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APRIL hath 30 Days.
Evening Prayer. 1 Lesson. | 2 Lesson. 1 Lesson. | 2 Lesson. 1 Sam. 5 John 19 | 1 Sam. 6 Heb.
Burada bu metu
Alphege, Archbishop of Canterbury.
S RO GO tome within co to
S. George, Martyr.
3] ST. RICHARD was Bishop of Chichester about the middle , Saturdays, as they do at Rome; when I am here I do not fast. of the thirteenth century. His parents, Richard and Alice de So likewise you, to whatsoever Church you come, observe the Wiche, resided on an estate near Worcester, to wbich he was custom of that place, if you mean not either to give or take heir. But from his earliest years he showed a strong inclination offence.” for study and devotion, and studied successively at Oxford, But in matters which involved principle, St. Ambrose did not Paris, and Bologna. After having held the Professorship of shrink from his duty. It is well known how he excommunicated Civil Law at Bologna for a short time, he returned to Oxford, the Emperor Theodosius, for a cruel abuse of power during an and was made Chancellor of the University, and subsequently of insurrection at Thessalonica; and how he shut the gates of the the diocese of Canterbury, under St. Edmund, with whom he church of Milan against him, exhorting him with such effect that went into exile in France. Here he studied for a while in a he became a true penitent. He is said to have introduced metrical Dominican convent, and it was not till this period of his life hymns into the Offices of the Church, and, like St. Gregory, to that he was ordained priest. Returning again to England, he have paid great attention both to the construction of these Offices, served as a parish priest in the diocese of Canterbury, and re- and to the music used in them, the “ Ambrosian rite” having a sumed the office of Chancellor under Archbishop Boniface. The very distinct character of its own, like the English. He is also see of Chichester falling vacant, A.D. 1244, one of those disputes reckoned as one of the four great doctors of the Western Church. between King and Pope, which were then so common, arose about He died, A.D. 397, on the 4th of April, and his body still lies the appointment. The chapter elected one Robert Passelaw, under the high altar of the basilica dedicated to him at Milan. Archdeacon of Chichester; but the Archbishop declined to con [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : Ecclus. xlvii. 8–11. St. Matt. xxiv. firm the election, as being that of an unfit person. He declared | 42–47.] the nomination void, and appointed Richard de Wicbe to the 19] ST. ALPHEGE was an English saint. He was born of a vacant see. The King then confiscated the revenues, and a strong noble family, about A.D. 954, and while very young retired to a party of courtiers and others set themselves against the new monastery, and afterwards became abbot of a house at Bath, Bishop. He however appealed to Rome, and got a Papal decision In 984 he was made Bishop of Winchester, and in 1006 transin his favour, which naturally incensed the King all the more. lated to Canterbury. In 1011 the Danes broke in upon the city, The Bishop however applied himself diligently to the duties of and imprisoned the Archbishop, offering to set him free for the his office, and in his case was fulfilled the text, “When a man's treasures of the church. He refused to give them up, and after ways please the Lord, He maketh even his enemies to be at having held out for several months, was stoned, and finally peace with him ;” for, after two years, the King relented, and slain with a battle-axe, calling upon God, like St. Stephen, to restored his lands. In A.D. 1253, he was preaching a crusade in receive his soul, and, like Christ, for the forgiveness of his murthe south of England, and when at Dover consecrated a church derers. This took place on the site of the present parish church there, on Mid-Lent Sunday, in honour of his former patron, of Greenwich, which is dedicated to him. His body was buried St. Edmund of Canterbury. While thus engaged he was seized first in the Cathedral of St. Paul in London, but afterwards transwith his last illness, and departed during the week following. lated to Canterbury. He is represented as an Archbishop, with Simon of Tarring, a Sussex gentleman, who had protected him stones in his vestment, and sometimes with the battle-axe. [Sar. during the displeasure of the King, and other friends, were pre Ep. and Gosp.: Heb. xii. 9-16. St. John xv. 1--7.] sent with him during his last hours. After lying in state for some | 23] The history of ST. GEORGE of Cappadocia, the Patron of days, his body was buried before the altar of St. Edmund, in Chi England, has been from time to time mixed up with that of chester Cathedral, and some years afterwards removed to a place George, the Arian bishop of Alexandria, and is so obscure that of greater honour in the same church. He is represented as a some have doubted his existence. But churches were dedicated Bishop, usually with a chalice at his feet; in allusion to a tra to him under the first Christian Emperors, and his office is found dition that, in his old age, falling with the chalice, its contents in the Sacramentary of St. Gregory. The Greek Church calls were not spilled. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : Ecclus. xliv. 17. 20-23, him the Great Martyr, and keeps his festival as a holyday of and xlv. 6, 7. 15, 16. St. John xv. 1-7.]
obligation. He was born in Cappadocia in the latter half of the 4) ST. AMBROSE is commemorated on this, the day of his third century, of noble Christian parents, entered the army, and death, in accordance with English usage ; but in the Latin and was rapidly advanced by the Emperor Diocletian. He was himGreek Churches his feast is kept on the 7th of December, the day self imprisoned, tortured, and beheaded : being, apparently, the of his ordination. He was born about A.D. 340, in Gaul, where same young man who tore down the edicts for persecution, as his father held the office of Prætorian Prefect. Paulinus affirms related by Lactantius and Eusebius. He was first acknowledged that while he was in his cradle a swarm of bees settled on his as the Patron of England at the Synod of Oxford, A.D. 1220, lips, and that this, as in the case of Plato, was thought to pre and has been regarded as the patron of military men partly on dict his future eloquence. After the death of his father he was account of his own profession, and partly because of his alleged educated at Rome, where he attained to great proficiency in appearance to Richard Cæur de Lion in his cxpedition against Greek and Civil Law, which led to his appointment to the the Saracens. Hence, no doubt, the old battle-cry, “St. George Governorship of Liguria. He also practised as an advocate, and for England !” Under his name King Edward the Third (A.D. displayed so much wisdom and judgment in this capacity during 1330] instituted the Order of the Garter, the most ancient and a severe contest between the orthodox and the Arians, relative to most noble order of knighthood in Europe. The stalls and inan appointment to the see of Milan, that he was, although as yet signia of these knights are at St. George's, Chapel, Windsor, unbaptized, strongly pressed to accept the office himself-the where special prayers are offered for them in the Daily Service, whole multitude taking up the cry, “Ambrose is Bishop "-first as well as a special service on “Obit Sunday.” St. George is uttered, it is said, by a child. He reluctantly consented, and, usually represented in conflict with a dragon, in allusion to the after baptism, was ordained and consecrated, Dec. 7, A.D. 374. legend of his having fought with a dragon to save the daughter Having made over to the church of Milan all his estates, he of a king, though it may be better understood of the conflict of devoted himself to his duties. He had constant difficulties in the Christian soldier with Satan on behalf of the Church. He consequence of the prevalence of the Arian and Apollinarian is represented as a young warrior, fully armed, and bearing a beresies, and wrote many theological works, both controversial red cross on his shield or on a banner. This is the famous and devotional. St. Ambrose is spoken of with the most affec cross of St. George, and is incorporated with that of St. Andrew, tionate reverence by St. Augustine in his Confessions, as having the patron saint of Scotland, in the national flag called the been greatly instrumental in the work of his conversion. The “Union Jack.” There are more than 162 churches of ancient saying, “When I am at Rome, I do as they do at Rome,” is foundation dedicated to St. George, and his name was retained in attributed to St. Ambrose, who replied to St. Augustine, when the Calendar in the time of Queen Elizabeth, when almost all the he consulted him about the different modes of observing Saturday other “ black-letter” saints had been struck out. [Sar. Ep. and at Rome and Milan: “When I come to Rome I fast on the Gosp: St. James i. 2–12. St. John xv. 1-7.]
Jeremiah the Prophet.
St. Catharine of Sienna.
Job the Just (Patriarch). Invention of the Cross. St. St. John of Beverley. St. Stanislaus.
The Sign of the Cross. [Alexander and his comSt. Victor. [panions.
Apparition of St. Michael, Arch. St. John the Divine, Apostle Translation of St. Nicolas. St. Gregory Nazianzen.
Isaiah the Prophet. St. Gordian. SS.Gordian and Epimachus. SS. Antoninus, Gordian, and Epima- St. Simon Zelotes, Ap St. Pius V.
(chus. | The birthday of ConstantiSt. Pancras. SS. Nereus, Achilleus, and SS. Nereus, Achilleus, Domitilla, and
[Pancratius. St. Isidore.
SS. Andronicus and Junia.
SS. Dunstan, Pudentiana.
SS.Constantine and Helena.
SS. Aldhelm, Bp. of Salisbury, and
ÇÜrban. St. Carpus, Apostle.
St. Gregory VII.
3] INTENTION OF THE CROSS.—This festival commemorates | reigned over the southern provinces for three years longer; but on the finding the Cross on which our Lord suffered, by the Empress his death Edgar became monarch of all England, and Dunstan Helena, about A.D. 326. At this time the Jews and Pagans was raised to the see of Canterbury, being also appointed Papal together had effaced nearly every trace of the scenes of our legate by Pope John XII. He exerted himself greatly in the reLord's Passion and Resurrection, the Holy Sepulchre had been storation of discipline, and in conjunction with Ethelwold, Bishop paved over, and heathen temples built on the spot. It was sup of Winchester, and Oswald, Archbishop of York, re-established posed that the crosses of our Lord and of the two thieves were most of the chief monasteries. He exercised a rigid control over buried near the place where they suffered, and after a long and the secular clergy, ejecting many who were married, and enforcing difficult search they were found. Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, celibacy on others. At one time King Edgar having fallen into in order to distinguish that of our Lord, suggested that the three a scandalous crime, he boldly reproved him, and brought him to crosses should be carried to a sick lady, and after much prayer ap | repentance. He went about preaching and instructing the people plied them singly to her. By the touch of one of them the sick lady | in the churches of his diocese, and would sometimes repair to his recovered, as those did to whom were brought handkerchiefs and old retreat at Glastonbury for solitude and contemplation. His aprons from St. Paul's body. The Empress, full of joy at the last sickness came upon him at Canterbury, where, after preaching discovery, enclosed the precious relic in a silver shrine, and built thrice on Ascension Day, A.D. 988, he died on the Saturday folon the spot a church in which it might be preserved. She also lowing, and was buried in his own cathedral. Some of his bones carried a large piece to Rome, and deposited it in a church which were said to have been translated to Glastonbury in 1012, but the she had built there in honour of the Holy Cross. [See Sept. 14.] greater part of them were found under his tomb in 1508. His This account has not been disproved. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp.: Gal. distinguishing emblems are a pair of pincers and a harp. Six v. 10–12, and vi. 12–14. St. John üï. 1-15.]
churches in Kent, six in Middlesex, and six elsewhere, are dedi. 6] ST. JOHN ANTE PORTAM LATINAM.—This festival was cated to him, including the well-known city churches of St. Duninstituted in memory of the miraculous deliverance of St. stan near Temple Bar, and St. Dunstan in the East. [Sar. Ep. John from death, when he was cast into a cauldron of boiling and Gosp. : Eccl. xliv. 47. 20, 21–23; xlv. 6, 7. 15, 16. St. oil before the Latin Gate of Rome, by order and perhaps Matt. xxv. 14—23. During Easter-tide, St. John xy. 1—7.] in the presence of Domitian. Our Lord had promised that 26] ST. AUGUSTINE, the first Archbishop of Canterbury, has deadly things should not hurt those who believed in Him, and been called the Apostle of England, from the great work which he thus His word was fulfilled, as it had been before when St. accomplished in restoring the Church in the south-east part of Paul took up the serpent at Melita; and as it had been by the country, after the old Clergy had been entirely rooted out by anticipation when the form of the Son of God was seen walking the Saxons. Nothing is known of his history until the time when with the three young men in the fiery furnace at Babylon. The he was sent on his mission by Gregory the Great. He was then Emperor attributed the Apostle's deliverance to the power of Prior of St. Andrew's Monastery at Rome. (See March 12.] magic, and banished him to Patmos, where he received and re He landed in Kent A.D. 596, and went through the Isle of Thanet corded the Apocalypse. There has been a church at Rome on towards Canterbury, by invitation of King Ethelbert. The manthe spot where the event above mentioned occurred, ever since ner in which St. Augustine and his missionary brethren came tothe time of the first Christian Emperors. The day is kept as wards the heathen King is thus recorded by the Venerable Bede: a great festival at St. John's College, Cambridge, and at the “He came chanting Litanies, and beseeching the Lord for the more recent foundation of St. John's Hurstpierpoint. [Sar. Ep. everlasting weal, as well of themselves, as of those for whose sake and Gosp. : Eccl. xv. 1–6. St. John xxi. 19-24.]
he had come. .... And when they drew near that city, they 19] ST. DUNSTAN.—This Saxon Saint was born about A.D.924, chanted the Litany with one accord in these words ; – That it at Glastonbury, of Christian parents holding a high position in so may please Thee to turn away the fury of Thy wrath from all ciety. He was educated in his native town, under a society of Irish Thy people, and chiefly from this city, we sinners beseech Thee to monks there resident, and lived for some time with Athelmus, Arch hear us, O Lord.' Then being admitted into the royal presence, bishop of Canterbury, his uncle, who introduced him to the notice they proclaimed their mission before the King: and he, having of King Athelstan. At court he for a time enjoyed the highest fa already some acquaintance with Christianity (through his wife vours, but some who envied him maligned him to the King, and he Bertha, and her chaplain, Luidhard, Bishop of Senlis), received was banished from the royal presence. He was then urged to take them kindly, and bade them welcome to his city." Kent had monastic vows by Alphege the Bald, Bishop of Winchester, and returned almost entirely to heathenism, and the coming of these after a time became a monk, and was also ordained priest. He missionaries was a great blessing to it. They restored to its served the church at Glastonbury, dwelling in a small cell attached proper use the old church of St. Martin, and thus made Christian thereto. Here he fasted and prayed, and worked at copying and worship familiar again to the eyes of the people. They converted illumination, and at the fabrication of vestments, censers, and large numbers of the Saxon conquerors, and eventually the King other church furniture. Athelstan was succeeded by his brother himself, who afterwards laboured earnestly for the perfect estaEdmund, who recalled Dunstan ; but he soon again fell into dis. blishment of the Church among his people, during the twenty grace at court, and retired to the Benedictine monastery of Fleury remaining years of his life. in France. After a few years he was recalled, and made Superior But when the new missionaries extended their work into a of the house at Glastonbury. Here he refounded the church and wider circle, they came into contact with the ancient Church of convent on a larger scale, established a rule based on that of St. England, of which in the conquered part of the island they had Benedict, and became himself the first Abbot on the new founda found only dormant remains. To men of polished education and tion, and nineteenth from St. Brithwald. King Edmund after a exact ritual habits the ancient Church of the land presented reign of six years and a half was murdered, and his sons, Edwy features which were distasteful to them: and in their own fervent and Edgar, being too young for the throne, his brother Edred zeal and high prosperity, they seem to have appreciated at too succeeded him, and followed the advice of St. Dunstan in all low a value the energies of a depressed and persecuted Clergy. things. He dying in 955, was succeeded by Edwy, a profligate Augustine endeavoured to enforce a Roman ritual and jurisdicyouth, whose vices St. Dunstan was obliged to reprove even on tion upon the native Bishops ; and this they resisted, claiming to the day of his coronation. In revenge he banished the Abbot, possess independent Episcopal jurisdiction, and to have a ritual as persecuted the Monks every where, and devastated all the abbeys Apostolic in its origin as that of Rome itself. These heart-burnthat had been spared by the Danes except Glastonbury and ings lasted until long after the death of St. Augustine, which Abingdon. After a year's exile in Flanders, Dunstan was recalled happened A.D. 604; and tended in some degree to mar the good by Edgar, who had been placed on the throne instead of Edws, work which he had so well begun. Yet it cannot be doubted that deposed by the Mercians. This young King made Dunstan his England owes a debt of gratitude to him as a second founder of principal counsellor, and in A.D. 957 he was made Bishop of her Church, and the great see of Canterbury is an enduring Worcester, and shortly afterwards of London. Edwy still monument of his missionary zeal. Dying on May 26th, 604,
SS. Medardus & Gildardus. | St. William of York.
St. Cyril of Alexandria.
SS. Bartholomew and Bar-
[nabas, Apostles. [Nabor.
[nus, Nabor, and Nazarius.
St. Anthony of Padua.
Elisha the Prophet.
St. Aloysius Gonzaga.
SS. Alban and Paulinus.
SS. Cyrus and John.
SS. Peter and Paul. Commemoration of St. Paul. Commemoration of St. Paul.