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Or this Canticle, Benedicite, Omnia Opera. Canticum trium puerorum. Dan. iii. The Song of ALL ye Works of the Lord, | D ENEDICITE omnia opera Do- Salisbury Use. the three holy children 35
U bless ye the Lord • praise him, | D mini Domino : laudate et super-
exaltate eum in sæcula.
O ye Heavens, bless ye the Lord :
Oye Waters, that be above the Fir Benedicite aquæ omnes quæ super mament, bless ye the Lord • praise cælos sunt Domino : benedicite omnes him, and magnify him for ever. virtutes Domini Domino.
O all ye Powers of the Lord, bless ye the Lord : praise him, and magnify
him for ever. - 3. Oye Sun, and Moon, bless ye the Benedicite sol et luna Domino :
Lord : praise him, and magnify him benedicite stellæ cæli Domino.
Lord • praise him, and magnify him
has in the corporate work of praise and prayer of which Divine previously to 1492, read “Æterna fac cum sanctis Tuis gloria Service is constituted. Few uninspired compositions give so clear | munerari :” and the equivalent of munerari is found in every an echo of the spirit and depth of Holy Scripture.
known version of the Te Deum up to that time; our own in the
fourteenth century being, “Make hem to be rewarded with thi There are three verses of the Te Deum which require special
seyntes, in endles blisse.” The “ numerari” reading appears to notice, with reference to the modern Latin and English in which
be an error of the early printers, arising out of the very slight they are given to us at the present day.
difference presented by mun and num in black letter. The (1) The ninth verse, “ Te Martyrum candidatus, laudat exer.
word “in” is a modern insertion of the same date, and probably citus," is very insufficiently rendered by “The noble army of
arose from confusion between the twenty-first and the eighteenth Martyrs praise Thee." In pre-Reformation versions it stood,
verses, in the latter of which occurs “in gloria Patris.” Since “ The, preiseth the white oost of martiris;" and considering the
our Lord said “Great is your reward in Heaven,” and “ Himself distinct connexion between this verse and Rev. vii. 9. 14, it is
shall reward you openly,” the old English rendering of munerari strange that the Scriptural idea of “white robes” which have
is quite Scriptural; but it may be pointed out that the sense of been “made white in the blood of the Lamb,” should have been
the Latin is rather that of free gift than reward, munerari, not superseded by the word “noble.” It is possible that the idea of
| re-munerari. Perhaps the original may be rendered, “ Make something lustrous and pure was more expressed by “noble” in
them to be awarded with Thy saints : Thy glory everlasting,” the early part of the sixteenth century, than is conveyed by it to
without departing from the sense of the original, or the familiar modern ears'; but the change of the word from the old English
rhythm of our Prayer Book version. The received version, " white," and Anglo-Saxon “shining," has gone far to obliterate,
although not faithful to the original, is happily comprehensive; the true sense of the original in our present version.
for, to be “numbered with the children of God,” and to have a (2) In the sixteenth verse, the ancient and modern English
“lot among the saints,” is to receive the “great recompense of versions alike fail to give the full sense of the Latin. The former
reward,” the heavenly heritage of those who are joint heirs with uniformly give, “Thou wert nozt skoymes (squeamish) to take Christ of His triumphant kingdom. the maydenes wombe, to delyver mankynde," which is little different in sense from our present version. But it is clear that “ Tu, ad liberandum, suscepturus hominem" includes a reference
THE BENEDICITE. to the Incarnation, as much as “non horruisti Virginis uterum.” There is no doubt that this Canticle is of Jewish origin, The verse would be more literally rendered, “Thou, being about although its claim to be part of the Canonical Book of Daniel is to take manhood upon Thee, to deliver it;" but there is an almost insurmountable difficulty in the way of matching the point and rhythm of the Latin by an equivalent sentence in English. 1 It should, however, be mentioned that the Venerable Bede, who was (3) The twenty-first verse has been altered both in Roman almost contemporary with Gregory the Great, records some words of his
which contain something very like this reading. “Sed et in ipsa missarum Breviaries and in the English Prayer Book. All Latin MSS.
celebratione tria verba maximæ perfectionis plena superadjecit, . Diesque
nostros in tua pace disponas, atque ab æterna damnatione nos eripi, et in So gold and silver were called “noble metals" by the early chymists. ! electorum tuorum jubeas grege numerari.'"-Bede, Hist. Eccl., lib. 2, c. I. 87. not recognized by the Church of England, which has placed it, who would not have been permitted to sing that as Holy Scripamong the books of the Apocrypha. It has a great resemblance ture which is not so. It was used as one of the Psalms at Lauds to the 148th Psalm, and is generally considered to be a paraphrase as early as the time of St. Athanasius, and occupied the same of it.
O ye Showers, and Dew, bless ye the Benedicite imber et ros Domino : Salisbury Use. Lord • praise him, and magnify him benedicite omnes spiritus Dei Domino. for ever.
O ye Winds of God, bless ye the
O ye Fire, and Heat, bless ye the Benedicite ignis et æstus Domino :
O ye Winter, and Summer, bless ye
Oye Dews, and Frosts, bless ye the Benedicite rores et pruina Domino :
Oye Frost, and Cold, bless ye the
O ye Ice, and Snow, bless ye the Benedicite glacies et nives Domino :
O ye Nights, and Days, bless ye the
Oye Light, and Darkness, bless ye Benedicite lux et tenebræ Domino : the Lord • praise him, and magnify benedicite fulgura et nubes Domino. him for ever.
O ye Lightnings, and Clouds, bless
O let the Earth bless the Lord Benedicat terra Dominum : laudet
O ye Mountains, and Hills, bless ye Benedicite montes et colles Domino :
Oye Wells, bless ye the Lord : Benedicite fontes Domino : benedi.
O ye Seas, and Floods, bless ye the Lord • praise him, and magnify him for ever.
position on Sundays in the ancient services of the Church of Several of the Fathers speak of the Benedicite as being used in England. When the Psalter was restricted, in 1549, to the bunthe Services of the Church. St. Chrysostom especially refers to dred and fifty psalms which go by the general name of the it as “that admirable and marvellous song, which from that day Psalms of David, the Song of the Three Children was placed to this hath been sung every where throughout the world, and after the Te Deum, to be used as a responsory canticle to the shall yet be sung in future generations.” Rufinus speaks of it in first lesson, under the title “ Benedicite, Omnia Opera Domini the same manner, (in defending its Canonical authority against Domino.” This use of it was not by any means novel, as it was me',) as having been sung by holy confessors and martyrs,
Festival called statio ad S. Petrum under the title “Hymnus Trium serted in the Comes of St. Jerome among the Lections on the l Puerorum."
P. cxlviii. 10.
O ye Whales, and all that move in Benedicite cete et omnia quæ mo- Salisbury Use. the Waters, bless ye the Lord • praise ventur in aquis Domino : benedicite him, and magnify him for ever. omnes volucres cæli Domino.
O all ye Fowls of the Air, bless ye the Lord • praise him, and magnify him for ever.
O all ye Beasts, and Cattle, bless ye Benedicite omnes bestiæ et pecora
O let Israel bless the Lord • praise Benedicat Israël Dominum : laudet
Oye Priests of the Lord, bless ye Benedicite Sacerdotes Domini Do-
Oye holy and humble Men of
O Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, Benedicite Anania, Azaria, Misaël bless ye the Lord • praise him, and Domino : laudate et superexaltate eum magnify him for ever.
exaltemus eum in sæcula.
superexaltatus in sæcula.
Canticum Zachariæ prophetæ Lucæ i.
D Israel • for he hath visited, and | D Israël : quia visitavit, et fecit
redemptionem plebis suæ.
Luke i. 68.
said between the lessons (according to Mabillon), in the old is read; and on week-days during Lent and Advent!. The Gallican ritual which was once common to France and England. | ordinary Doxology was substituted for the one proper to the
When first inserted in its present place, this Canticle was psalm, in 1549. The latter is, “O let us bless the Father, and ruled by the following rubric prefixed to the Te Deum :-) the Son, with the Holy Ghost: let us praise Him, and magnify “ After the first lesson shall follow throughout the year (except Him for ever. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, in the firmament of in Lent, all the which time, in the place of Te Deum, shall be Heaven; worthy to be praised, and glorious, and to be magnified used Benedicite Omnia Opera Domini Domino) in English, as for ever.” Pope Damasus (A.D. 366) is said to have been its followeth.” This rubric was altered to its present form in 1552, author; but it is founded on the verse which precedes the words the object of the alteration being probably to allow greater free Benedicite Omnia Opera. dom in the substitution of Benedicite for Te Deum. It was an
THE BENEDICTUS. ancient rule to use the former when any portion of the Prophet
This prophetic hymn of Zacharias has been used as a responsory Daniel was read. In more recent times it has been customary to
| canticle to the Gospel lessons from very ancient times, being sing it on Septuagesima Sunday, when Genesis i. is the first lesson ; on the Nineteenth Sunday after Trinity, when Daniel iii.
1 See, however, note on p. 11.
And hath raised up a mighty sal- ! Et erexit cornu salutis nobis : in Salisbury Use. vation for us • in the house of his domo David pueri sui. servant David;
As he spake by the mouth of his Sicut locutus est per os sanctorum : holy Prophets which have been since qui a sæculo sunt, prophetarum ejus. the world began;
That we should be saved from our Salutem ex inimicis nostris : et de enemies and from the hands of all manu omnium qui oderunt nos. that hate us;
To perform the mercy promised to Ad faciendam misericordiam cum our forefathers and to remember his patribus nostris : et memorari testaholy Covenant;
menti sui sancti. To perform the oath which he sware Jusjurandum quod juravit ad Abrato our forefather Abraham • that he ham patrem nostrum : daturum se would give us;
nobis. That we being delivered out of the Ut sine timore, de manu inimicorum hands of our enemies : might serve him nostrorum liberati : serviamus illi. without fear;
In holiness and righteousness be- ! In sanctitate et justitia coram ipso : fore him • all the days of our life. omnibus diebus nostris.
And thou, Child, shalt be called the Et tu, puer, Propheta Altissimi voProphet of the Highest : for thou shalt caberis : præibis enim ante faciem go before the face of the Lord to pre- Domini parare vias ejus. pare his ways;
To give knowledge of salvation Ad dandam scientiam salutis plebi unto his people : for the remission of ejus : in remissionem peccatorum their sins,
Through the tender mercy of our Per viscera misericordiæ Dei nostri : God : whereby the Day-spring from in quibus visitavit nos oriens ex alto. on high hath visited us;
To give light to them that sit in Illuminare his qui in tenebris et in darkness, and in the shadow of death : | umbra mortis sedent : ad dirigendos and to guide our feet into the way of pedes nostros in viam pacis. peace.
Glory be to the Father, and to the Gloria Patri, et Filio : et Spiritui
spoken of as so used by Ainalarius (A.D. 820); and perhaps by the last prophecy of the old Dispensation, and the first of the St. Benedict, nearly three centuries earlier, since he speaks of a new : and furnishes a kind of key to the Evangelical interpretaCanticum de Evangelio occurring here in Mattins. In the Salis tion of all prophecies under the one by which they are connected bury Use it occupied a similar position, but was not so definitely with the other. The Benedictus is a continual acknowledgment connected with the lessons themselves as it now is, being used also of the Communion of Saints under the two Dispensations; after the Capitulum, at Lauds, on Sundays. It was the only for it praises God for the salvation which has been raised up for Canticle appointed for use after the second morning lesson in all ages out of the house of His servant David, and according to 1549, and the rubric by which it is preceded shows very clearly the ancient covenant which He made with Abraham, “the father that it is intended to be the ordinary Canticle, the Jubilate being of them that believe, though they be not circumcised” (Rom. iv. an exceptional one, inserted to avoid repetition on St. John 11); whose seed all are if they are Christ's, and heirs according Baptist's Day, or whenever the Benedictas occurs in the second to the promise. (Gal. iii. 29.) The use of the Benedictus by the lesson itself.
Church indicates to us where we are to find true syinpathy and The position of this Canticle makes its ritual meaning self communion with God's ancient people; not in their outward evident. It is a thanksgiving to Almighty God for His mercy relationship to Abraham, “for God can of these stones raise up as exhibited towards mankind in the Incarnation of our Lord, children unto Abraham,” but in their faithful acknowledgment of whereof the Gospel speaks, and in the foundation of the Church in the Lord Jesus, as the Christ whom the Old Testament Scriptures His blood, as recorded in the Acts of the Holy Apostles. It is ) predicted.
T Or this Psalm, Jubilate Deo.
• Psalmus xcix.
lands • serve the Lord with glad 1 vite Domino in lætitia.
O go your way into his gates with Populus ejus et oves pascuæ ejus,
For the Lord is gracious, his mercy | Laudate nomen ejus; quoniam sua-
et generationem veritas ejus.
As it was in the beginning, is now, Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et
| terræ. Et in Jesum Christum Filium
2 Tim. i. 13.
Deut. iv. 33. 39.
“Libellus Pirminii de singulis libris canonicis scarapsus,” or This was the second of the fixed Psalms at Lauds on Sunday;
“scriptus.” Pirminius died about A.D. 758, and appears to have and was adopted as a responsory Canticle in 1552. The object
lived some time in France, though he died in Germany. Hence of its insertion here was to provide a substitute for the Benedictus
it is extremely probable that the Creed contained in two several on days when the latter occurs in the Lesson or Gospel, on the places of his treatise, and in both places in the same words, is the same principle which rules the omission of the Venite when it
old Gallican form of the Apostles' Creed, identical with that occurs in the Psalms of the day. The days on which it should afterwards adopted by St. Osmund into the Salisbury Use, from be used are therefore the following :
the more ancient services of the Church of England. How much February 18th.
older than the eighth century this exact form of the Apostles' June 17th.
Creed may be is not known; but it has been so used, without June 24th (St. John Baptist's Day].
variation, in the whole Latin Church, as well as in the Church of October 15th.
England, from that time until the present. The general substitution of the Jubilate for the Benedictus is
The substance of the Apostles' Creed is, however, very much very much to be deprecated. There is, however, a prophetic
older. It is extant, very nearly as we now use it, as it was used reference to the Chief Shepherd of the Church, and to the service
by the Churches of Aquileia and Rome at the end of the fourth of praise offered to Him which makes it well fitted for occasional
century, when it was commented upon, and both forms indicated, use; and Dean Comber says that it seems to have been used after
by Rufinus, who was a priest of the former diocese. The two
forms are here shown side by side, the authority for each being the reading of the Gospel as early as A.D. 450.
Professor Heurtley's Harmonia Symbolica, pp. 26. 30:-
The Creed of the Church of The Creed of the Church of The use of a Creed in Divine Service is of very ancient origin, and the Apostles' Creed has been used in the daily offices of the
Aquileia, circ. A.D. 390.
Rome, circ. A.D. 390. Church of England as far back as they can be traced. Under the Credo in Deum Patrem om. Credo in Deum Patrem omniold system it followed the Lord's Prayer, (instead of preceding it,) nipotentem, invisibilem et im. potentem. Et in Jesum Chrisat Prime and Compline, and was recited in the same manner, the passibilem : Et in Jesum Chris. tum, unicum Filium ejus, Dopeople joining in only at a repetition of the last two clauses. In | tum, unicum Filium ejus, Do- minum nostrum; Qui natus est the Reformed Breviary of Cardinal Quignonez an open recitation minum nostrum : Qui natus est de Spiritu Sancto Ex Maria of the Apostles' Creed was directed on all days except Sunday: de Spiritu Sancto Ex Maria Virgine; Crucifixus sub Pontio and this direction probably suggested our present custom.
Virgine; Crucifixus sub Pontio Pilato, et sepaltus; Tertia die The earliest occurrence of the Apostles' Creed exactly in the Pilato, et sepultus; Descendit resurrexit a mortuis. Ascendit form in which we now use it at Morning and Evening Prayer, is in inferna; Tertia die resurrexit in cælos; Sodet ad dexteram in a treatise published by Mabillon, from an ancient MS., entitled a mortuis; Ascendit in cælos; Patris, Indes venturus est judi