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8] ST. LUCIAN is commemorated (like several other Saints of 21] St. AGNES left a name behind her which was very much the Calendar) as a member of the early French or Gallican cherished by the early Church. She was a young Roman lady Church, between which and the early Church of England, with of patrician birth, who was sought-not, probably, in honourable which the existing Calendar originated, there was a very close marriage-by the son of the Prefect of the city, A.D. 304. Her spiritual bond. He was originally a Roman nobleman, but being refusal to accede to his desires brought upon her the full force of ordained priest, he became one of a devoted band of missionaries the brutal heathenism which characterized the age of martyr. who were sent from Rome into France with St. Denys and St. doms. Before the Prefect she made an open confession that she Quintin, about A.D. 245. St. Denys went to the city of Paris, was a Christian, making the sign of the Cross, instead of offerSt. Quintin to Amiens, and St. Lucian to Beauvais, of which ing incense to Vesta, as she was required to do for the renun. cities respectively they probably became the bishops, St. Lucianciation of Christianity. The holy maiden was then vilely dishaving the episcopal title assigned to him in a martyrology of robed and tortured on the rack; and after vain endeavours to the ninth century. After a bold missionary career of many bring about her apostasy, was at last beheaded. The circumyears, St. Lucian was added to the noble army of martyrs, A.D. stances of her death made a great impression upon the Christian 290. He is often called St. Lucian of Beauvais, to distinguish world, for St. Jerome says that the tongues and pens of all him from another Lucian who was a learned predecessor of St.' nations were employed in praise of her constancy; and her Jerome in Biblical criticism.
memory has ever since his time been greatly venerated. It was 13] ST. HILARY was another French bishop. He was born at recorded that while her parents were praying at her tomb (proPoictiers, of heathen parents; and was converted and baptized bably in the catacombs) she appeared to them in vision, and spoke in mature years: after which, in A.D. 350, he became Bishop of words of comfort to them respecting her rest and peace with her his native city. St. Hilary entered the lists against Arianism, Saviour. St. Augustine speaks touchingly of her name: “Blessed endeavouring to persuade the Emperor Constantius to give up his is the holy Agnes, whose passion we this day celebrate: for the patronage of it. Several French bishops became Arians, and held maiden was indeed what she was called; for in Latin Agnes sig. a Synod at Languedoc, where Hilary withstood them, and main nifies a lamb; and in Greek it means pure. She was what she tained the Nicene faith. His opposition was for the time in. was called ; and she was found worthy of her crown.” This effectual; and he was thrust out of his see, being also banished to shows the antiquity of the Holyday. Phrygia by the Emperor, in A.D. 356. The great majority of The symbolical form of her name is used by Christian art in the Gallican bishops remained stedfast, and it is observable that representations of St. Agnes, a lamb standing by her side, while the British bishops are also commended by St. Hilary for she bears a palin-branch or a sword in her hand. continuing so in his History of Synods. He returned to France Several churches are dedicated in the name of St. Agnes in about A.D. 360, contending as earnestly as before for that true England. One built over her resting-place near Rome has doctrine of our Lord's Divinity and the Holy Trinity for which attained a kind of historical importance, from the Pope going he had suffered, and about which he had written a learned there annually to bless the lambs whose fleeces are ultimately to treatise during his exile. After a journey to Italy, St. Hilary form the palls with which he claims to invest all Archbishops. departed to his rest on Jan. 13, A.D. 368.
Such a pall is seen in the arms of the Archbishop of Canterbury. This saint is usually represented in Christian art as treading on [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : Ecclus. li. 1-8. St. Matt. xiii. 44–52.] serpents, in reference to his contest with the venomous heresy of 227 ST. VINCENT was a martyr of Spain in that most terrible Arius; and Numbers xxi. 7, the petition of the Israelites to persecution under the Emperor Diocletian, which he commeMoses that he would pray for the serpents to be taken from morated by a coin with the inscription “ Nomine Christianorum them, is annexed as a significant legend.
deleto," but which only caused the name of Christ to shine more “Hilary term " in the law courts used to begin on this festival, brigbtly in Spain and elsewhere. St. Vincent was a deacon to Advent and Christmas-tide being observed as a vacation of peace; | Valerius, Bishop of Saragossa. Both were brought before Datian, but it now begins on Jan. 11th, extending to Jan. 31st.
the Prefect of Spain, and endured much suffering at his hands, 18] St. PRISCA was a young Roman lady of the third century, being nearly starved to death, that they might afterwards be who “came out of great tribulation” by the sword at a very added to the number of those who “shall hunger no more, early age. Some true tale of Christian faith, fortitude, and neither thirst any more .... for the Lamb which is in the midst suffering underlies the uncertain history which tells us that St. of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living Prisca was thrown to the lions in the amphitheatre, that they waters." The Bishop was sent into exile, afterwards to die a knelt at her feet refusing to harm her, that she was then martyr. Vincent was first tortured on the rack; and being still beheaded, and that an eagle watched over her lifeless form until immoveable in his faith, was then laid on a bed of sharp iron it was laid in the grave. In accordance with this legend, St. bars under which a fire had been lighted. Being removed from Prisca is represented with a palm branch, or a sword in her hand, this before death had ended his sufferings, he departed in peace, a lion couching at her feet, and an eagle hovering above her head. surrounded by his Christian brethren, on Jan. 22, A.D. 304. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp.: Ecclus. li. 9–12. St. Matt. xiii. 44–52.] The account of St. Vincent's martyrdom, or his “Acts," has
20] Sr. FABIAN was one of that long series of martyred come down to us in an authentic form and with much detail. Bishops of Rome by which the church of St. Peter and St. Paul St. Augustine and St. Leo both refer to them; and this holyday was distinguished above all others in the first three centuries. was probably established very shortly after it occurred. Eusebius (vi. 29] says that he was elected in consequence of a St. Vincent is represented with the bed or gridiron on which dove alighting on his head while the election was going on, and he was tortured; and also with a raven hovering near him, sig. also of an irresistible unanimity pointing the thoughts of all to nificant of the fact that his body was cast to the beasts of the field Fabian. This was in the year 236, when his predecessor had and the fowls of the air by heathen vengeance. [Sar. Ep. and died a martyr after a single month's occupation of the see. A Gosp. : Ecclus. xiv. 20, and xv. 4–6. St. John xii. 24-26.] similar story to this of the dove is told respecting others; and it 30] This holyday was originally established by a Royal Proprobably represents in a materializing allegory the idea that the clamation of Charles II. The Service for the day was, however, promise of the presiding Comforter was fully realized in the prepared and authorized by Convocation in the same manner as assembly. St. Cyprian's ninth Epistle is written to the Roman the Prayer Book itself. There were three separate editions of Church respecting the martyrdom of St. Fabian, which occurred this Service or “Form of Prayer;" one issued in 1660, another in under the Emperor Decius, A.D. 250. It is also mentioned by 1661, and a third in 1662, the latter being inserted in the St. Jerome; and the name is found in very ancient martyrologies. Prayer Book in conformity with an order written at the end of the In the Eastern Church it is commemorated on Aug. 5th. Chris Sealed Books, in which it was not printed. The commemoration tian art represents him with the triple crown, holding the sword of of King Charles the First's martyr-like death was abolished by a martyrdom in his hand, and having a dove hovering above him. Royal Proclamation, dated Jan. 17, 1859, and since that date [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : Heb. xi. 33–39. St. Luke vi. 17–23.] the Service has not been printed in the Prayer Book.
FEBRUARY hath 28 Days.
Morning Prayer. Evening Prayer.
1 Lesson. | 2 Lesson. | 1 Lesson. | 2 Lesson.
Fast. Exod. 10 Mark Exod. 11 1 Cor. 13
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Fast. 5. Matthias, Apostle & Martyr.
OO VOORA CON
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THE MINOR HOLYDAYS OF FEBRUARY.
3] St. BLASIus was Bishop of Sebaste, now Szivas, of which city he is considered to be the tutelar Saint. He is said to have been a zealous supporter of the Christians in the Diocletian persecution, and himself to have suffered martyrdom (A.D. 316] under Licinius, by command of Agricolaus, the local governor. After having had his flesh cruelly torn by scourges and an iron wool. comb, he was beheaded. He has for ages been esteemed by the wool-combers as their patron saint, and they had guilds dedicated in his name at Norwich and in several places in Yorkshire and elsewhere. There are still some ancient traditional observances in the seats of the woollen manufacture, though the primitive occupation of hand-combing has almost died out. It is not uncommon there to see “Bishop Blaze" in full episcopal vestments as the sign of an inn. There are only three or four churches dedicated to him in England. His distinguishing emblem is an iron wool-comb; occasionally some or other of the legends connected with him are represented. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp.: Heb. v. 1-6. St. Matt. x. 26–32.]
5] ST. AGATHA was a native of Sicily, of noble birth, and was dedicated to God from her earliest years. She received the crown of martyrdom at Catania, triumphing over the most infamous assaults upon her fortitude and chastity, made at the instigation of Quintianus the consul, who availed himself of the edict of Decius against the Christians to seize upon both her person and
her estate. As she was being brought to trial, she wept, and prayed for courage and strength on the way, saying, “O Jesu Christ, Lord of all, Thou seest my heart, Thou knowest my desire, do Thou alone possess all that I am. I am Thy sheep, make me worthy to overcome the Evil One.” After long endurance of the most horrible tortures, she fell asleep in Jesus about A.D. 251, commending her soul to the Divine keeping. Only three churches are dedicated in her name in England. Her distinguishing emblem is a breast held in a pair of pincers, or transfixed by a sword, and she is also represented with a clasped book and a palm-branch. Her name is one of those inserted in the canon of the old English Liturgies, and in that of Rome. It is also in the most ancient calendars both Eastern and Western. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp.: Ecclus. li. 1–8. St. Matt. xiii. 44-52.]
14] ST. VALENTINE was a priest who assisted the martyrs at Rome in the persecution under Claudius II. He was beaten with clubs, and beheaded after a year's imprisonment, on the 14th of February, about A.D. 270. His name occurs in the Sacramentary of St. Gregory and other ancient formularies. The custom of “choosing Valentines” seems to bave had its origin in a heathen practice connected with the worship of Juno on or about this day; and the association of the popular absurdities with the day appears to be wholly accidental. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : Ecclus. xxxi. 8–11. St. Matt. xvi. 24–28.]
17. Cal. Apr. f 16. Cal.
15. Cal. 14. Cal. 13. Cal. 12. Cal. 11. Cal. 10. Cal. 9. Cal. 8. Cal. 7. Cal. 6. Cal. 5. Cal. 4. Cal. 3. Cal. Pr. Cal.
The Numbers here prefixed to the several Days, between the twenty-first day of March and the eighteenth day of April, both inclusive, denote the Days upon which those full Moons do fall, which happen upon or next after the twenty-first day of March, in those years of which they are respectively the Golden Numbers : And the Sunday Letter next following any such full Moon, points out Easter Day for that Year. All which holds until the Year of our Lord 1899 inclusive, after which Year the places of these Golden Numbers will be to be changed, as is hereafter expressed.
1] ST. DAVID was the son of Xantus, prince of Ceretica, now popular designation of Gregorian. He departed in peace, March Cardiganshire. He was religiously educated, and after his ordi. | 12, A.D. 604, and was buried in St. Peter's. St. Gregory is nation to the priesthood embraced the ascetic life through the esteemed as one of the Four Doctors of the Western Church, and influence of Paulinus, a pupil of St. Germanus of Auxerre. After is represented with the triple crown as a Pope, and with a book a long period of retirement in the isle of Vecta (? Wight) he set in his hand, and a dove on his shoulder, as a Doctor aided by the out, like St. Paul from Arabia, and preached the Gospel in Bri- | Holy Spirit. His festival is kept in the Greek Church on the tain. He founded a monastery in the vale of Ross, which was 11th of March, but its observance in England on the 12th was celebrated for the austerity of its rule. In A.D. 519 he attended enjoined on the monasteries as early as A.D. 747, at the Synod of a synod of Welsh clergy, which met to condemn the then preva- | Cloveshooe, and on the kingdom generally at the Council of lent heresy of Pelagius. Here he so ably defended the truth that Oxford, A.D. 1222. [Sar, Ep, and Gosp, : Ecclus. xlvii. 8–11. Dubritius, the aged archbishop of Caerleon, constrained him to St. Matt. xxiv. 42–47.] become his successor: but he removed the see to Menevia, now 18] ST. EDWARD THE KING succeeded his father King Edgar, called St. David's, after him. He is considered to be the patron at the age of thirteen, in A.D. 975. He was celebrated for his saint of Wales, and he died about A.D. 544, in his eighty-third piety and the amiability of his disposition, which greatly endeared year. He is represented preaching on a hill, with a dove on his him to his subjects. After a reign of three years and a half, he shoulder. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp.: Ecclus. xliv. 17. 20, 21-23 ; xlv. was treacherously stabbed, while drinking the stirrup-cup, by 6, 7. 15, 16. St. Matt. xxv. 14–23.]
order of his step-mother Elfrida, her object being to obtain the 2] ST. CHAD, together with his three brothers, Cedd, Bishop crown for her own son Ethelred. He had gone out of his way of London, and the priests, Alin and Cymbel, was trained under from hunting to pay her a visit, and to see his brother, whom he St. Aidan at Lindisfarne. He also studied in Ireland, whence he had always treated with affectionate kindness. He was buried came to preside over a religious house, founded by his brother deep in a marsh, after which his body was twice re-interred. Cedd, in the Yorkshire wolds. He was consecrated to the see of [See June 20.] He is usually represented as a youthful king, York A.D. 666, by two British bishops, but soon resigned it in with a cup in one hand and a dagger or sceptre in the other, favour of Wilfrid, the two having, in consequence of a misunder- and often with a falcon, in allusion to his last hunt. [Sar. Ep. standing, been both consecrated to the same see. In A.D. 670, ) and Gosp. : Ecclus. xxxi. 8–11. St. Luke xiv. 26-33.] he was appointed Bishop of Lichfield, where he died of a plague | 21] St. BENEDICT, the founder of the great Benedictine order in 673. Lichfield Cathedral, and thirty-one churches in the of Monks, was born of a good family resident at Norsia, in the Midland counties, are dedicated in his honour. [Sar. Ep. and Italian province of Umbria, about A.D. 480. He was educated in Gosp. : Ecclus. xlv. 1-5. St. Mark xiii. 33–37.]
the great public schools at Rome, but was there so shocked at the 7] ST. PERPETU A, St. FELICITAS, and their three companions, licentiousness prevailing among the Roman youth, that he secretly suffered in the persecution by Severus about A.D. 203, in Africa. quitted the city at the age of fifteen, and betook himself to a St. Perpetua was the wife of a man of rank, and was herself of cavern at Subiaco, where he lived as a hermit for three years. good family. At the time of her martyrdom she had an infant He had before met with Romanus, a monk, who, during his at the breast. The “ Acts of St. Perpetua” are supposed to have retreat, supplied him with food. It was at this time that, when been partly written by herself before her death, and afterwards distracted by temptations, he used to roll himself in the briars, a completed by Tertullian. They contain a very remarkable and circumstance familiar to many through its being mentioned in detailed account of her sufferings. She was first tossed by a wild | Bishop Taylor's “Holy Living." He gained such influence over cow, which is often represented with her, and then slowly butchered the shepherds of the wild region round about, that some were by a timorous or unskilful executioner. The day occurs in a persuaded by him to become monks. After much solicitation he Roman calendar of the year 354, and the names are commemo consented to become Abbot of Vicobarro, near Subiaco, where he rated in the canon of the Roman Liturgy. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp.: diligently endeavoured to reform the abuses that he found existing. 1 Cor. vii. 25–34. St. Matt. xxv. 1–13.]
This rendered him so unpopular with some of the inmates that 12] ST. GREGORY, surnamed the Great, was born at Rome, of they attempted to poison him; and, after praying God to forgive noble and wealthy parents, about A.D. 540. His education was them, he returned to his cave. Here he had many disciples, and of the highest class, and included civil and canon law. At the organized twelve religious houses, each containing a Superior age of thirty-four he was made chief magistrate of Rome, and and twelve monks. These were eventually united in the Monaswas obliged to live in great pomp and state. But all his sympa. | tery of St. Scholastica, the most ancient of the order, as is supthies were with the religious life, and after the death of his father posed. Having still many enemies, and being a man of peace, he he founded and endowed six monasteries in Sicily, out of the again sought retirement, and repaired to Mount Cassino, where family estates in that island. He also founded a seventh, dedicated some of the ancient idolatrous rites still prevailed, and where to St. Andrew, in his own house in Rome, in which he himself stood an old temple of Apollo and a grove. Here he was the assumed the Benedictine habit at the age of thirty-five. Here means of converting many to the faith of Christ. He overthrew he impaired his constitution by the rigour with which he fasted the temple and cut down the grove, and upon the site founded while he was studying. It is to this period of his life that the two oratories. This was the origin of the celebrated Monastery well-known story about the British slaves refers. He actually of Mount Cassino, whence proceeded the “ Benedictine Rule," set off on a mission to England, but was recalled by Pope Bene- and where the present monastic systen
and where the present monastic system of Western Europe was dict I., the whole city being in an uproar at his departure. definitely organized. Towards the close of Benedict's life, his Gregory was soon after this made a Cardinal-Deacon, and took a sister Scholastica came to reside near him, with a small commuprominent part in public affairs. He was then chosen Abbot of nity of religious women; where he used to visit her once a year. the Monastery he had founded, and in A.D. 590 was elected He died of a fever caught in visiting the poor. Feeling that his Pope, and after having manifested the utmost reluctance was end was drawing near, he ordered his grave to be dug, and, supconsecrated on the 13th of September. It was during the ported by the brethren, contemplated it in silence for some time: monastic period of his life that he wrote the celebrated “Morals and then being carried into the chapel, there expired on the on the Book of Job.” In the fifth year of his Pontificate oc. eve of Passion Sunday, A.D. 543. He is represented in various curred the controversy regarding the title of Universal Bishop, monastic habits, according to circumstances, and often carries which he regarded as Antichristian. In July, A.D. 596, he again an open book with the first words of his Rule :-AVSCVLTA took up his scheme for the conversion of England, and sent hither FILI VERBA MAGISTRI. Others of his distinguishing em. St. Augustine with forty companions, to whom, under God, we owe blems are, the thorn-bush ; a wine-cup, or loaf, with a serpent the revival of Christianity in the southern parts of our land. crawling out of it (in allusion to attempts made to poison him); During the rest of his life St. Gregory gave himself much to study, and a broken sieve. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : Ecclus. xxxix. 5-9. and revised the Divine offices, paying much attention to their | St. Luke xi. 33–36.] ancient music, which from this circumstance has acquired the