, seems to differ but I St. Mary Magdalen. In Calendar of 1549 only. little from another of the fifteenth century, which is contained in - Clement.

— 1552 only. an ancient Missal of that Church, or from that which has been 1 - Barnabas.

1549 and 1559. reprinted from a Missal of 1514, belonging to Bishop Cosin's - George. Library, in the following pages. Comparatively few names were - Laurence.

1552 and 1559. added to the English Calendars during the mediæval period, Lammas. though many were added to the Roman.

From the early part of Queen Elizabeth's reign (1561), until the present day, only three additions have been made to the Saints commemorated by the Church of England; those three being the national saints, St. Alban and the Venerable Bede, previously mentioned, and St. Enurchus. These three names, together with the particular designations by which most of the Saints in the Calendar are now distinguished, are to be found in the Calendar prefixed to Bishop Cosin's Devotions : and, as the first published edition of that work was printed in 1627, we may conclude that they were taken thence into the Book of Common Prayer at the Revision of 1661, as some of the Tables and Rules were

No records remain to show what was the principle adopted in

the re-formation of the Calendar in Queen Elizabeth's reign : but the list of names in itself elucidates that principle to a cor. tain extent, as the following Table will show. It seems a singular omission that the names of two of our greatest national saints, St. Aidan and St. Cuthbert, should have been overlooked, both in 1561 and in 1661. The omission of St. Patrick is almost

as extraordinary; and it might have been expected that St. | Thomas of Canterbury's name would have been restored when the bitterness of the Tudor times had passed away. The latter two names were always inserted in ordinary Almanacks, which were not bound up with the Prayer Book, and are also found in some Calendars of Queen Elizabeth's time.

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The Blessed Virgin Mary.
St. Michael and all Angels.
All Saints.
St. John the Baptist.
St. Peter.
St. James the Great.
St. John the Evangelist.
St. Andrew.
St. Philip.
St. Thomas.
St. Bartholomew,
St. Matthew.
St. James the Less.
St. Simon Zelotes.
St. Jude.
St. Matthias.
St. Paul.
St. Barnabas.
St. Mark.
St. Luke.
St. Stephen.
The Holy Innocents.
St. Mary Magdalen.
St. Anne.

St. Nicomede ... St. Clement .... St. Perpetua . .. St. Cecilia . ... St. Fabian St. Agatha .... St. Lawrence ... St. Cyprian. ... St. Valentine . . . St. Denys . . . St. Prisca . . . St. Margaret . .. St. Lucian · · · St. Faith . . . . St. Agnes . . . St. Vincent . . . St. Lucy · · · · · St. Catharine .. . St. Crispin . .. . St. Blasius . . . .

100 203 230 250 251 258 258 270 272 275 278 290 290 304 304 305 307 308 316

St. George, M. .
St. Alban, M. ..
St. Nicolas ...
St. Benedict . . .
St. David .. .
St. Machutus ..
St. Gregory ...
St. Augustine of 2

Canterbury ]
St. Etheldreda . .
St. Chad . . . .
St. Giles . . . .
Venerable Bede...
St. Boniface . . .
St. Swithin . .
St. Edmund, K. & M.
St. Edward, K. & M..
St. Dunstan . ...
St. Alphege, M. ..
St. Edward, K. & Conf.
St. Hugh . ·
St. Richard ....

290 St. Silvester . . . 303 St. Enurchus . . . 326 | St. Hilary of Poictiers, 543 | Confessor . . 544 | St. Ambrose . . . 560 | St. Martin . . . 604 St. Jerome ...

St. Augustine .. 604

St. Britius .. .. 670 St. Remigius . .. 673 St. Leonard, Confessor 725 St. Lambert .... 735 755 862 870 978 988 1012 1163 1200 1253

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In Calendars of the Church of England not printed in the Prayer Book, but published by the Stationers' Company under the authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury', the following names are also to be found :-St. Patrick, St. Thomas of Cantor. bury, and All Souls. King Charles the First was likewise included among the Martyrs in all English Calendars until the special Form of Prayer for the 30th of January was given up in 1859.

Sealed Books. They are here given from the Act, but are inserted after the Tables and Rules as in the Sealed Books. This order was evidently adopted with the object of making a definite Festival and Ferial division of this part of the Prayer Book, instead of confusing the two divisions together as in the Act; and while the improved text of the latter has been adopted, it has been thought better to take the more convenient and more ecclesiastical arrangement in this respect) of the former.

It will be seen that the whole number of individual Saints commemorated is seventy-three. Of these, twenty-one are espe. cially connected with our Blessed Lord; twenty are Martyrs in the age of persecutions; twenty-one are specially connected with our own Church; and eleven are either great and learned defenders of the Faith, like St. Hilary and St. Augustine, or Saints of France, whose names were probably retained as a memorial of the ancient close connexion between the Churches of France and England.

The Calendar itself was not in any way altered by the Act of Parliament of 1752, for the alteration of the style, the present tables of the months being a fairly exact reprint of those in the

In the" comparative view" of each of the months, all the names in that of Bede, the Salisbury Use of 1814, and the Modern Roman, are represented : but a selection only has been made from the Oriental Calendar, as the great majority of Eastern Saints are unknown to English readers, and their names would convey no information whatever. Those selected are chosen for the object of illustrating the points of similarity between the Calendars of East and West; and they are taken from the Byzantine Calendar printed in Neale's Introduction to the History of the Holy Eastern Church, vol. ii. p. 768. Some remarkable coincidences may be observed between it and the Calendar of Bede, which help to confirm the theory of a direct connexion between England and the Oriental Church.

1 This authority is not now given, but was up to 1832.

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St. Hilary of Poictiers.
St. Felix.

St. Marcellus.
St. Anthony.
St. Prisca.

St. Sebastian.
St. Agnes.
St. Vincent.

St. Felix.

SS. Hilary and Felix.
St. Maurus.
St. Paul the first Hermit.

SS. Paul and John.
St. Marcellus.
St. Marcellus.

St. Peter's Chains.
SS. Sulpicius and Anthony. St. Anthony.

Prisca. St. Anthony.
St. Prisca.

St. Peter's Chair at Rome and St. SS. Athanasius and Cyril.
St. Wolstan.

SS. Wolstan, Marius, Martha,

Audifax, and Abachum.
SS. Fabian and Sebastian. | SS. Fabian and Sebastian.
St. Agnes.

St. Agnes.
St. Vincent.

SS. Vincent and Anastasius. St. Timothy, Apostle.
Espousals of B. V. Mary. St.

St. Timothy. [Emerentiana.
Conversion of St. Paul. Conversion of St. Paul.

St. Greg. Nazianzen.
St. Polycarp.
St. Julian.
St. John Chrysostom.

Translation of St. Chrysos-
St. Agnes.
SS. Raymond and Agnes.

(tom. St. Francis of Sales.

Translation of St. Ignatius.
St. Bathilda.

St. Martina.
St. Peter Nolasco.

St. Agnes.

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