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is an engraving made from one of two which were found by the present writer under the floor of Over Church, near Cambridge, in 1857. It is of a late date, and has had “In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,” in the place of the Angelic Salutation ; but it is given as an illustration of the traditional practice, and because it is of special interest from being found in a church.
While these horn-books were thus provided for the poor, the Scriptorium of the Monastery also provided Prymers in English and Latin for those who could afford the expensive luxury of a book. The Latin Prymers are well known under the name of " Books of Hours." Vernacular Prymers exist which were written as early as the fourteenth century, and many relics of old English devotion of that date will be found in the following pages of this volume. These English Prymers contained about one-third of the Psalms, the Canticles, the Apostles' Creed, with a large number of the prayers, anthems, and perhaps hymns. They continued to be published up to the end of Henry VIII's reign; and, in a modified form, even at a later date: and they must have familiarized those who used them with a large portion of the Services, even when they did not understand the Latin in which those services were said by the Clergy and choirs.
Books were also provided in which were given tables of reference to the Lessons, Epistles, and Gospels. The following is the title of one, and a specimen of the references is annexed :
“Here begynneth a rule that tellith in whiche chapitris of the bible ye may fynde the lessouns, pistlis and gospels, that ben red in the churche aftir the vse of salisburi : markid with lettris of the a. b. c. at the begynnynge of the chapitris toward the myddil or eende: aftir the ordre as the lettris stonden in the a. b. c. first ben sett sundaies and ferials togidere: and aftir that the sanctorum, the propre and comyn togider of al the yeer : and thanne last the commemoraciouns: that is clepid the temporal of al the yere. First is written a clause of the begynnynge of the pistle and gospel, and a clause of the endynge therof.”
“ The first sonenday ) Rom. xiii. c. 1 d. we knowen this tyme. , ende. in the lord Ihs Ct.
of aduent. Mattheu. xxi. c. a. whanne ihs cam nygh. I ende. osanna in high thingis."
Such provisions for the accompaniment of the Latin Service went a good way towards rendering it intelligible to those who could read. Nor must we omit to mention the sermons for Christian Seasons, and on the elements of Christian Faith and Practice, which went under the name of the “ Festivale" or “Liber Festivalis." These were printed by Caxton in 1483, and often reprinted between then and the time when our present Homilies and other books of the kind were set forth'.
Soon after the accession of Edward VI., which occurred in January 1546-7, a Visitation of all the Dioceses of England was commenced, and the well-known “Injunctions of Edward VI.” were printed on July 31st, 1547. In May of the same year a King's letter was sent to the Archbishops, giving notice of an intended Visitation, and in October some other Injunctions were issued by the Royal Visitors, which appear never to have been printed. They are here copied (with the exception of the last three, which have no bearing on our subject) from Fothergill's MS. Collections in York Minster Library :
“Injunctions given by the King's Majestie's Visitors in his Highness' Visitation to Robt. Holdgate Ld. A. B. the Dn. Chapter, and all other the Ecclesiastical ministers of and in the Cathedral Church of York, 26 Sbris An. 1547.
 “Ye shall at all days and times when nine lessons ought or were accustomed to be sung, sing Mattins only of six Lessons and six Psalms with the song of Te Deum Laudamus or Miserere, as the time requireth, after the six Lessons : and that dayly from the Annunciation of our Lady to the first day of October ye shall begin Mattins at six of the clock in the morning, and residue of the year at seven of the clock.
 “ Item. Ye shall sing and celebrate in note or song within the said Church but only one Mass, that is to say, High Mass only, and none other, and daily begin the same at nine of the clock before noon.
 “ Item. Ye shall daily from the said feast of the Annunciation to the said first day of October, sing the Evensong and Complin without any responds : and begin the same at three of the clock in the afternoon. The residue of the year to begin at two of the clock, or half an hour after.
 “ Item. Ye shall hereafter omit, and not use the singing of any hours, prime, dirige, or commendations; but every man to say the same as him sufficeth or he is disposed.
 “ Item. Ye.shall sing, say, use, or suffer none other Anthems in the Church but these hereafter following, and such as by the King's Majesty and his most Honourable Council hereafter shall be set forth.
Anthem. “Like as Moses lift up the serpent in the wilderness, even so was our Saviour Jesus Christ lift upon the Cross, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have joy for ever. For God so loved the world, that He gave His only-begotten Son, that such as believe in Him should not perish, but have life everlasting.
1 The necessity for a vernacular Service is strongly asserted in the Preface to the edition of the Prymer [A.D. 1545] which goes by the name of the King's,” though probably the king had nothing to do with it further than signing an order for its publi. cation. It is there declared, “The party that understandeth not the pith and effectualness of the talk that he frankly maketh with God, may be as an harp or pipe having a sound, but not understanding the noise that itself hath made;" and the king is then made to say that he has given to his subjects " a determinate form of praying in their own mother-tongue, to the intent that such as are ignorant of any strange speech, may have what to pray in their own acquainted and familiar language with fruit and understanding." But the credit thus given to the king was given in the adulatory spirit of the age. Such books had long
been provided for the laity by the Clergy, but they were now to
? Cardwell's Doc. Ann. i. 24.
“V. Increase, O Lord, our faith in Thee.
Let us pray. “Most bountiful and benign Lord God, we, Thy humble servants, freely redeemed and justified by the passion, death, and resurrection of our Saviour Jesus Christ, in full trust of salvation therein, most humbly desire Thee so to strengthen our faith and illuminate us with Thy grace, that we may walk and live in Thy favour, and after this life to be partakers of Thy glory in the everlasting kingdom of Heaven, through our Lord Jesus Christ. So be it.
Another Anthem. “ Be it evident and known unto all Christians that through our Lord Jesus Christ forgiveness of sins is preached unto you, and that by Him all that believe are justified from all things from the which we could not be justified by the law of Moses. So be it.
“ . O Lord, for Christ's sake our Saviour. “R. Accept and hear our humble prayer.
Let us pray. “We sinners do beseech Thee, O Lord, to keep Edward the sixth, Thy Servant, our King and Governor; that it may please Thee to rule his heart in Thy faith, fear, and love; that he may ever have affiance in Thee, and ever seek Thy honour and glory. That it may please Thee to be his defender and keeper, giving him the victory over all his enemies, through our Lord Jesus Christ. So be it.
“The residue of the day ye shall bestow in virtuous and godly exercises, as in study and contemplation of God His most holy word.
“All which and singular Injunctions before mentioned the Lord Archbishop of this Church, his Chancellor, Archdeacons, or Official, shall publish and send, or cause to be published and sent and observed in to every Church, College, Hospital, and other ecclesiastical places within his Diocese.
 “ Item. All Sermons, Collations, and Lectures of Divinity hereafter to be had or made in visitations, Synods, Chapters, or at any other time or place, shall not be used in the Latin Tongue, but in the English, to the intent that every man having recourse thereunto may well perceive the same.”
These remarkable Injunctions have quite the appearance of taking up the reform of the Liturgy exactly where it had been laid down through the refusal of Henry VIII. to sanction the English Processional: for what are here called “ Anthems” are exactly similar in character to those parts of the Service which were printed for each Festival in the Latin Processional of Salisbury, the variable part of the Litany, by which it was adapted to the different seasons of the Christian year. They were also used in the “ Hours,” and seem to show the original form of the “Anthem !."
But all sound reasons for offering up the praises and prayers of the Church in Latin had really passed away many years before this. The reverent prejudices which had still held men to the old habit were also dying off; and the time had arrived when the English language could with wisdom be wholly adopted by the English Church in her work of Divine Service.
to of No records have yet been discovered which throw any light upon the details of which the Prayer the Committee's work in producing the Prayer Book of 1549. It appears to have
ele occupied them for several months, notwithstanding their previous labours; and there is every mark of deliberation and reverence in the result. The foundation of their work, or rather the quarry out of which they extracted their chief materials, was the Reformed Salisbury Use of 1516 and 1541 : but some other books were evidently used by them, and it may be safely concluded that they did not end their labours before they had gone through a large amount of liturgical research. The
See also the Easter Processional Anthem at p. 105.
following list may be taken as fairly representing the principal books which the Committee of Convocation had before them as the materials for their work of revision :
'The Salisbury Portiforium', Missal, Manual, and Pontifical.
How far the Book of Common Prayer was influenced by these works will be shown in the margin and the foot-notes of the following pages. But even a superficial glance at the latter will make it apparent that the new book was, substantially, as it still remains, a condensed reproduction, in English, of those Service-books which had been used in Latin by the Church of England for many centuries before.
The Reformation in Germany was in active progress at this time (not having yet lost the impetus given to it by the strong-handed leadership of Luther), and Cranmer had been much in correspondence with Melancthon and some other German divines during the reign of Henry VIII. But these foreign reformers had scarcely any influence upon the Prayer Book of 1549; and were probably not even consulted during its progress towards completion. Melancthon and Bucer assisted the Archbishop of Cologne in preparing his “ Consultation” (one of the books referred to), and they probably used Luther's version of the ancient Nuremberg offices. But this volume contributed little to our Prayer Book beyond a few clauses in the Litany, and some portions of the Baptismal Service; and it is somewhat doubtful whether in the case of the Litany our English form was not in reality the original of that in Hermann's book. Most likely the latter was translated and brought before Convocation with the hope that it would have much influence; but the Committee of Revision were too wise and too learned in Liturgical matters to attach much importance to it 8.
It is, in some respects, unfortunate that we cannot trace the book of 1549 into any further detail during the time when it was in the hands of the Committee. We cannot even form any definite conjecture as to the parts respectively taken by its members in the work before them ; nor can one of the original collects which they inserted be traced back to its author. And yet there is some satisfaction in this. The book is not identified with any one name, but is the work of the Church of England by its authorized agents and representatives; and as we reverence the architects of some great cathedral for their work's sake, without perhaps knowing the name of any one of them, or the portions which each one designed, so we look upon the work of those who gave us our first English Book of Common Prayer,
1 “Breviarium seu Portiforium secundum Morem et Consue. | 1548. Imprinted at London by Jhon Daye and William Seres tudinem Ecclesiæ Sarisburiensis Anglicanæ.” It is called “ Salis. dwellynge in Sepulchre's paryshe at the signe of the Resurrection, bury Use" in the Preface of our Prayer Book; and that term, oralytle aboue Holbourne Conduit. Cum gratia et privilegio im. Sarum Use, is adopted generally for the Breviary, Missal, and primendum solum." other Service-books of the same origin.
6 See Maskell's “Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesiæ Anglicana,” ? Referred to in the Prayer Book Preface, as “ Hereford Use, vol. ii.; and Burton's "Three Primers of Henry VIII.” the Use of Bangor, York Use, and Lincoln Use.”
7 "The Byble in Englyshe, that is to saye, the content of all 3 “ Breviarium Romanum, ex sacra potissimum Scriptura, et the holy scripture bothe of ye olde and newe testament, truly probatis Sanctorum historiis nuper confectum, ac denuo per translated after the veryte of the Hebrue and Greke textes, by eundem Authorem accuratius recognitum, eaque diligentia hoc in ye dylygent studye of diverse excellent learned men, expert in anno a mendis ita purgatum, ut Momi judicium non pertimescat. the forsayde tonges. Printed by Rychard Grafton and Edward Lugduni. 1543."
Whitchurch. Cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum. 1539." 4 “Simplex ac pia deliberatio de Reformatione Ecclesiarum 8 It may be added that Cranmer had married a niece of OsianElectoratus Coloniensis."
der, who is said to have prepared the Nuremberg formularies for 5 “A simple and religious consultation of us Hermann by the Luther, and who was also the original compiler of a Catechism grace of God Archbishop of Colone and Prince Elector, &c., by for Nuremberg and Brandenberg, of which that of Justus Jonas what meanes a Christian reformation, and founded in God's is a Latin translation. John à Lasco is said to have had some worde, Of doctrine, Administration of Divine Sacraments, Of influence with Cranmer, and he certainly lived with the ArchCeremonies, and the whole cure of soules, and other ecclesiastical bishop at Lambeth from September to February in the year ministries, may be begun among men until the lord graunte a | 1548-9. But the Prayer Book was before Parliament on Decembetter to be appoynted, either by a free and christian counsaile, ber 9th, 1548-9, and was before the King in Council previously. generall or national, or else by the states of the Empire of the It passed the Lords on January 15th, and the Commons on the nation of Gerinany, gathered together in the Holy Ghost. | 21st. Foreigners were very forward in interfering, but their Perused by the translator thercof and amended in many places. suggestions were civilly put aside at this time.
admiring its fair proportions, and the skill which put it together, and caring but little to inquire whose was the hand that traced this or that particular compartment of the whole. Although we cannot thus trace out the work of each hand in this great undertaking, we can,
the however, by means of internal evidence, and a comparison with the older formularies, changes made in the find out the nature of their labours, and something of the manner in which they went Services.
about them. It was made a first principle that every thing in the new Prayer Book was to be in English ; a principle respecting which, as has been shown before, there seems to have been not the slightest doubt or hesitation. Their first labour was, then, that of condensing the old services into a form suitable for the object in view, and yet keeping up the spirit and general purpose of the original and ancient worship of the Church.
 A great step was made in this direction by substituting a Calendar of Lessons referring to the Holy Bible for the Lessons at length as they had been hitherto printed in the Breviary. This made it possible to combine the Breviary [daily services], the Missal (Holy Communion], Epistles and Gospels (&c.), and the Manual [Occasional Offices], in one volume. A precedent for this was offered by a practice which had been adopted in the fifteenth century of printing the Communion Service (though not the Epistles and Gospels) as part of the Breviary! The Marriage Service was also printed in the Missal, which was a precedent for introducing the other services of the Manual into the Prayer Book.
 The next step towards condensation was the adoption of a less variable system in the daily services, so that the Collect of the day, the Lessons, and the Psalms should be almost the only portions of Mattins and Evensong which needed to be changed from day to day, or week to week.
 Lastly, the several hours of Prayer were condensed into two, Mattins and Evensong, with a third added on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, in the form of the Litany. The ancient arrangement of the day for Divine Service was as follows:
Nocturns or Mattins ; a service before daybreak.
These services were often, if not generally, “accumulated” in the Mediæval Church as they are at the present day on the Continent; several being said in succession, just as Mattins, Litany, and the Communion Service have been “accumulated,” in modern times, in the Church of England. But the • different offices had many parts in common, and this way of using them led to unmeaning repetitions of Versicles and Prayers. This evil was avoided by condensing and amalgamating them, so that repetitions took place only at the distant hours of Morning and Evening. The services of Mattins, Lauds, and Prime, were thus condensed into Mattins; those for Vespers and Compline into Evensong. The three other hours appear (from a table of Psalms given in the Introduction to the Psalter) to have fallen out of public use long before the reformation of our offices; and they were probably regarded as services for monastic and private use only. The general result of this process of condensation will be best seen by the following table, in which the course of the ancient Mattins, Lauds, and Prime, is indicated side by side with that of the Mattins of 1549; and in the same manner, Vespers and Compline are set parallel with Evensong. From this comparison it will be clearly seen that the Book of Common Prayer was framed out of the ancient Offices of the Church of England, by consolidation and translation of the latter, the same principles which have been above indicated being also extended to the Communion Service and the Occasional Offices. The details of the changes that were made will be found in the notes under each portion of the Prayer Book in the following pages.
| So in Sarum Breviaries of 1499, 1507, 1510, 1514, 1535, * See also No. 4 of the Injunctions which are printed on 1541. B. Mus. and Bodleian Libraries.
| page xxv.