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Luke ii. 11. 21. And in Jesus Christ his only Son ejus unicum, Dominum nostrum : qui Salisbury Use.
Suffered under Pontius Pilate, Was Pilato, crucifixus, mortuus, et sepultus:
into heaven, And sitteth on the right potentis : inde venturus est judicare John v. 21-23.
hand of God the Father Almighty; vivos et mortuos. Credo in Spiritum
From thence he shall come to judge Sanctum : sanctam Ecclesiam CathoJohn xv. 16, 17. the quick and the dead.
licam : Sanctorum communionem, reCol. i. 12, 13. 18. I believe in the Holy Ghost; The missionem peccatorum, carnis resurJohn v. 28. 29. holy Catholic Church; The Com- | rectionem, et vitam æternam. Amen. Rev. xx. 12, 13. munion of Saints ; The Forgiveness
of sins; The Resurrection of the body, Rev. xxii, 20. And the life everlasting. Amen.
John iii. 16.
v. 24. 2 Pet. i. 11.
Sedet ad dexteram Patris. Inde care vivos et mortuos; Et in ' (attributed to St. Augustine, but probably of more recent date) venturus est judicare vivos et Spiritu Sancto; Sanctam Eccle adds to this statement that each Apostle in succession recited mortuos ; Et in Spiritu Sancto; siam ; Remissionem peccato one Article of the Creed, implying that it was thus delivered by Sanctam Ecclesiam; Remis- rum; Carnis resurrectionem. Inspiration. The first of these traditions, written down so near sionem peccatorum; Hujus car.
to the time of the Apostles, is worthy of great respect: and no nis resurrectionem.
objections have been made to it, which have not been rationally
answered. The second is not of high authenticity, but the obAt a still earlier period, A.D. 180, Irenæus wrote his great
jections brought against it are chiefly founded on the improba. work against heresies; for, even at that early date, these began to
bility of such a statement being true: yet if the inspiration of fulfil the prophecy of our Lord that the Enemy should sow tares
the Apostles for the purpose of writing special official letters is among the wheat. In this book Irenæus gives the substance of
granted, it is difficult to see what there is improbable in a stateChristian doctrine under the name of the “Rule of Truth," which
ment that implies their collective inspiration for the purpose of every Christian acknowledged at his Baptism. This undoubtedly
originating so important a document as the Creed, at a time represents the Apostles' Creed, though probably not the exact when the New Testament Scriptures had not yet come into words in which it was recited.
But, apart from these traditions, there is much evidence in the The Creed as stated by Irenæus, Bishop of Lyons, A.D. 180. early Christian writings that there was a common and well. The Church throughout the world, spread out as she is to the
known formula containing the chief articles of Christian faith. ends of the earth, carefully preserves the faith that she received
There are also frequent statements that the tradition of the Faith from the Apostles and from their disciples :
came direct from the Apostles. Combining these facts with the Believing in one God the Father Almighty, Who made Heaven
supposition that the Apostles would almost certainly provide and Earth, the seas and all that in them is; and in one Christ
some such formula for the guidance of converts, we may conclude Jesus, the Son of God, Who was incarnate for our salvation; and
that it is far more reasonable to believe the Creed going under in the Holy Ghost, Who by the prophets proclaimed the dispen.
their name to be substantially of their composition than to believe sations and the advents of our dear Lord, Christ Jesus : and His
the contrary. In fact the Creed appears to be an absolute necesbirth of a Virgin, and His suffering, and His Resurrection from
sity, springing out of the circumstances in which the early Chris. the dead, and His Ascension in the flesh into Heaven, and His
tians were placed : when, as regarded themselves, their brethren, coming from Heaven in the glory of the Father, to sum up all
and the Heathen, such an answer to the question, “What is
Christianity po resolving itself into a few short replies embody. things, and to raise up all flesh of the whole human race. That to Christ Jesus our Lord, and God, and Saviour, and
ing the chief facts of our Lord's life and work, was imperatively King, according to the good pleasure of the invisible Father,
required. That the Apostles would methodize an authoritative every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth,
form of this reply can hardly be doubted: and that they did so and things under the earth; and that every tongue should con.
is more than suggested by what St. Paul says of a Form of sound fess Him, and that He should pass righteous judgment upon all.
words in passages like Rom. vi. 17; xvi. 17. Heb. x. 23. Phil.
ii. 16. 2 Tim. i. 13, the original Greek of which almost necesIn two other parts of the same work there are other summaries sitates such an interpretation as that here indicated. of the Creed which are plainly based on the same formula as that Although, however, the cumulative force of these arguments is of which the above is a paraphrastic statement.
so great as to leave scarcely any rational ground for contradicting Traces of the Creed are also to be found in the writings of the old belief of the Church, that the Creed came from the Justin Martyr, Polycarp, Clemens Romanus, and Ignatius : and Apostles substantially as it was handed down to the eighth these approach so near to Apostolic times as to give good reason century, it is not sufficient to warrant us in declaring it to be to think that the name by which the Apostles' Creed has been inspired. All that we may dare to say on this point is, that the known for many centuries, is one which belongs to it not merely Apostles were under a very special guidance of the Holy Ghost, because it accurately states the faith held by the Apostles, but were “filled with the Spirit” for the official purposes of their also because it originated from them.
work; and, consequently, that very little of the human element A very ancient tradition of the Church, as old as the time of is likely to have mingled itself with any of the official words Rufinus (A.D. 369–410), describes the Apostles as meeting which they spoke to the Church. If it could be certainly proved together to consider about a common statement of doctrine, that the Creed came from the Apostles as we now have it, sound before they parted for their several labours. A later tradition reason would require us to believe that the Holy Ghost moved them to compose it, and hence that it was inspired. In the This is done to some extent in the marginal references above; absence of such evidence it is our duty to compare the doctrines and in the following Table it will be seen how near an agreement handed down to us in the Creed as those of the Apostles, with there is between the statements contained in the Creed and those the doctrines contained in the great storehouse of God's Truth. I made by the Apostles in their early missionary work? :
Such a coincidence goes far towards showing that the Apostles' | hence it is a foundation of, and introduction to the Preces and Creed is a “Form of sound words” handed down to us on the the Collects with which the Service concludes. “For this reason very highest authority. It may also convince us that it would it is, probably, that baptisms were ordered to take place after the be an irreverent and uncritical error to speak of it positively as a second lesson; that so the admission of the newly baptized might human composition.
be followed by liturgical avowal, so to speak, of that Creed, and
saying of that Prayer, which, as a part of the rite, have already The central position of the Creed in our Morning and Evening been avowed and used ?.” Service gives it a twofold ritual aspect. Praise has formed the distinctive feature of what has gone before, prayer forms that of There are two customs connected with the recitation of the what is to follow. The confession of our Christian faith in the Creed which require notice; the one, that of turning to the East, Creed is therefore, (1) like a summing up of the Scriptures that or towards the Altar, in saying it; the other, that of bowing at have been used for the praise of God and the edification of His the holy Name of Jesus. Both of these customs are relics of Church : and by its recitation we acknowledge that it is
habits which have only ceased to be universal in the English
Church, at least) in very modern times. “ Him first, Him last, Him midst, and without end,”
Clergy and people used formerly to look one way throughout whom we find in Moses, the Prophets, the Psalms, the Gospels, and the prayers and Creeds, that is, towards the Altar. “In some the Epistles. Not only in respect to ourselves, as a fit reminder Churches," writes Thorndike 3, “the desk for the Prayer Book of this great truth, do we thus confess our faith, but also to the looks towards the Chancel ; and for reading of Lessons we are praise of God; and hence the rubric directs the Creed to be directed to look towards the people. As the Jews in their “sung” (the word was inserted by Bishop Cosin) if circumstances will permit, as the Nicene Creed and the Athanasian Creed always
Harvey on the Creeds, i. 20. have been. And (2) the recitation of the Creed is a confession of
9 Principles of Divine Service, i. 361. that objective faith which alone can give full reality to prayer;
3 Religious Assemblies, p. 231.
prayers looked towards the Mercy-seat or principal part of the of Heaven, which comprehends all that has originally occupied Temple (Ps. xxviii. 2), so Christians looked towards the Altar or I space beyond this world, chief part of the Church, whereof their Mercy-seat was but a and Earth, which comprehends all organic and inorganic beings type. Christ in His prayer directs us to Heaven, though God be and substances within the compass of this world. every where ; for Heaven is His throne, and we look toward that And I equally believe part of the church which most resembles it. Herein we corre in Jesus, perfect Man, in all the qualities of human nature, spond to the Jewish practice.” Before reading-desks were erected Christ, anointed to be the Saviour of the world, the High Priest in the naves of Churches, the prayers were said in front of the of a new order of priesthood, the King of Kings and Lord of Altar itself, as may be seen in old prints; while the Psalms were Lords, sung in the choir stalls : and this was a continuation of the | His only Son, eternally begotten, and therefore having such a ancient practice!, the officiating Clergyman always standing or Sonship as none others who call God Father can possess, kneeling in the former place to say Creeds and Prayers. When our Lord, being God, the Second Person in the Blessed Trinity, pews as well as reading-desks sprang up in Churches, both con as well as Man; Lord of all by His Divine Nature, Lord of gregation and clergy were often placed in any position that suited the Church by His work of Redemption. Thus I believe in the convenience of the carpenter; but reverence still impelled all the Eternal Son of the Eternal Father, in a Saviour Divino to turn towards the Altar during the solemn Confession of their and Human, Faith. Hence this habit became exceptional and prominent Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, through a mysterious instead of habitual; and exceptional reasons were alleged in and unintelligible operation, which miraculously superseded support of it, when in fact they applied, with more or less force, the ordinary law of nature, so that the Holy Child Jesus to the general posture of the worshipper in God's House, as ex
was pressed in the preceding extract. Apart, also, from symbolical Born of the Virgin Mary, a holy maiden, who thus miraculously explanations of this custom, it appeals to both the reason and became His mother that He, being born of a Virgin and the feelings, by forming the congregation into a body of which not of a wife, might be free from the sin of our common the clergyman is the leader, as when a regiment marches into
origin, which is conveyed from parent to child by natural battle, or parades before its Sovereign headed by its officers, and conception. Being thus born in our nature, but without there is no part of Divine Service where this relation of priest our sin, He bore it as His own through infancy, childhood, and people is more appropriate than in the open Confession of and mature manhood; and when the time was fully come, Christian Faith before God and man.
He offered it as a sacrifice for our sins when He Bowing at the holy Name of our Lord's Human Nature is also Saffered under Pontius Pilate, the Roman Governor of Judæa an usage of general application, and was never intended to be and Jerusalem, and restricted to the Creed, although its omission there would cer Was crucified, by being nailed alive to a cross of wood, set tainly be a more special dishonour to Him than elsewhere. When upright in the ground. Being thus crucified, His sufferings Puritan superstition sprang up in the sixteenth century, the usage were the greatest that had ever befallen any man, being began to be dropped by many who were seduced by controversy aggravated by the burden of sin which He, though innocent, into greater respect for doctrines of slighter importance than that was bearing for our sakes. Not through the intensity of of our Lord's Divinity. The Church then made a law on the His sufferings, but of His own will, He gave up His life subject of reverent gestures in Divine Service, in the 18th Canon when all was accomplished that could be by His pains, and of 1603; in which (after ordering that all shall stand at the then was Creed) is the following clause, founded on the 52nd of Queen dead, through the separation of His soul from His body, in the Elizabeth's Injunctions, issued in 1559:—“And likewise, when in same manner as human beings ordinarily become so. Being time of Divine Service the Lord Jesus shall be mentioned, due
dead, His holy Body, still the Body of the Son of God, was and lowly reverence shall be done by all persons present, as hath
taken down from the cross, been accustomed : testifying by these outward ceremonies and
and buried, with reverence and honour, but as the dead bodies of gestures their ..... due acknowledgment that the Lord Jesus other men are. And while the dead Body of the Son of Christ, the true and eternal Son of God, is the only Saviour of
God was in the tomb, with His living Soul the world, in Whom all the mercies, graces, and promises of God
He descended into Hell, that He might there triumph over to mankind, for this life, and the life to come, are fully and Satan; proclaim the glad tidings of salvation to all who had wholly comprised.” This general rule of the Church, and the ever died; entirely release the souls of the righteous dead explanation thus authoritatively given, has so special an applica from the power of Satan, and prepare a paradise of rest in tion to the use of this gesture in the Creed that nothing further which they and all other righteous souls may dwell until the need be added on the subject.
day of judgment.
The third day, after the evening of Friday, the whole of Saturş. An Expository Paraphrase of the Apostles' Creed.
day, and a part of Sunday had passed, I for myself, as personally responsible for my faith to God | He rose again from the dead, reuniting His soul to His uncor. and His Church, openly profess, to His glory, that I
rupted Body, so as to be again “perfect Man" in respect to believe, from my heart, with the assent of my reason and the all the qualities that belong to sinless and unsuffering human submission of my will,
nature. Then in God the Father, by a mysterious, unintelligible manner of He ascended into Heaven, after forty days, as a new Person,
paternity, Father of the uncreated, co-equal, and co-eternal God and Man, Son: Father also of all the regenerated, by their adoption And sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty, through His thus only-begotten Son :
receiving in His Human Nature, as well as in His Divine Almighty, so that nothing is beyond His power which is con Nature, the adoration of angels and men; and by His
sistent with goodness; knowing all things past, present, and presence there making a continual intercession for us, and to come; exercising authority over all things and persons, being a Mediator between Divine and human nature for and upholding all things by His universal and omnipresent ever. Providence: I believe that He was and is the
From thence He shall come, the same holy Jesus who suffered Maker, that is, the original Creator of the original matter, and and died, the Disposer of that material in fit order,
to judge, with a just, irreversible, and yet merciful judgment,
the quick, who shall be alive at His coming, I The exact routine of the ancient practice may be seen in "for the turning of the Choir to the Altar," one among several extracts from the
and the dead, who shall have died at any time from the foundaConsuetudinary of Sarum, printed at the end of Mr. Chambers' Translation
tion of the world. of the Sarum Psalter, p. 434.
I believe, also, with equal faith, and equal assent of my reason,
[ And after that, these Prayers following, alli Deinde dicantur Preces Feriales hoc modo.
devoutly kneeling ; the Minister first pro.
nouncing with a loud voice, The Lord be with you.
Et cum spiritu tuo.
Kyrie eleison. iii. Christ, have mercy upon us.
Christe eleison. iii. Lord, have mercy upon us.
Kyrie eleison. iii.
Phil. iv. 6. Matt. xxvi. 44. Ps. cxxiii. 3. Matt. xx. 30, 31. 2 Cor. iii. 17, 18, marg
in the Holy Ghost, the third Person of the Blessed Trinity, the
Comforter of the Church, Who ministers in it the grace
which the Saviour has gained for it, the Holy Catholic Church, which is the whole number of the
baptized, the mystical Body of Christ; which was founded by the twelve Apostles, and is continued in existence by the perpetuation of an Episcopal ministry; which, by the merci. ful Providence of the Lord, holds the true Faith; which is divided into many separate bodies, all having their own bishops, and is yet one by being united to Christ, our
Spiritual and Ministerial Head. I likewise believe in the Communion of Saints, that is, the Union in Christ of all who
are one with Him, whether they are among the living in the Church on earth, the departed in paradise, or the risen
saints in heaven. I also believe in the Forgiveness of Sins, by the ministration of Christ's Church
in Baptism and in Absolution, the Resurrection of the body, when it shall be, as now, my own
very body, and reunited to my soul, and the Life Everlasting, wherein the bodies and souls of all who
have ever lived will live for ever, they that have done good in never-ending happiness, and they that have done evil in
never-ending misery. And, lastly, I reiterate my assent to all these truths, in the
presence of God and man, by solemnly adding Amen.
[For notes relating to the use of the Creed at Baptism, and to the Forms of it so used, see the Baptismal Service.]
I said, Lord, be merciful unto me.
Heal my soul, for I have sinned against Thee.
And let Thine anger cease from us.
Like as we do put our trust in Thee.
And let Thy saints sing with joyfulness.
And hear us in the day when we call upon Thee.
Trusting, O my God, in Thee.
Rule them, and set them up for ever.
And abundance in Thy towers.
And let perpetual light shine upon them.
Have mercy upon me, and hear me. After which preces, the fifty-first Psalm was said from begin. ning to end, and three more versicles, which are given at p. 22.
It will be observed that the first of our versicles with its response is not found among the above ferial Suffrages. It was taken from another set which were used on festivals, and is also found at the beginning of a somewhat similar set used every Sunday at the Bidding of Prayers. The Latin form of these latter is as follows :
Ostende nobis, Domine, misericordiam tuam.
Sacerdotes tui induantur justitiam.
Salvos fac servos tuos, et ancillas tuas.
Domine, fiat pax in virtute tua.
Domine, exaudi orationem meam. The fifth versicle and its response are also different in the exist. ing form. In the ancient Prymer this appears in the following shape, before the Evening Collect for Peace :
Ant. Lord, xyue pees in oure daies, for there is noon othir that shal fyžte for us, but thou lord oure god 3.
Vers. Lord, pees be maad in thi vertu.
THE SUFFRAGES OR PRECES. The portion of the daily Service which comes between the Creed and the first Collect was translated, with some alterations, froia the Preces Feriales inserted among the Preces et Memoria Communes of the Salisbury Portiforium. In 1552, the Dominus vobis. cum and Oremus were prefixed: and the “Clerks and people” (meaning, of course, the choristers and people) were directed to say the Lord's Prayer as well as the Minister.
In the ancient form of the Service the Kyrie Eleison was left untranslated in the Greek, like the Alleluia, from a special reve. rence for the original words, and also as a sign of the universality of the Church's prayers. They are still said in Greek in the Litany used in Convocation. Each Kyrie and Christe was also repeated three times. The Lord's Prayer was said privately by the Priest as far as the last clause, which was long the custom of the Church, the Et ne nos, &c. being repeated aloud that the people might then join. This custom was abolished in 1552. In some cases it appears that the whole was said privately by Clergy and people ; and then the last two clauses were said again aloud. [See Transl. Sar. Psalter, 14, n.]
The six versicles and their responses are modified from the ancient form; of which the following is a translation, as far as the Miserere':
nisi tu Deus noster.
? These are given from Maskell's Monumenta Ritualia, iii. 343, but the people's responses are omitted. In Chambers' Translation of the Sarum Psalter the complete form has been compiled.
3 Bishop Cosin altered this versicle to a form which was intended to conciliate Puritan objectors, writing “Because there is none other that saveth us from our enemies, but only Thou, O God." The alteration was not approved by the Revision Committee, and was erased.
1 There is enough analogy between the suffrages of the Western Church and the Ectene or Great Collect of the Eastern, to lead to the conviction that both have a common origin.
Then the Minister, Clerks, and people, shall
Salisbury Use. Luke xi. 2–4. N UR Father, Which art in heaven, DATER noster, qui es in cælis ;
Hallowed be Thy Name. Thy 1 sanctificetur nomen tuum: adkingdom come. Thy will be done in veniat regnum tuum : fiat voluntas earth, As it is in Heaven. Give us | tua, sicut in cælo, et in terra. Panem this day our daily bread. And forgive nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie : us our trespasses, As we forgive them | et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et that trespass against us. And lead us nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris : et not into temptation : But deliver us ne nos inducas in tentationem : sed from evil. Amen.
libera nos a malo. Amen.
Et salutare tuum da nobis.]
Domine, salvum fac regem.
The sixth versicle and its response are taken from the fifty-first Psalm, which followed the Ferial Preces at Mattins and Vespers.
It will also be observed that the petition for the Sovereign and that for the Ministers of the Church, have exchanged places in the course of their adaptation to modern use. This change first appears at the end of the Litany in Hilsey's Primer of 1539. The reason why the Prayer for the Sovereign is put before that for the Clergy, is, not that the secular power may be honoured above the Church, but that the supreme sovereign authority of the realm may be recognized before the clerical part of the Church
The mutual salutation with which this portion of the daily Office begins, is to be said while the people are yet standing, as they were during the recitation of the Creed; “the Minister first pronouncing” it “with a loud voice,” (and turning to the people,) before “all devoutly kneeling," join in the lesser Litany. It is of very ancient ritual use (see Conc. Vas. C. V. A.D. 440], and is believed by the Eastern Church to have been handed down from the Apostles. Its office is to make a transition, in connexion with the lesser Litany, from the service of praise to that of supplication : and also to give devotional recognition to the common work in which Priest and laity are engaged, and the common fellowship in which it is being done. The same salutation is used in the Confirmation Service, after the act of Confirmation, and before the Lord's Prayer : but in this case the lesser Litany is not connected with it. The constant use of this mutual Benediction or Salutation should be a continual reminder to the laity of the position which they occupy in respect to Divine Service: and that, although a separate order of priesthood is essential for the ministration of God's worship, yet there is a priesthood of the laity by right of which they take part in that worship, assuming their full Christian privilege, and making it a full corporate offering of the whole Christian body. Nor should we forget, in connexion with it, the promise “Lo, I am with you alway, even to the end of the world.”
The lesser Litany is an ancient and Catholic prefix to the Lord's Prayer, which is only used without it in the celebration of the Holy Communion, the Administration of Baptism, and in Con. firmation, and at the beginning of Morning and Evening Prayer. In the latter case its omission is supplied by the Confession : in the others the use of the Lord's Prayer is Eucharistic, as will be
shown in the notes appended to it in the Communion Service. In this part of his Prayer Book, Bishop Cosin added the second recitation of each versicle as an “ Answer,” so as to make the lesser Litany here identical with that in the Litany itself. This probably represents the proper way of using it in Divine Service, as it was thus repeated three times in the Salisbury Use. In its original form this lesser Litany consisted of Kyrie Eleison nine times repeated : but the Western Church has always used Christe Eleison as the second versicle. Its threefold form is analogous to that of the Litany, which opens with separate prayers to each Person of the Blessed Trinity. This form renders it a most fitting introduction to the Lord's Prayer : and the Church has so distinctly adopted the lesser Litany for that purpose, that we may well feel a reverent obligation to use it on all occasions when the Lord's Prayer is said. Such an usage appeals, too, to the instinct of Christian humility, which shrinks from speaking to God even in the words taught us by our Lord, without asking His mercy on our act of prayer, influenced, as it must needs be, by the in. firmities of our nature; and imperfect as it must appear to the all-penetrating Eye.
The Lord's Prayer, as used in this place, has a different inten. tion from that with which it was used at the opening of the Ser. vice, and is by no means to be looked upon as an accidental repetition arising from the condensation of several shorter services into one longer. In the former place it was used with reference to the Service of Praise and Prayer in which the Church is engaged. Here it is used with reference to the necessities of the Church for the coming day; preceding the detailed prayers of the versicles which follow, and of the Collects which make up the remainder of the Service.
Then the Priest standing up shall say] This Rubric continues the ancient practice, applying it to the whole of the versicles, instead of only to a portions. The old Rubric after the Miserere, which followed the versicles above given, was “ Finito Psalmo solus sacerdos erigat se, et ad gradum chori accedat ad Matutinas et ad Vesperas, tunc dicendo hos versus :
Exurge, Domine, adjuva nos
Et libera nos propter nomen tuum.
Et ostende faciem tuam, et salvi erimus.
1 The same order is to be found in old formularies: e. g. in the Sacramentary of Grimoldus, printed by Pamelius in his Liturgicon, i. 511, where there is a Benedictio super Regem tempore Synodi, followed by one for the plaway and people.
? The "Mirror" also explains the triple repetition of each Kyrie as a prayer in each case against sins of thought, word, and deed.
9 But, as a general rule, “ Preces" were said kneeling (except at Christmas, and from Easter to Trinity), and "Orationes" were said standing.