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St. Augustine was at first buried abroad: but after the completion of the Cathedral at Canterbury his remains were translated thither, having first reposed for a while in the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul in that city. How much of the dust of our great churches is the dust of those of whom the Holy Ghost has said, “Right dear in the sight of the Lord is the death of His Saints"! [Sar. Ep. and Gosp.: Ecclus. xlvii. 8–11. St. Luke x. 1–7. During Easter-tide, St. John xv. 1-7.]

27] THE VENERABLE BEDE was born A.D. 673 at Jarrow, a village in Durham, not far from the mouth of the Tyne. About the same time the sister monasteries of St. Peter at Wearmouth, and St. Paul at Jarrow, had been founded by a great benefactor of Northern England, St. Benedict Biscop. At seven years of age, Bede was committed to the care of Ceolfrid, Abbot of Jarrow, who built a church there, of which the dedication stone at least, and possibly the whole of the chancel, still remain. Here the child made great progress in learning and piety, under various able masters ; and at the unusually early age of nineteen, was ordained deacon by St. John of Beverley, then Bishop of Hexham. At thirty he was ordained priest by the same prelate. From this time he began to compose and compile books principally, but not exclusively, on theological subjects; and he had also a great school, similar to that in which he had been himself instructed. He paid great attention to the singing in the conventual church

of Jarrow. A very interesting letter from Cuthbert, one of his scholars, addressed to one Cuthwin, a monk who had been his fellow-student, gives an affecting account of the last days of their old master. He died on the Eve of the Ascension, May 26, A.D. 735, and was buried in St. Paul's Church at Jarrow. In 1020 his remains were conveyed to Durham Cathedral, and in 1155 were enclosed in a rich shrine. At the Reformation they were buried, and now rest, under a plain tomb in the Galilee, with this inscription :


BEDÆ VENERABILIS OSSA. There is a story told about his shrine, which illustrates the wide-spread reputation possessed by Bede in the middle ages. It is that a French Bishop on his way to or from Scotland offered a very small coin at St. Cuthbert's shrine, saying, “Sancte Cuthberte, si sanctus sis, ora pro me." But on coming to Bede's shrine, he offered a French crown, saying, “Sancte Beda, quia Sanctus es, ora pro me." His writings are still day by day instructing the whole of the Western Church, and probably will ever continue to do so. The title of " Venerable" seems to have been first given him about the ninth century, and he has often been styled the English Doctor. (No Epistle or Gospel is appointed for this day in the later Salisbury Missals, if in any.]


1] St. NICOMEDE is supposed to have been a disciple and 177 ST. ALBAN, MARTYR.-Our Calendar differs from the fellow-labourer of St. Peter. During the persecution of Domitian | ancient English Calendar and the Modern Roman, which dedicate he buried Felicula, a virgin martyr, with Christian rites. Thus the 22nd to his memory, in placing St. Alban's day on the 17th of incurring the displeasure of the heathen authorities, he himself June. St. Alban is the first recorded British martyr, and was born was put to the test of being asked to sacrifice to idols. He refused at Verulam, near the present town of St. Alban's, an important to do so, and was accordingly beaten to death with whips loaded | Anglo-Roman city. It is thought from his name that he was with lead, or, as some say, with a spiked club. His body was born of Roman parents. It is recorded that they were of high thrown into the Tiber, but was recovered by the Christians, and rank, and sent him to Rome for his education. On his return he buried. The day of his martyrdom was Sept. 15th, and is then was one of the chief citizens of Verulam, and, though as yet a commemorated in the Sacramentary of St. Gregory. He is heathen, was known for his humane and charitable disposition. represented with the instruments of his martyrdom. [Sar. Ep. He sheltered a certain priest who was fleeing from persecution, and Gosp. : Ecclus. xiv. 20, and xv. 3–6. St. Matt. xvi. 24-28. and by his example and instructions was won over to the Christian During Easter-tide, St. John xv. 1–7.]

faith. The Roman governor, hearing that he was harbouring 5] ST. BONIFACE, originally named Winfrid, was of English the priest, sent soldiers to seek him, but his host had enabled extraction, but by his missionary labours on the Continent earned him to escape and continue his work by exchanging clothes with for himself the title of Apostle of Germany. He was born at him, and then confessed himself a Christian. Refusing to Crediton, in Devonshire, about A.D. 680, and was educated in the sacrifice to idols, he was first scourged, and then beheaded. monastery of Exeter, where also he made his profession as a On the way to martyrdom, the executioner was converted, it is monk : he afterwards studied at that of Nutcell, in the diocese of said, by the miracles of the river drying up for them to pass, and Winchester. Here he made such progress that he was appointed a fountain springing forth. Both suffered together, and many by the Abbot to teach others, and at thirty years of age was of the spectators being converted also, were put to death, about ordained priest. Having long had a desire to preach the Gospel A.D. 303. Upon the spot where they suffered, the great Beneto the heathen, in the year 716 he crossed over into Friesland for dictine Abbey, and the present town of St. Alban's, sprang up. that purpose. Meeting with great opposition from the King, he The Abbot of St. Alban's held precedence over all the rest because was obliged to return, whereupon he was appointed Abbot of of the patron being the first canonized Saint and Martyr of Nutcell, much against his will. In the course of two years he | Britain. He is represented as a young layman, having a sword succeeded in obtaining a release, and in 719 went to Rome, and and long cross or crucifix: sometimes he bears the martyr's was sent by Pope Gregory II. to Germany, where he baptized palm, or is in armour and coronet, with a sceptre. The priest great numbers of converts, and established the Church system. whom he had sheltered, whose name was Amphibalus, fled into He also laboured with great success in Friesland, Hesse, and Wales, and after making many converts, at last received the Saxony, after which the Pope consecrated him Bishop. Re crown of martyrdom himself. (Sar. Ep. and Gosp.: Wisd. iv. turning to his mission, he boldly cut down an oak consecrated to 7-11. 13–15. St. Matt. xvi. 24–28.] Jupiter, and built a chapel with the timber. He also founded many 20] It is mentioned above (March 18) that after the barbarous churches, and a monastery, and procured many missionaries from murder of Edward, King of the West Saxons, at Corfe Castle, his England. Having long laboured with great zeal and success, and body was buried without any solemnity. Three years afterwards, obtained the titles of Archbishop and Primate of all Germany, he however, it was translated by Elferius, Duke of Mercia, to was martyred near Utrecht at the age of seventy-four. He is re Shaftesbury, and there solemnly interred, as being that of a king presented as an Archbishop, hewing down the oak, or with it pro. and martyr; and this event is commemorated on the 20th of strate at his feet, and sometimes with a scourge, or a book pierced June, [Sar. Ep. anl Gosp.: Ecclus. xxxi. 8--11. St. Luke xiv. through with a sword. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : 1 Cor. iv. 9–14. 26–33.] St. Matt. x. 23–26. During Easter-tide, St. John xv. 5-7.]

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S. Mary Magdalen.

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SS. Cosmas and Damian. SS. Processus and Mar. | Visitation of B. V. Mary. Visitation of B. V. Mary. SS. Pro- Vestment of B. V. Mary. [tinianus.

[cessus and Martinianus.
Transl. and Ordination of

[St. Martin.
Transl. of St. Thomas the Translation of St. Thomas.
[Martyr. St. Elizabeth of Portugal.

St. Pancratius.
The Seven Brethren. The Seven holy Brethren. Seven Brethren, and SS. Rufina and
Transl. of St. Benedict. St. Pius.

SS. John Gualbert, Nabor, and Felix.
St. Anacletus.

St. Gabriel the Archangel. St. Bonaventure.

St. Aquila, Apostle. St. Cyricus.

Transl. of St. Swithun. St. Swithin.
Transl. of St. Osmund. B. Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel.
St. Kenelm.
St. Osmund.

St. Marina. [Margaret.]
St. Arnulph.

SS. Camillus de Lellis and Sympho

[rosa, and her seven sons.
St. Vincent of Paul.

St. Jude, Apostle.
St. Margaret.

SS. Jerome Emilian and Margaret. Elijah the Prophet.
St. Praxedes.

SS. Henry, Emp., and Praxedes.
St. Mary Magdalen. St. Mary Magdalen.

St. Mary Magdalen the
St. Apollinaris.
SS. Apollinaris and Liborius.

(Ointment-bearer. St. Christina.

SS. Alexius and Christina.
St. James, brother of Jɔhn. St. James.

SS. James, Ap., and Christopher. St. Anne.
St. Anne.

St. Anne, Mother of the B. V. Mary.
The Seven Sleepers. St. Pantaleon.

St. Sampson.

| SS. Nazarius, Celsus, Victor, and SS. Prochorus, Nicanor, TiSS. Felix, Simplex, Faus SS. Felix and Faustus. SS. Martha, Felix, Simplicius, Faus. | [mon, and Parmenas, App. [tinus, and Beatrice.

[tinus, and Beatrice. SS. Abdon and Sennes. SS. Abdon and Sennes. SS. Abdon and Sennes.

SS. Silas, Silvanus, and
St. Germanus.
St. Ignatius of Loyola.

[their companions, App. THE MINOR HOLYDAYS OF JULY.

2] VISITATION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY.-This minor | Marineta, as if the two forms of the name had been amal. festival of the Blessed Virgin was instituted A.D. 1389, by Popc gamated. No less than 238 churches are dedicated to St. MarUrban VI., and confirmed at the Council of Basle, A.D. 1431, garet; but it is probable that some of these, especially in the that “she being honoured with this solemnity, might reconcile North of England, may belong to St. Margaret, Queen of Scotland. her son, Who is now angry for the sins of men, by her intercession, She is represented with the martyr's crown and palm; sometimes and that she might grant peace and amity among the faithful.” she stands piercing a dragon with a long cross, or emerges from The event which it commemorates is the visit of the Blessed its rent body, while her robe is yet passing through its mouth. Virgin to her cousin Elizabeth recorded in the Gospel for the She was esteemed as the patron of women in childbirth. [Sar. day. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : Cant. i. 1–4 and 10–14. St. Luke | Ep. and Gosp. : Ecclus. li. 9-12. St. Matt. xiii. 44-52.] i. 39–47.]

22] ST. MARY MAGDALEN.—The Western Church anciently 4] TRANSLATION OF ST. MARTIN, BP. AND CONF.—This recognized Mary Magdalen, the sister of Lazarus, and “the woman festival commemorates the translation of the relics of St. Martin that was a sinner,” as one and the same person, while the Eastern from the place of his burial at Cande, in the diocese of Tours, to a Church has held them to be distinct. This opinion having been basilica dedicated in his honour, immediately adjacent to the to a great extent received in England since the Reformation, the city of Tours, A.D. 473. The Sarum Calendar also commemo special office has been removed from the First Book of Edward VI., rates his ordination. The keeping of his relics was committed and the festival has ceased to be a “red-letter day.” In the to a fraternity which developed into the famous chapter of Greek Church she is esteemed as the equal of the Apostles, as St. Martin, of which the King of France was ex officio head, having been the first witness of the Resurrection. She is supunder the title of Abbat. The Huguenots tore down the feretory, | posed to have retired to Ephesus with the Blessed Virgin and and burnt the relics, with the exception of some portions which St. John, and to have been buried there. Her relics were transwere recovered and still exist. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : Ecclus. xliv. lated to Constantinople by the Emperor Leo the Philosopher, 17. 20, 21-23 ; xlv. 6, 7. 15, 16. St. Luke xii. 32–34.]

and placed in a church dedicated to St. Lazarus, as if under the 15] St. SWITHUN, BP. OF WINCHESTER.–St. Swithun, or supposition that she was his sister. In Western art she is repreSwithin, was born in the kingdom of the West Saxons, was sented with long golden hair, and always having near her the educated in the monastery attached to Winchester Cathedral, | alabaster box of ointment. She is often pictured as a penitent, and was ordained priest early in the ninth century by Helmstan, in a cave, with a simple cross and a skull, and sometimes she is Bishop of that see, whom he succeeded A.D. 838, having been being carried by angels to heaven. The Collect in the First Book consecrated by Cealnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury. He devoted of Edward VI was as follows:-“Merciful Father, give us grace himself with great zeal to the work of his diocese, and was that we never presume to sin through the example of any creacelebrated for his humility, as well as his austerity, and works of ture; but if it shall chance us at any time to offend Thy Divine charity. He died July 2, A.D. 862, and was buried at his own Majesty, that then we may truly repent and lament the same, request outside the church, where men might walk over him, after the example of Mary Magdalen, and by a lively faith and the rain water his grave. In A.D. 971 the relics were trans- | obtain remission of all our sins, through the only merits of Thy lated to a rich shrine within the cathedral; but it is recorded that Son our Saviour Christ. Amen." The Epistle and Gospel were a most violent rain fell on the destined day, and continued for from the Salisbury Missal, as here given. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp.: thirty-nine days, whence arose the popular notion that if it rain Prov. xxxi, 10–31. St. Luke vii. 36-50.] on St. Swithin's Day, it will for thirty-nine following. The 26] ST. ANNE, MOTHER OF THE B. V. M.-We have no infor. festival is kept on the 15th in honour of this translation; and mation whatever in Holy Scripture respecting the genealogy of the Winchester Cathedral, which before had been dedicated to Blessed Virgin, except that she was of the “house and lineage of St. Peter, was now dedicated also to St. Swithin. When the David.” But St. John Damascene extols the virtue of St. cathedral was rebuilt by Bishop Walkelyn, the relics were placed Joachim and St. Anna, speaking of them as her parents; and St. in a more costly shrine, A.D. 1093. More than fifty churches in Anne is frequently represented in the catacombs at Rome, with England are dedicated to this saint. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp.: Heb. her name in connexion with the figure. She was doubtless vii. 23—27. St. Luke xii. 35–40.]

honoured in the Primitive Church as the parent of the Mother of 20] ST. MARGARET, V. AND M. OF ANTIOCH.-Little is known God, and as such retains her place in our Calendar. The Emrespecting this saint except that she suffered martyrdom at peror Justinian I. built a church at Constantinople in honour of Antioch in Pisidia about A.D. 278, probably in the tenth general St. Anne, cir. A.D. 550. In the Catacombs and in other early persecution. The so-called "Acts of St. Margaret” are not at representations she has her hands stretched out as in prayer, and all to be depended on, though it is probable, from the great has near her a dove, with a ring or crown in its beak. In Medipopularity of the saint, that they were generally accepted in æval times she is figured with a book in her hand, teaching the mediæval times. In the Greek Church she is called St. Marina, Blessed Virgin to read, and sometimes pointing to the words and commemorated on the 17th; and it is curious that on an “Radix Jesse floruit.” [Sar. Ep. and Gosp: Prov. xxxi. 10—31. old bell at Pittington, near Durham, are the words Sancta St. Matt. i. 1-16.]

AUGUST hath 31 Days.

Morning Prayer.

Evening Prayer.

1 Lesson. | 2 Lesson. | 1 Lesson. | 2 Lesson. Lammas Day.

Jerem. 29 John Jerem. 30 Heb.

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S. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, C. D.
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St. Peter's Chains. St. Peter's Chains, the Holy Macha

(bees. St. Stephen, Pope & Mart. SS. Alphonsus Liguori and Stephen. Translation of St. Stephen, Invention of St. Stephen, Finding of St. Stephen, Proto-mart.

[Proto-martyr. [Proto-martyr. St. Dominic. [V. M. ad Nives. | The Seven holy Children at St. Oswald. Dedication of the Church of the B.

[Ephesus. Transfiguration.

Transfigur. of our Lord, SS. Xystus, Transfiguration.

[Felicissimus, and Agapitus.
Name of Jesus, St. Donatus. St. Cajetan.
St. Cyriacus and his fellow- SS. Cyriacus, Largus, & Smaragdus.
St. Romanus. [martyrs. St. Romanus.

St. Matthias, Apostle.
St. Laurence.
St. Laurence.

St. Laurence.
St. Tiburtius.

SS. Tiburtius and Susanna.
[low-martyrs. | St. Clare.
St. Hippolytus and his fel-SS. Hippolytus and Cassian.
St. Eusebius.

St. Eusebius.
Assumption of B. V. Mary. | | Assumption of the B. V. Mary. The “falling asleep” of
St. Hyacinth.

[the B. V. Mary.

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St. Bernard.

St. Thaddeus, Apostle.
St. Jane Francis.

Samuel the Prophet.
SS. Timothy, Hippolytus, and Sym-
St. Philip Benitius. [phorian.
St. Bartholomew.

St. Eutyches.
St. Louis, King.

Transl. of St. Bartholomew.
St. Zephyrinus.
St. Joseph Calasanctius.
SS. Augustin and Hermes. sbina.
Decollation of St. John Bapt., St. Sa- Behead. of St. John Bapt.
SS. Rose of Lima, Felix, & Adauctus. S$. Alexander, Jolin, and
St. Aidan, Bishop of Lindisfarne. [Paul the younger, Patri-

[archs of Constantinople.

St. Rufus. St. Augustine.

| St. Augustine of Hippo. Passion of St. John Baptist. Behead. of St. John Bapt.

SS. Felix and Adauctus.
St. Cuthburga.

1] LAMMAS DAY.-The observation of this day as a feast of | father Patricius, a Pagan. Both paid great attention to the thanksgiving for the first-fruits of the corn dates from Saxon education of their son, the mother to his spiritual training, the times, in which it was called Haf-mæsse, or Loaf-mass, from the father to that secular education which was the foundation of his offering at the mass of bread made of the new corn. Other ex subsequent fame as a scholar. After being taught at home for a planations, e. g. Lamb-mass, have been given, but the above is while, he was sent to Madaura to be perfected in grammar and certainly the true one, as appears from old Saxon MSS. This is rhetoric. Returning home at the age of fifteen, he spent a year one of the four Cross-quarter days, at which rents were for in idleness, and, to the great sorrow of his holy mother, acquired merly due.

dissolute habits. After this he was sent to complete his educa6] TRANSFIGURATION.—This festival was instituted in the tion at Carthage, and here he plunged still deeper into vice and Greek Church as early as A.D. 700, and appears to have been ob dissipation. He did, however, devote some portion of his time to served at Rome in the time of St. Leo (cir. 450). Pope Ca study, and began to read the Holy Scriptures, which, of course, lixtus the Third issued a bull for its general observance, A.D. be could not at this period of his life appreciate. He then fell 1457, in remembrance of the deliverance of Belgrade from Maho into the Manichæan heresy, wbich appears to have accorded but met the Second. The glorious mystery of the Transfiguration is too well with his pride of intellect and profligacy of life. St. related by the three former Evangelists; but the festival has Monica was deeply grieved at the errors of her son, and would never ranked with the other festivals of our Lord, probably not even eat with him; but being assured by a holy Bishop that because its theological significance, though great, has appeared to the son of so many prayers and tears could not be lost, she be less evident than that of the rest. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : 2 St. became reconciled to him again. About this time he began to Pet. i. 16-19. St. Matt. xvii. 1-9.]

distrust Manichæism, and took to scepticism. Being rhetoric 7] NAME OF JESUS.- This commemoration was removed at professor at Milan in A.D. 384, he was attracted by the Sermons the Reformation from the Second Sunday after the Epiphany, of St. Ambrose, through whose influence he was gradually conbut in Saxon times it was observed on the Feast of the Circum verted to the Catholic faith, and was baptized A.D. 387. The Te cision. The special point which it sets before us is the peculiar Deum is sometimes called the Hymn of St. Ambrose and St. sanctity of that Name at which every knee should bow, and in the Augustine, from a tradition that it was composed and sung by power of which countless miracles have been wrought; a sanctity them on this occasion. [See p. 10.] After a diligent study of in some respects analogous to that of the Sacred name Jehovah, St. Paul's Epistles and of theology generally under the direction but representing to us the Love of the Saviour as well as the of St. Ambrose, he returned to Togaste, where he formed a small Majesty of His Godhead. The acknowledged symbol of this name society of brethren who devoted themselves to a religious life. in our Church for many centuries has been ihc or ihs; Anglicized In A.D. 391 he was admitted to Holy Orders by Valerius, Bishop forms of I.H.C., the first three letters in the Greek form of the of Hippo, whose coadjutor in the episcopate he became in 395, name IHCOYC. But I.H.S. is a modern alteration originating having spent the previous four years in retirement. He began with the Jesuits, whose symbol it is, and representing “Jesus to write against the Donatists in 394. In 396 he succeeded Hominum Salvator.” [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : Acts iv. 8–12. St. Valerius, and was obliged to occupy the Bishop's residence, but Matt. i. 20—23.]

here he also established a community of clergy living by rule, 10] ST. LAURENCE, the Deacon and Martyr, is said to have which afterwards developed into the Order of Augustinian Canons. been of Spanish extraction, but nothing is certainly known After an episcopate of thirty-five years he lived to see Hippo respecting his early years. He was ordained Deacon by St. besieged by the Vandals. Augustine and his clergy earnestly Sixtus II., and soon afterwards appointed chief of the Seven prayed for deliverance from the Church's foes; but in the third Deacons of Rome. The Christians were at this time suffering month of the siege he died of a fever, on August 28th, A.D. 430, under the eighth general persecution, and the Bishop of Rome in his seventy-seventh year, and was buried in the Church of was led forth to martyrdom in A.D. 258. Laurence, the Deacon, St. Stephen. He had been summoned to the third general made a most affecting appeal to be allowed to suffer with his council, but the Emperor's messenger arrived just too late to find “ father,” whom he had so often assisted in offering the Holy him alive. Nearly fifty years afterwards the African Bishops Sacrifice. This did not come to pass; but within a week he drew carried the body with them to Sardinia, whither they were upon himself the fury of the persecutors by refusing to deliver banished by Huneric, and about A.D. 710 it was purchased from up the property of the Church, and showing instead the poor the Saracens by the Lombards, and solemnly translated to the Christians as the real treasures of Christ. He was instantly Church of St. Peter at Pavia, where it now rests. His festival seized, and put to the torture, but could not be compelled to was observed at Carthage, a century after his death, and is a deny Christ. He was then laid on an iron frame with bars like holyday of obligation in the Spanish dominions. The distin. a gridiron, and slowly burnt to death over live coals. He suf guishing emblem of St. Augustine is a child with a shell, in allufered with marvellous patience and tranquillity, praying for the sion to his vision of the Infant Jesus pouring water into a hole in conversion of Rome. Prudentius, in a beautiful hymn, ascribes the sand of the shore, to show him the impossibility of underthe final conversion of the city to this martyr's intercession. standing the mystery of the Trinity. Sometimes a heart, or an He is named in the earliest Roman Calendar, A.D. 354, and his eagle, are represented with him. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp. : Ecclus. name has always been in the Canon of the Roman mass. No xlvii. 8–11. St. Matt. v. 13–19.] less than 250 churches are dedicated to him in England, and he 29] This minor festival of St. John the Baptist commewas honoured by a vigil and octave in this country as well as at morates his being beheaded at the instigation of Herodias, as Rome. He is one of the three “Minor" Saints in the Calendar related in Matt. xiv. 1–12. It is probable that the event of Queen Elizabeth's reign. His distinguishing emblem is the took place shortly before the Passover, A.D. 32; and that it is gridiron, and he is represented as a young man in alb and dal celebrated on the 29th of August as the day on which some matic, carrying a clasped book, or a bag, the latter in allusion to

translation of his relics took place. Portions of his head are said the treasure be refused to deliver up. The Palace of the Escu

to be still kept at Amiens and at Rome. He was held in great rial, about fifteen miles from Madrid, was built by Philip the honour in this country, upwards of 390 churches being dedicated Second, A.D. 1563, in place of a monastery dedicated to St. Lau to him, and his decollation, and the circumstances connected with rence which he had been obliged to demolish in some military it, were favourite subjects in mediæval representations. The operations. It is built on the plan of a gridiron, which forin is nativity of St. John the Baptist (June 24th) is observed as his also carried into all the details. [Sar. Ep. and Gosp.: 2 Cor. ix. greater festival, probably because of his miraculous birth, and its 6-10. St. John xii. 24-26.]

connexion with that of our Blessed Lord. The Agnus Dei is his 28] ST. AUGUSTINE, or Austin, was one of the most illustrious

distinguishing emblem, and he is represented clad in skins, of the Fathers, and is honoured as one of the Four Doctors of the carrying a vexillum or pennon with the words Ecce, agnus Dei, Western Church. He was born of humble parents, A.D. 354, at [Prov. x. 28–32, and xi. 3. 6. 8–11. St. Mark vi, 17—29.7 Togaste, in Numidia. His mother Monica was a Christian; his

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