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M HE Morning and Evening Prayer shall be used in the accustomed Place
1 of the Church, Chapel, or Chancel; except it shall be otherwise determined by the Ordinary of the Place. And the Chancels shall remain as they have done in times past.
And here is to be noted, that such Ornaments of the Church, and of the Ministers thereof, at all times of their Ministration, shall be retained and be in use as were in this Church of England, by the Authority of Parliament, in the Second Year of the Reign of King Edward the Sixth.
The second part of this important Rubric--the Interpretation Clause to the Ritual Law of the Church of England is fully explained and illustrated in the Third Section of the Ritual Introduction, p. lxv.
The first part of it is still exactly in the form in which it was printed in the Prayer Book of Queen Elizabeth's reign (A.D. 1559]. In the Second Prayer Book of Edward VI., it stood in this form : “ The Morning and Evening Prayer shall be used in such place of the Church, Chapel, or Chancel, and the Minister shall so turn him, as the people may best hear. And if there be any controversy therein, the matter shall be referred to the Ordinary, and he or his deputy shall appoint the place, and the chancels shall remain as they have done in times past." In the Prayer Book of 1549 the rubric at the head of Morning Prayer was, “ The Priest being in the quire, shall begin with a loud voice the Lord's Prayer, called the Pater noster."
The “reading-desk” was not invented until after the rubric had taken its present form, and the “accustomed place” was the “pue” (beginning then to be so called) in which the Clergy and singers sat, and which was ordinarily situated on either side of the chancel. In the Advertisements of 1565, it was directed " that the Common Prayer be said or sung decently and distinctly, in such place as the Ordinary shall think meet for the
largeness and straitness of the church and choir, so that the people may be most edified.” [Cardw. Docum. Ann. i. 291.] Such lawless bishops as Scambler of Peterborough, who knew no rule but “sic volo, sic jubeo,” forbade the service to be said in the chancel at all, under the singular plea used against it by the foreigner Bucer, that such a practice was “Antichristian.” Thas the erection of reading-desks in the nave became common, the “clerks” were reduced to one, the authorized mode of Divine Worship died out in a vast number of churches during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and instead of the chancels remaining as they had done in times past, they were too often looked on either as a kind of lumber-room, to be cleared out once a quarter for the administration of the Holy Communion; or as a part of the church where the most comfortable and honourable seats were provided for the richer laity. Such customs have tended to obscure the sense of the rubric, and are recalled to memory only for the purpose of explaining how it came to be so disregarded in modern times. In Griffin 0. Dighton, Chief Justice Erle decided (on appeal in 1864) that the chancel is the place appointed for the Clergyman and for those who assist him in the performance of Divine Service, and that it is entirely under his control as to access and use, subject to the jurisdiction of the Ordinary.
DAILY THROUGHOUT THE YEAR.
of the Scriptures, and my sin is ever befo transgressions, Pr. li. 8.
“Executor offi- f At the beginning of Morning Prayer the Mi- | I acknowledge my transgressions, Ps. li. 3.
or more of these Sentences of the Scriptures,
| Hide thy face from my sins, and Ps. li. 9. which is written after the said Sentences. | blot out mine iniquities. Ezek. xviii. 27. W H EN the wicked man turneth The Sacrifices of God are a broken Ps. li. 17.
W away from his wickedness, that spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, he hath committed, and doeth that o God, thou wilt not despise. which is lawful and right, he shall Rend your hearts, and not your gar- Joel ii. 13. save his soul alive.
I ments, and turn unto the Lord your
The Sache iniquities my sins,
ess, that I
The Order for Morning Prayer] The word “ Order” in the for the change. In the first place, the full effect of the dissolusense here intended has almost passed out of use. It simply tion of Monasteries was making itself felt by ritualists, and a means regulation or ordinance, according to its derivation from penitential prefix to the service was considered more appropriate the Latin word ordo. Morning Prayer was called by the ancient for a mixed congregation than the previous mode of opening it, popular name of “ Mattins” (abbreviated from Matutina), in the which was suitable for communities professedly spending nearly original English Prayer Book of 1549; and that name is still their whole time in the religious portion of a Christian's duty. retained in the three Tables of Proper Lessons and Proper And, in the second place, a relaxation of the rule about private Psalms, and also in the Elizabethan Act of Uniformity.
Confession made it expedient to place a public Confession and
Absolution within the reach of all, day by day.
The Sentences themselves (which bad nearly all been previously The ancient Mattins of the Church of England began with, “In in use as Capitula, during Lent) are a reproduction at the the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," beginning of Divine Service of the Invitatories which were pre(and the sign of the Cross, followed by an inaudible recitation fixed to the Venite in the ancient Mattins. In both cases the of the Lord's Prayer by the Priest who officiated. Then was object is to give the key-note to the service which is to follow. said, “O Lord, open Thou my lips : And my mouth shall shew In the Salisbury use two such Sentences, with a Versicle and forth Thy praise.” This opening of the service was retained in Collect, were prefixed to Mattins on Easter Day. These were the 1549 Prayer Book, but the Lord's Prayer was directed still ordered to be “solemnly sung or said” in the same place in to be said “with a loud voice," instead of secreto. In the 1552 the 1549 Prayer Book ; but on the appointment of the Sentences Prayer Book, these Sentences, with the Exhortation, Confession, now in use, the former were directed to be used instead of Venite, and Absolution, were prefixed to Morning Prayer, but not to and are printed before the Easter Collect. It was in this light Evening Prayer. This addition was suggested, probably, by the that the Sentences were viewed by Bp. Andrewes, who suggested second reformed Breviary of Cardinal Quignonez, in which the some others in the following note: “ Adde huc, quod ad ancient Confession and Absolution, hereafter given, were placed invitandam pænitentiam egregia sunt misericordiæ et longaniat the beginning of Mattins. But other reasons are also apparert | mitatis encomia. Ps. lxxviii. 38. Jer, iji. 7. 12. Heb. iv."
Gen. xvii. I.
God: for he is gracious, and merciful, sins, and to cleanse us from all un-
and repenteth him of the evil. Dan. ix. 9, 10. To the Lord our God belong mercies N EARLY beloved brethren, the Phil. iv. I.
and forgivenesses, though we have re Scripture moveth us in sundry See the above
them before the face of Almighty God John xv. 22. Jer, x. 24. O Lord correct me, but with judge- our heavenly Father, but confess them Matt. vi. 14. Ps. vi. 1.
ment; not in thine anger, lest thou with an humble, lowly, penitent, and Ps. li. 3. 17. bring me to nothing.
obedient heart, to the end that we may Matt. iii. 2. Matt. iii. 2. Repent ye; for the Kingdom of obtain forgiveness of the same, by his Joel l. 13, 14. Heaven is at hand.
infinite goodness and mercy. And Luke xv. 18, I will arise and go to my Father, although we ought at all times humbly * Ps. xxxviii. 18
and will say unto him ; Father, I have to acknowledge our sins before God, 14.
to render thanks for the great benefits 2 Chron. vi. 18– Ps. cxliii. 2. Enter not into judgement with thy that we have received at his hands, to ps. c. 4.
servant, O Lord; for in thy sight shall set forth his most worthy praise, to 1 Chron. xvi. 8. 9. no man living be justified.
hear his most holy word, and to ask Ps. exlix. 1. 1 John i. 8, 9. If we say that we have no sin, we those things, which are requisite and
deceive our selves, and the truth is not necessary, as well for the body as the Deut.xxxi.11, 12. in us. But, if we confess our sins, he soul. Wherefore I pray and beseech 2 Chron. vii. 13. is faithful and just to forgive us our you as many as are here present, to Matt. vii. 6. 11.
Luke xviii. 13,
Hos. xiv. 1, 2.
21. vii, 16.
Acts xiii. 44.
Isa. Ivi. 7.
As Invitatories intended to give the key-note to the Service, to the clergyman officiating. There is, however, no ritual prin-
There is an analogy between this Exhortation and some which Fridays and Vigils : “I acknowledge.”
were used, at the Holy Communion and in Lent, in the ancient Wednesdays: “Hide thy face.”
services of the Church of England. There is also a trace of Ordinary days: “When the wicked man.” “I will arise.”
similarity between it and the opening of Pullain's L'Ordre des “ If we say."
Prières Ecclésiastiques, printed for the use of the German Sundays, other holy days, and Eves: “To the Lord our God.” refugees at Glastonbury, in 1552. The words of the latter are, There is a well-known traditional practice of singing one of these
“ Mes Frères, qu'un chascun de vous se présente devant la face du Sentences as an anthem; “I will arise” being very frequently
Seigneur, avec confession de ses fautes et péchez, suyvant de tout so used. Such a practice seems to be in strict keeping with
son cueur mes (pa]rolles !." But there is too little resemblance their character as Invitatories, and in analogy with the use of
between our Exhortation and these to give any critical ground for the Easter Sentences referred to; as also with such a use of the
supposing that it was founded upon any of them; and it must be Offertory Sentences in the Communion Service.
concluded that those who revised the Prayer Book in 1552 were Read with a loud voice? This is an ecclesiastical or technical | entirely responsible for its composition. phrase, the explanation of which is to be found in a Rubric before It has been called a short homily on Divine worship; and may the Te Deum in the previous editions of the Prayer Book :
also be taken as following up the general Invitatory, as it was " Then shall be read two Lessons distinctly with a loud voice."
followed formerly by the Venite. It was probably inserted “Then shall the Lessons be sung in a plain tune, after the man
here under the impression that the people at large were extremely ner of distinct reading; and likewise the Epistle and Gospel.” ignorant of the true nature of Divine worship at the time. Five It is the clara vox of older ritualists, and presupposes a musical in
principal parts of worship are mentioned in it. (1) Confession of tonation, with or without inflection, to be the customary way of
sin; (2) Absolution ; (3) Thanksgiving and Praise; (4) The hearing reciting Divine Service.
of God's Word; (5) Prayer for spiritual and bodily benefits. In In Bishop Cosin's revision he appended to the word “minister” this structure also it bears some analogy to the Venite. the following note :-" That is, he who at that time ministereth
The Minister celebrating Divine Service is directed to “say" or celebrateth Divine Service ;” and although it was not deemed this Exhortation, “saying " being the ritual term for reciting on necessary at the time to print this note, it is valuable to us now
one musical note, or “monotoning," as distinguisned from as showing the technical meaning which was attached to the
“singing,” which is reciting with musical inflections, and from word Minister, when used in the Rubric. He also added
“reading," which is a general term, including both methods. If Isaiah lv. 6, 7, and 1 John i. 9, the latter verse being adopted,
the Exhortation is said from memory, and with the face turned but not the former; and “or more" after “some one" in the
towards the congregation, it becomes much more expressive of the Rubric.
intention with which it was placed here, than when said as a mere Some may consider that the terms of the Rubric, both here and
1 This book was also printed in Latin, perhaps before it came out in fore the Offertory Sentences, strictly limit the recitation of them | French. The French edition seems to be very rare.
Hos. xiv. 1. 2.
2 Cor: 2. 1 accompany me with a pure heart and 'we have done those things which we Isa. Wlx. 12, 13. Eccles. v. 1, 2. humble voice unto the throne of the ought not to have done; And there is Gal. 5. 17.. heavenly grace, saying after me. no health in us. But thou, O Lord,, li. 1–3...
Luke xviii. 13.
have mercy upon us, miserable of. Prov. XXviii. 13. TA general Confession to be said of the whole
fenders. Spare thou them, O God, Joel ii. 17. Congregation after the Minister, all kneel. which confess their faults. Restore Jer. iii. 22. ing.
thou them that are penitent; Ac- Ps. xxiii. 3. LMIGHTY, and most merciful cording to thy promises declared unto Matt. i. 21.
| Father; We have erred, and mankind in Christ Jesu our Lord. 2 Cor. i. 20. strayed from thy ways like lost sheep. And grant, О most merciful Father, John xvi. 23. 24. We have followed too much the devices for his sake; That we may hereafter John xv. 8.
and desires of our own hearts. We live a godly, righteous, and sober Dan. ix. 9, 10. have offended against thy holy laws. life, To the glory of thy holy Name. Eph. ii. 20, 21. Rom. vii. 12. We have left undone those things Amen. Lam. iii. 40. 42. which we ought to have done ; And I
Isa. Ixiii. 16.
Acts x. 36, 43.
1 John i. 9.
Titus ii. 11, 12.
Jer. xvii. 9.
1 John iii. 4.
form for passing away a few seconds, while the congregation is | fessional formularies of the Ancient Church, the ideas being a settling into a devotional frame of mind.
common heritage of every age and country. It has not underThe concluding words, “after me,” were erased by Bishop gone any alteration since its first introduction into morning Cosin, for what reason is not apparent, and were restored by the prayer. Committee of Revision. They define the manner in which the It has been observed, that this general Confession appears to Confession is to be said; as also do the words “humble voice," be founded on Romans vii. 8-25. which represent the submissa vox of old rubrics.
We have followed too much S in .... wrought in me all
the devices and desires of our concupiscence. THE GENERAL CONFESSION.
own hearts. After the Minister, all kneeling]
The law is holy.... but
I am carnal, sold under sin. word “after” in this Rubric, and substituted “with;" but
We have left undone those The good that I would, I do the original word was carefully restored, showing that a distinc
things which we ought to have not. tion was intended between the two words in their ritual use.
done. “After the Minister" means, that each clause is to be said first by
We have done those things. But the evil which I would the Minister alone, and then repeated by the whole congregation " alone-i. e. while the Minister remains silent, as in the
which we ought not to have not, that I do.
done. case of a response after a versicle. “With” the Minister means
And there is no health in us. In me dwelleth no good simultaneous recitation by him and the congregation together,
thing. 0.... the body of and is ordered in the Rubric before the Lord's Prayer. The word
this death. “all” was also one of Bishop Cosin's additions, and is illustrated
But Thou, O Lord, have O wretched man that I am, by his note in another volume: “Kneeling is the most fit gesture
mercy upon us miserable offen who shall deliver me? for humble penitents; and being so, it is strange to see how in
ders. most places, men are suffered to sit rudely and carelessly on their
According to Thy promises, I thank God, through Jesus seats all the while this Confession is read; and others that be in
declared unto mankind in Christ Christ our Lord. church are nothing affected with it. They think it a thing of
Jesu our Lord. indifferency forsooth, if the heart be right.” This sitting posture
All the phrases of the Confession have, however, a Scripduring public confessions was one of the abuses that scandalized
tural ring; and it was very likely compiled almost verbatim from the Puritans; and they sought to have a Canon passed, enjoining
some old English version of the Bible, or else freely rendered all to kneel. The eighteenth Canon does indeed direct that
(according to the habit of the day in sermons) from the "all manner of persons then present shall reverently kneel upon
Vulgate Psalms, and other Scriptures indicated above in the their knees when the general Confession, Litany, and other
margin. prayers are read .... testifying by these outward ceremonies
The manner and spirit in which a general confession of sins may and gestures, their inward humility." The gesture of kneeling here and elsewhere is not only a mark
be made personally and particularly applicable, is pointedly set
forth in a Rubric which precedes the Confession to be used on of personal humility and reverence, but also one of those acts
board ship when there is danger of shipwreck : “When there is required of every one as an individual component part of the body which forins the congregation; and to neglect it is to neglect a
imminent danger, as many as can be spared from necessary serduty which is owing to God and man in this respect, as well as
vice in the ship, shall be called together, and make an humble the other. We have no right to conspicuous private gestures in
Confession of their sin to God, in which every one ought seriously a public devotional assembly; nor are the gestures which we
to reflect upon those particular sins of which his conscience shall
accuse him, saying as followeth." That a confession so made can there use in conformity to the rules of the Church) to be neces
be otherwise than acceptable to the Good Shepherd and Physician sarily interpreted as hypocritical because our personal habits or
of our souls it is impossible to doubt. That further and more feelings may not be entirely consistent with them. As the
detailed confession is also at times necessary, the provisions made clergy have an official duty in church, irrespective of their per
by the Church for her penitents, and the private habits of all sonal characters, so also have the laity. It may be added, that a
pious Christians, make equally certain. respectful conformity to rules enjoining such official duties, may
The “ Amen” is part of the Confession, and is to be said by often lead onward to true personal reverence and holiness.
both minister and people, as is indicated by the type in which it As far as present researches show, the general Confession appears to be an original composition of some of the revisers of
is printed. 1552; but its principal features are, of course, represented in con.
1 Archd. Freeman's "Principles of Divine Service," i. 320.
mer, at end of
The Absolution or Remission of sins to be
the people still kneeling. 2 Cor. 1, 3.
| LMIGHTY God, the Father of [LORD God, which dost not suffer Marshall's PriEzek.xviii. 31,32. H our Lord Jesus Christ, who de- sinners to perish and die in their works, Litany. 2 Pet. ill. 9.
sireth not the death of a sinner, but but rather wilt that they shall convert Ezek. xxxiii. 11. rather that he may turn from his and live, we humbly pray Thee to forJohn XX. 21, 22. wickedness and live; and hath given give us now while we have time and Ci: Greg. Sabb. in
power and commandment to his Mi space .....
2 Cor. ii. 10.
v. 18-20. Isa. xliii. 23. Ps. lxxxvi. 3.
Acts ii. 38. xiii.
likeness is not such as to make it probable that the English form by the Priest alone, standing] This Rubric stood in the form was derived from his Latin one, though it does rather indicate " by the Minister alone,” until 1661. Bishop Cosin altered it that both were in part derived from some such originals as those to “by the Minister alone standing, and all the people still printed in the text above. kneeling," and his alteration subsequently developed into the
Two questions have been raised with respect to this form existing words before the revision was completed. The reason
of Absolution. First, whether those who composed it, and for inserting the word “standing” was that some of the clergy placed it where it is, intended it for an Absolution of penitent had been accustomed to read it on their knees, although, as sinners, or merely for a declaration of God's mercy. Secondly, Bishop Andrewes wrote, “because he speaks it authoritative, in whether, irrespective of their intention, it is so constructed as to the name of Christ and His Church, the Minister must not kneel, be effective for the remission of sins. but stand up," and this posture was observed by the majority. (1) The first question is all but decided by the title. Here, in The other three words, “the Priest alone,” have a history which the Communion Service, and in the Prayers to be used at Sea, the fixes their meaning. At the Savoy Conference of 1661, the same word, “ Absolution," is used for designating two different Presbyterians' 11th “exception" to the Prayer Book was to the forms; and in the Visitation of the Sick, the third form in use by effect that as the word “ Minister" was used in the rubric before the Church of England is spoken of in the direction “the Priest the Absolution, and not “ Priest,” or “ Curate," therefore it should shall absolve him.” It seems beyond all probability that this be used instead of those words throughout the book. To this it designation could have been used of all three forms without any was replied by the Church of England Commissioners that verbal distinction, and yet that a real difference of meaning lay it would be unreasonable to use the word Minister alone, for hidden under the use of it, and that to such an extent as to make “since some parts of the Liturgy may be performed by a Deacon, it in one place contradictory of itself in another place. What the others by none under the order of a Priest, viz., Absolution, word “Absolution” in the rubrical title so far proves, is conConsecration, it is fit that some such word as Priest should be firmed by the addition made to it at the Hampton Court Con. used for those officers, and not Minister, which signifies at large ference of 1604, when it was altered to the “Absolution, or every one that ministers in that holy office, of what Order remission of sins," clearly showing what opinion the Divines soever he be.” The word “ Minister” had formerly been used as there assembled held respecting the intention with which the identical with “Priest,” as may be seen by the 32nd Canon, form was inserted fifty-one years before. It is still further which forbids Bishops to “make any person, of what qualities or confirmed by a note of Bishop Andrewes (one already quoted), gifts soever, a Deacon and a Minister both together in one day.” | in which, after saying that the Absolution is pronounced authori. This distinctive meaning had now passed away, and “Ministers" tative, he adds, “ For authority of Absolution, see Ezek. xxxii. was colloquially the name for Dissenting preachers, and for 12. Job xxxiii. 23. Num. vi. 24. 2 Sam. xii. 13. John Clergymen of every Order. By the insertion of the new word, XX. 23.” An examination of these passages of Scripture will therefore, the whole Rubric was intended to enjoin, not only that show that Bishop Andrewes (one of the most learned theothe congregation are not to repeat the Absolution, as they have logians and Scriptural scholars that the Church of England has repeated the Confession, but also that it must not be said by a ever had) must certainly have supposed that this was intended Deacon. If a Deacon says Morning or Evening Prayer, in the for an actual Absolution ; and that, in his opinion, it was presence of a Priest, the latter should say the Absolution, and if such. no Priest is present, tho Deacon should make a pause, to give (2) The Absolution itself is constructed on a similar principle opportunity for the offering up of a short secret prayer by
to that on which Collects are formed ; and as the precatory part himself and the congregation, and then pass on to the Lord's of a Collect is sometimes very short and condensed', so here the Prayer.
actual words of Absolution are only “He pardoneth and absolveth The Absolution was composed by the Revisers of 1552, evidently all them that truly repent, and unfeignedly believe His holy with the old form of Absolution, which was used in the Prime and Gospel.” The preceding portion is a statement of the antecedent Compline Services, before them. There is also some similarity reasons-God's mercy, and the delegation of His authority-for between the opening words and those of a Prayer which was pronouncing Absolution; and what follows is an authoritative placed at the end of the Litany in the Primer of 1535; and exhortation to follow up the words of temporary confession and which again, from the prayer, “ forgive us now while we have absolution with prayer for perseverance and final pardon. The time and space," seems to have been founded on the ancient words which thus form the essence of the Absolution are of Absolution, with its “spatium veræ pænitentiæ," though the a declaratory kind, while those in the old Morning and Evening first part is identical with a Lenten Collect of St. Gregory's Services of the Church were precatory, as may be seen from the Sacramentary.
original Latin form printed above, and its English translation in Some phrases, a good deal like those of our Absolution, are also the note below; but the change has rather strengthened than found in the form of prayer got up by John à Lasco, or Laski, a weakened the force of the form adopted. Nor must we be led Polish refugee, for the German congregation which he was allowed to gather together at Austin-friars in London ; but the
See " Introduction to the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels."