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responses in this Litany were curiously varied. The chanter "sung,”-in Cosin's Durham Book. The Litany was sung by said, for instance, “St. Mary, pray for us ;” and the choir re- two bishops at the coronation of George I. sponded, “Kyrie eleison.” Again, “St. Michael, pray for us ;" With regard to the place for saying or singing the Litany, the the response was, “ Christ, hear us." The York Litany of Ascen present Prayer Book in its rubric before the 51st Psalm in the sion Eve has, “ Take away from us, O Lord, our iniquities,” &c., Commination, appears implicitly to recognize a peculiar one, the response being a repetition of the first words. Then, “Have distinct from that in which the ordinary offices are performed. mercy, have mercy, have mercy, Lord, on Thy people,” &c., the As we have seen, the Injunctions of Edward, followed herein by response being “Have mercy;" then “Hear, hear, hear our those of Elizabeth, specified the midst of the church : and Bishop prayers, O Lord :" response, “ Hear.” The rubric adds, “ Et Andrewes had in his chapel a faldistory (folding-stool) for this dicatur Letania per circuitum ad introitum chori.” On the same purpose, between the western stalls and the lectern. So Cosin, Eve, in Sarum, a metrical invocation to St. Mary was chanted, as archdeacon of the East Riding in 1627, inquired whether the “Sancta Maria, Quæsumus, almum Poscere Regem Jure memento; church had “a little faldstool or desk, with some decent carpet Salvet ut omnes Nos jubilantes.” On St. Mark's day, in Sarum, over it, in the middle alley of the church, whereat the Litany may as in the Rogation Litany of York above quoted, the suffrage be said after the manner prescribed by the Injunctions ;" and in included “pray for us," and the response was Kyrie. The Sarum his first series of Notes on the Common Prayer he says, “The rule was, “Whatever part of the Litany is said by the priest priest goeth from out his seat into the body of the church, and must be fully and entirely repeated by the choir, as far as the at a low desk before the chancel door, called the faldstool, kneels, utterance of 'We sinners beseech Thee to hear us. For then and says or sings the Litany. Vide Proph. Joel de medio loco after “That Thou give us peace,' the choir is to respond “We inter porticum et altare," &c. Compare also the frontispiece to beseech Thee, hear us :' and after each verse, down to ·Son of Bp. Sparrow's Rationale, and to the Litany in Prayer Books of God.'” So the Processional; the same rule is given, in some 1662, &c. Cosin gave such a faldstool to Durham Cathedral, what different form, by the Breviary.

which is constantly used by two priests; and the rubric of the Besides the Latin Litanies for church use, the Primer con present Coronation office speaks of two bishops kneeling in the tained one (in English) which may be seen in Mr. Maskell's same manner at & faldstool to say the Litany. The custom second volume of “Monumenta Ritualia," where he exhibits a doubtless signified the deeply supplicatory character of this Sarum Primer of about A.D. 1400; with two other English service. Finally, in the Durham Book the Rubric before the Litanies from MSS. in the Bodleian. A MS. English Litany of Litany ends with these words : “the Priest (or Clerks) kneeling the 15th century, somewhat different from these, is in the in the midst of the Quire, and all the people kneeling, and answer Library of University College, Oxford.

ing as followeth.” Coming down to the 16th century, we find the first form of In the present day there is a disposition to make the Litany our present Litany in that of 1544, probably composed by Cran available as a separate service. Abp. Grindall's order in 1571, mer, who would have before him the Litany in the Goodly forbidding any interval between Morning Prayer, Litany, and Primer of 1535, and perhaps the Cologne Litany published in the Communion Service, was far from generally observed. At German 1543, or Luther's of 1543 : and it was imposed on the Winchester and Worcester Cathedrals the custom of saying the Church by Henry VIII., to be used “ in the time of processions." Litany some hours after Mattins has prevailed: and we learn from It retains three invocations of created beings : one addressed to Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, [lib. xii., no. 21,] that in 1730 the mem“St. Mary, Mother of God our Saviour;" a second to the holy bers of Ch. Ch. Oxford, on Wednesdays and Fridays, went to Angels, Archangels, and all holy orders of blessed spirits ;" a Mattins at 6, and to Litany at 9. The 15th canon, above referred third to the “holy patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, confes to, recognizes the Litany as a separate office. Freedom of sors, virgins, and all the blessed company of heaven.” In Henry's arrangement in this matter is highly desirable: and if it be said reign there was also a Litany published in the King's Primer of that the Litany ought to precede the Communion, according to 1545. It is curious that “procession,” in Cranmer's language ancient precedent, instead of being transferred, as it sometimes (see a passage in “ Private Prayers," Parker Soc., pref. p. 25), now is, to the afternoon, it may be replied that the Eucharistic meant the actual supplication ; and so in King Henry's. In Ectene of the East is not only much shorter than our Litany, but 1547 the Injunctions of Edward VI. forbade processions (in the far less plaintive, so to speak, in tone, and therefore more evi. common sense of the word); and, borrowing part of the Sarum dently congruous with Eucharistic joy. The like may be said, rule above mentioned as to the Easter Eve Litania Septiformis, on the whole, of the “ Preces Pacificæ " once used at Rome (as ordered the priests, with other of the choir, to kneel in the we have seen) in the early part of the Mass, and at Milan on midst of the church immediately before High Mass, and sing or Lenten Sundays : although indeed a Lenten Sunday observance say the Litany, &c., which Injunction was repeated by Queen could be no real precedent for all the Sundays in the year. Elizabeth in 1559, with the alteration of “before Communion,” Of the Puritan cavils at the Litany, some will be dealt with in &c. In the Prayer Book of 1549 the Litany was ordered to be the Notes. One, which accuses it of perpetuating prayers which said or sung on Wednesdays and Fridays, and was printed had but a temporary purpose, is rebuked by Hooker (v. 41. 4), after the Communion; but in the Book of 1552 it was printed in and is not likely to be revived. He takes occasion to speak of its present place, “ to be used on Sundays, Wednesdays, Fridays, the "absolute (i. e. finished) perfection" of our present Litany: and at other times," &c. About Christmas, 1558, Elizabeth Bp. Cosin, in his Devotions, uses the same phrase, and calls it “this sanctioned the English Litany nearly as before, for her own principal, and excellent prayer" (excellent being, in the English of Chapel (see Cardwell, Docum. Ann. i. 209, and Lit. Services, his day, equivalent to matchless); and Dr. Jebb describes it as "a Parker Soc., p. xii); it soon came into more general use, and was most careful, luminous, and comprehensive collection of the scat. inserted in the Prayer Book of 1559, the rubric of 1552 being tered treasures of the Universal Church” [Choral Service, p. 423). repeated. The Injunctions of Elizabeth in 1559 ordered the It has clearly two main divisions : I. From the beginning to Curate to “say the Litany and prayers” in church every Wed. the last Kyrie, before the Lord's Prayer. This part, says Bp. nesday and Friday ; but the Litany of the procession, in Roga- Sparrow, may be considered as less solemnly appropriated to the tion week, was to be continued also, and the custom of “Beating priest than the second part: and in some choirs a lay-clerk chants the Bounds” of parishes on Ascension Day still in some sort it along with the priest. II. From the Lord's Prayer to the represents it. [See Note on Rogation Days.]

end. The first part may be regarded as having five, the second The fifteenth canon of 1604 provides for the saying of the part four, subdivisions. Litany in church after tolling of a bell, on Wednesdays and Fridays. In the last review of the Prayer Book, the words “to 1 In fact there is a direction exactly opposite in an Occasional Service of be sung or said " were substituted for “used," (both phrases

Queen Elizabeth's reign, exhorting the people to spend a quarter of an hour

or more in private devotion between Morning Prayer and the Communion. having occurred in the Scotch Prayer Book,) and are very carefully

I ? See also a note on the expanded Kyrie Eleison in the Communion added,-an erasure being made to give precedence to the word | Service.

THE LITAN Y.

Matt. vi. 9. 14.
Lube xv. 18, 19.
Lam. iii. 19, 20.
Rev. iii. 17.

nobis.

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Acts v. 3, 4.
John xv. 26.
Aets ii. 33. 39.
Rom. viii, 26.

Here followeth the Litany, or General Sup. )
plication, to be sung or said after Morn-
ing Prayer upon Sundays, Wednesdays, and
Fridays, and at other times when it shall be
commanded by the Ordinary.

GOD the Father, of heaven | DATER de cælis Deus: miserere Salisbury Use.

have mercy upon us miserable sinners.

O God the Father, of heaven have mercy upon us miserable sinners.

O God the Son, Redeemer of the Fili Redemptor mundi Deus : miseworld have mercy upon us miserable

rere nobis. sinners.

O God the Son, Redeemer of the world : have mercy upon us miserable sinners.

O God the Holy Ghost, proceeding Spiritus Sancte Deus : miserere from the Father and the Son • have

nobis. mercy upon us miserable sinners.

o God the Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son : have

mercy upon us miserable sinners. Matt. iii. 16, 17. O holy, blessed, and glorious Trinity, Sancta Trinitas, unus Deus: mise19. three Persons, and one God • have

rere nobis. mercy upon us miserable sinners.

O holy, blessed, and glorious Trinity, three Persons, and one God : have mercy upon us miserable sinners.

bis," after each. Remember not, Lord, our offences, Ne reminiscaris, Domine, delicta nor the offences of our forefathers, nostra, vel parentum nostrorum : neque neither take thou vengeance of our vindictam sumas de peccatis nostris. sins : spare us, good Lord, spare thy Parce, Domine, parce populo tuo, quem people, whom thou hast redeemed with redemisti pretioso sanguine tuo: ne in thy most precious blood, and be not | æternum irascaris nobis. angry with us for ever.

Spare us, good Lord.

xxviii. 19. 2 Cor. xiii. 14.' Micah vii. 18, 19

Here followed the

Invocations of Saints, with the Response, "Ora pro no

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O God the Father] The old Sarum Litany prefixes to this, | partly from the old Sarum antiphon after the Athanasian Creed, “Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison :" then, “ Christe, audi nos." for Trinity week : “O beata et benedicta et gloriosa Trinitas, The Roman has a complete Kyrie, with “Christe, audi nos; Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus." Christe, exaudi nos." The Litany of Ordo Romanus, and the Remember not] Before 1544, these words formed part of the Utrecht Litany, have also “Salvator mundi, adjuva nos.” An antiphon which was added to the Penitential Psalms as prefixed Ambrosian Baptismal Litany has Kyrie thrice, “Domine miserere" to the Litany. In the original, after “ne in æternum,” &c. thrice, and “Christe, libera nos ” thrice, with the response “Sal. came, “et ne des bæreditatem tuam in perditionem : ne in vator libera nos.”

æternum obliviscaris nobis.” But there was also, just before the Of heaven] i.e. from heaven, “de cælis.” The phrase comes special Deprecations, and after the invocations of Saints, “ Profrom Luke xi. 13, è nathp det oùpavou, your Father who heareth pitius esto: Parce nobis, Domine.” The word “good” was inserted from heaven. Cf. 2 Chron. vi. 21. “Exaudi .... de cælis," in 1544. The sins of fathers may be visited on children in

temporal judgments. It is much to be observed that the whole Miserable sinners] Added in 1544.

of what follows down to the Kyrie, is one continuous act of wor. Proceeding from, fc.] Added in 1544. The Utrecht bas, ship offered to our Blessed Lord; and it is this which gives the "Spiritus Sancte, benigne Deus.”

Litany such peculiar value in days when His Divinity is too O holy, blessed, fc.] The address was thus amplified in 1544, often but faintly realized.

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Ps. xci. 9, 10. 13.
2 Cor. ii. 11.
Rom. i. 18.

1 Chron. iv. 10. From all evil and mischief; from /
2 Cor. ii. 11. " sin; from the crafts and assaults of the
2 Thess. 1. 7–). devil; from thy wrath, and from ever-

lasting damnation,

Good Lord, deliver us.

Ab omni malo : Libera nos, Domine. Salisbury Use.
Ab insidiis diaboli : Libera .....
Ab infestationibus dæmonum: Li-

bera ....
[A ventura ira : Libera ....] [York Use.]
A damnatione perpetua: Libera ...

Matt. vi. 13.

2 Cor. iv. 4. Gal. v. 26. 1 Pet. ii. 1, 2. i John iv, 20.

From all blindness of heart; from pride, vain-glory, and hypocrisy; from envy, hatred, and malice, and all un

charitableness, 2 Cor. i. 10.

Good Lord, deliver us. 1 Cor. vi. 8, 9, From fornication, and all other Mark iv. 18, 19, deadly sin ; and from all the deceits of

the world, the flesh, and the devil,

Good Lord, deliver us.
From lightning and tempest; from
plague, pestilence, and famine; from

A cæcitate cordis : Libera .... Salisbury Use.
[A peste superbiæ : Libera ....) (York Use.]
Abappetitu inanis gloriæ: Libera ... Salisbury Use.
Ab ira, et odio, et omni mala volun-

tate: Libera ....
A spiritu fornicationis: Libera ....

10.

1 John ii. 16, 17 Rev. xii. 9.

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A fulgure et tempestate: Libera ....
A subitanea et improvisa morte: Li-

bera ....

From] These Deprecations, which in the old Litanies, as in the so York, “from all uncleannesses ...." Sarum further adds, present Roman, were broken up into separate forms, each relating “from unclean thoughts ;" so Dominican. to one topic, were in 1544 combined in groups, as at present; Deadly sin] In 1544 “all deadly sin.” “Other” added in probably in order to give more intensity and energy to the 1549. This phrase has been more than once objected to. The “Deliver us." The like was done with the Obsecrations.

Committee of the House of Lords, in 1641, suggested “grietous All evil] Sarum, York, Hereford, Carthusian, Dominican, and the sin,” doubtless from dislike of the Roman distinction of mortal old Ordo Romanus; Litania Latina in Luther's Enchiridion, 1543. and venial sins. The Puritan divines, at the Savoy Conference, Mischief] Added to the old form in 1544.

made a similar suggestion, observing, that the wages of sin, as Sin] Added in 1544, from the Litany in the Primer of 1535. such, were death. The Bishops answered, “For that very reason, The Roman has it, and it is in Hermann of Cologne's Simplex et deadly' is the better word.” They therefore must have underPia Deliberatio, translated from German into Latin in 1545; stood the phrase to refer to all wilful and deliberate sin. At the his Litany is nearly identical with that of Luther named above. same time it must be remembered, that among wilful sins there

Crafts and assaults] Two distinct modes of diabolic attack, are degrees of heinousness. “It would be introducing Stoicism secret and open. “Snares of the devil” are in Ordo Romanus, into the Gospel, to contend that all sins were equal." [Dr. &c. Compare 2 Cor. ii. 11.

Pusey's Letter to Bishop of Oxford, p. liii.] Assaults] Not in York nor in Roman, but in Dominican Deceits of the world, the flesh] Added in 1544 ; but York [Brev. Ord. Prædic.].

has “from fleshly desires.” So Utrecht, Carthusian, “from Thy wrath] Roman has this; and so the Ordo Romanus. York wicked concupiscence.” “Deceits of the devil,” in fact, is a has, " from the wrath to come." So it is in the Lyons Rogations, repetition of “crafts of the devil," above. The deceits of the and in Carthusian. In Litanies for the Sick it was common to world, of course, mean “the vain pomp and glory” of it, the deprecate “ Thy wrath” [Martene i. 858, &c.]. The Narbonne hollow splendour, the false attractiveness, the promises of satis. had, “ From Thy wrath greatly to be feared.”

faction and of permanence, &c., which, as the Apostle reminds Everlasting damnation] Sarum, Hereford, Utrecht, Cistercian, us, have no reality. [1 John ii. 17. Compare 1 Cor. vii. 31.] Dominican have “perpetual” (compare Roman, “a morte per. Lightning and tempest] Sarum, Roman; not York nor Herepetua"]. If the force of this Deprecation can be evaded in the ford. Hermann has it; and a Poitiers Litany [Mart. iii. 438] interests of Universalism, no words can retain any meaning. has, “ That it may please Thee to turn away malignitatem tem. York combines "sudden and eternal death."

pestatum.Thunder-storms impelled St. Chad to repair to church, Blindness of heart] This, which is in Sarum and Utrecht, not and employ himself in prayer and psalmody; being asked why he in York nor Roman, was derived from the Vulgate of Eph. iv. 18, did so, he cited Ps. xviii. 13. [Bede iv, 3.] There are two “propter cæcitatem cordis sui :” but the word nopwoiy should Orationes contra fulgura," and one “ad repellendam tempestarather be rendered “hardness," or “callousness."

tem,” in St. Gregory's Sacramentary, ed. Menard. Pride] York and Utrecht more emphatically, “ the plague of Plague, pestilence] Sarum, York, Hereford, have not this pride." Not in Roman. The Carthusian has, “the spirit of pride." deprecation, which is in Roman. The Litany of 1535 had “ From

Vain-glory] Shortened from Sarum, “ the desire of vain all pestilence.” So also a Tours Litany,“ to remove pestilence or glory.” Not in Roman.

mortality from us;" and St. Dunstan's Litany for Dedication of Hypocrisy] Added in 1544.

a Church has “From pestilence.” Envy] Added in 1544. We do not specify anger, as Sarum Famine] Not in Sarum, York, Hereford, but in Roman. and York do.

In 1535, “from pestilence and famine.” Dunstan's also, “et Hatred] Here Sarum, York, Roman agree.

fame.” The Fleury Litany, in Martene, has “froin all want and Malice, fc.] Sarum, York, Roman, Utrecht, Dominican, “all famine." ill-will.”

Battle] York has, “ from persecution by Pagans, and all our Fornication) Sarum, Roman, Carthusian have “the spirit of enemies," like the Anglo-Saxon Litany. The Roman and fornication;" and Sarum adds, “from all uncleanness of mind Dominican deprecate “war." So Primer of 1535, and Hermann. and body,” which is in Hereford, Utrecht, Carthusian, Dominican ; | Dunstan's and Fleury mention slaughter.

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battle and murder, and from sudden

death, Isa. xlvi. 4.

Good Lord, deliver us.

From all sedition, privy conspiracy, Gal: v. 19, 20. and rebellion ; from all false doctrine, 1 Cor. i. 10. iii. 3. heresy, and schism; from hardness of

heart, and contempt of thy Word and
Commandment,

Good Lord, deliver us.

By the mystery of thy holy Incar Per mysterium sanctæ Incarnationis Salisbury Use. 1 Tim. iii. 76 nation; by thy holy Nativity and

tuæ : Libera ....

2 Tim. iv, 3.

Rom. ii. 4, 5.
Isa. v. 24.

2 Tim. iv. 18.

Matt. i. 21-23. 1 Tim. iii. 16.

Murder] Added 1544. Hermann has it. The Latin Book of pare the beautiful Parisian Litany of the Holy Name of Jesus, 1560 has “latrocinio."

“ from neglect of Thy inspirations, Jesus, deliver us." Sudden death] This is in the Sarum, “sudden and unforeseen By the mystery] Here begin the Obsecrations, as they are death.” York prefixes “sudden” to “eternal death.” The called. They go on the principle that every several act of our Roman agrees with the Sarum. So Hermann, adding “evil.” Lord's Mediatorial life has its appropriate saving energy ; that The same deprecation is in the Rogations of Lyons. The Puritans virtue goes out of each, because each is the act of a Divine objected that “the godly should always be prepared to die.” Person, and has a Divine preciousness. When, therefore, we Hooker replies, in one of his most beautiful and thoughtful say, “Deliver us by Thy Nativity, by Thy Temptation," &c., we chapters [E. P. v. 46], that it is lawful to “prefer one way of do not merely ask Him to remember those events of His human death before another;” that it is religion which makes men life, but we plead them before Him as mystically effective, as wish for a “leisurable” departure; that our prayer “importeth instinct with life-giving grace, as parts of a Mediatorial whole. a twofold desire," (1) For some “convenient respite;" (2) If Doubtless, the Death of our Lord is the meritorious cause of our that be denied, then, at least, “that although death unexpected salvation; we are redeemed by it, not by His Circumcision, or be sudden in itself, nevertheless, in regard of our prepared minds, His Fasting; and to efface the distinction between it and all it may not be sudden." Archbishop Hutton, of York, before the other parts of the “ (Economy," in regard to His office as the Hampton Court Conference was held, explained this as implying Lamb of God, would be an indication of theological unsoundness. a condition, “if it be Thy will,” supposing "sudden" were taken At the same time it is also true that, in St. Leo's language, all our simply; but “ sudden" might be taken as equivalent to "giving Lord's acts, as being related to His atoning Passion, are “sacrano time for repentance." The aversion of Lord Brook to this mental,” as well as “exemplary;" His Nativity is our spiritual deprecation, and his own terrific instantaneous death by a shot birth, His Resurrection our revival, His Ascension our advancefrom the great spire of Lichfield Cathedral, are well known. In ment. They are not only incentives and patterns, but efficient a Prayer Book in the Bodleian, “worn by the daily use ” of causes in the order of grace. So St. Bernard, in his second Bishop Duppa, of Salisbury (while residing at Richmond, between Pentecost Sermon, says that His Conception is to cleanse ours, His the overthrow of Episcopacy and the Restoration), and containing Resurrection to prepare ours, &c. More vividly, St. Anselm, in marginal notes in his own hand, this comment occurs, “ Vainly his fifteenth Prayer, “O most sweet Lord Jesus, by Thy holy excepted against, because we should always be prepared for it: Annunciation, Incarnation .... Infancy, Youth, Baptism, Fastfor by the same reason, we should not pray against any tempta ing .... scourges, buffets, thorny crown,” &c. But the deepest tions.” At the Savoy Conference, the Puritans again raised the and tenderest expression of this principle (surpassing even Bishop old objection, and proposed to read, “from dying suddenly and Andrewes's obsecrations, " by Gethsemane, Gabbatha, Golgotha," unprepared.” The Bishops replied, “ From sudden death, is as &c.) is in the mediæval Golden Litany, printed by Maskell, Mon. good as from dying suddenly; which we therefore pray against, | Rit. ii. 244, “By Thy great meekness, that Thou wouldst be that we may not be unprepared.” [Cardwell, Conferences, pp. comforted by an angel, so comfort me in every time .... For that 316. 352.] “A person,” says Bishop Wilson, Sacra Privata, p. piteous cry, in the which Thou commendedst Thy soul to Thy 358, “whose heart is devoted to God, will never be surprised by Father, our souls be commended to Thee," &c. The coarse and death.”

heartless fanaticism, which could cavil at these obsecrations as Sedition] In 1544, from Primer of 1535. Hermann, "a “a certain conjuring of God,” was characteristic of John Knox seditione et simultate.”

and his friends. They so expressed themselves when criticizing Privy conspiracy] In 1644. After this, in 1549 and 1552, the Litany (“certain suffrages devised of Pope Gregory"), in a came, “from the tyranny of the Bishop of Rome, and all letter to Calvin against the Prayer Book of 1552. Bishop Duppa his detestable enormities,” which was omitted under Elizabeth ; writes, “No oath, nor no exorcism.” and Cosin, in his First Series of Notes, says that the Puritans (of Of Thy holy Incarnation] So Sarum, York, Hereford, Roman, James the First's time) wished to have it restored. It had been Cistercian, Dominican. “The mystery” is doubtless an allusion in the Primer of 1545, with “abominable” for “detestable.” to 1 Tim. iii. 16. The thought which it suggests is that which

Rebellion] Added, for obvious reasons, in 1661, by Cosin. of old made men bow down in adoration at the words in the

False doctrine, heresy] In 1544. Hermann, “ab omni Creed, “et Homo factus est.” “By all the stupendous truths errore."

involved in Thine assumption of our humanity, wherein Thou, Schism] In 1661. The Primer of 1535 had had “schismies." being true God, becamest true Man, combining two Natures in

Hardness of heart, and contempt, fc.] In 1544. Compare Thy single Divine Person, without confusion, and without the Third Collect for Good Friday. See Prov. i. 25. The force severance; so that, in the Virgin's womb, Thou didst bring God of this deprecation is best seen by remembering that a final and man together, undergoing all the conditions of infant life, hardening of the heart is a penal infliction, provoked by habitual Thyself unchangeably the Creator and Life-giver.” The Roman indifference to Divine love. We may well entreat our Lord to adds, “By Thine Advent." Utrecht has “By Thine Annunciasave us from repaying His love by coldness, lest the capacity of tion, by Thine Advent and Nativity.” loving Him be justly taken away. We may well implore Him, Thy holy Nativity] After Hereford. Sarum has only “Thy also, to keep us from the terrible possibility of ignoring, and Nativity :” so Ordo Romanus. “Holy," however, is in the practically despising, His revelation and His commands. Com. | Sarum Primer (Maskell, ii. 102]. The Latin book of 1560

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[Per sanctam Nativitatem tuam : (Hereford Use.)

Libera ....]
Per sanctam Circumcisionem tuam : Salisbury Use.

Libera ....
Per Baptismum tuum : Libera ....
Per Jejunium tuum: Libera ....
Per Crucem et Passionem tuam :

Libera .....
Per pretiosam Mortem tuam : Li-

bera ....
Per gloriosam Resurrectionem tuam:

Libera ....
Per (admirabilem) Ascensionem

tuam : Libera ....
Per adventum Sancti Spiritus (Para-

cliti) : Libera .....
In hora mortis : (Succurre nobis),

Domine.
In die judicii : Libera nos, Domine.

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made “Nativity, Circumcision,” &c., dependent on mysterium." | Moisac, Narbonne, Cistercian, Carthusian, Dominican, Parisian, York has no mention of the Nativity.

prefix“ adinirabilem " to " Ascensionem ;" Strasburg and Utrecht Circumcision] Sarum has “holy Circumcision." It is not in have “glorious.” Remiremont, “radiant.” Golden Litany, the present Roman, but in two old Roman forms in Menard's "wonderful and glorious.” Parisian of the Holy Name has, notes to the Gregorian Sacramentary [741 and 923]. The after “ Ascension,” “ by Thy joys, by Thy glory.” Parisian of the Holy Name places after “Nativity,” « Thine The coming of the Holy Ghost] Sarum, for the Dying, “The infancy, Thy most Divine life, Thy labours.” Sarum Litany for coming of the Holy Ghost, the Paraclete;" so Ordo Romanus, the Dying adds “apparitionem tuam ;" and Utrecht has, “cir. present Roman, and Hermann. “The Paraclete” was omitted cumcisionem et oblationem tuam.”

in 1544, as in Primer of 1535. Sarum, York, Hereford, AngloBaptism, Fasting] Sarum, “ by Thy Baptism, by Thy Fast Saxon, Sarum Primer, Cistercian, Doininican, and Benedictine of ing." Roman combines “ Baptism and holy Fasting." Utrecht, M. Cassino, have “grace," instead of "coming." Armorican, “Baptism and Fasting.” Sarum Primer, “Thy Baptism and “by the descent of the Holy Ghost.” Tours and Utrecht simply, much other penance doing.”

“by the Spirit, the Paraclete.” Utrecht and others add an Temptation] 1544. Primer of 1535, and Hermann, “tempta. obsecration by the Second Advent, e. g. “by Thy future tions.” Golden Litany, in Maskell, “ The tempting of the fiend | Advent,” “ by the majesty of Thine Advent.” in the desert.”

In all time of our tribulation .... wealth] 1544. After Agony and bloody Sweat] 1544. So Hermann. Golden Primer of 1535, “in time of our tribulations, in the time of our Litany, “For that agony in which Thou offeredst Thee wilfully felicity;" Hermann, “in all time,” &c. The Scottish and to death, obeying Thy Almighty Father; and Thy bloody sweat.” American Books have “prosperity” for “ wealth." The suffrage Primer of 1535, “Thy painful agony, in sweating blood and seems to refer not only to deliverance out of afflictions, but to water."

deliverance from the special moral dangers which attend them. Cross and Passion] So Sarum, Roman, York for Easter Eve, [Exod. vi. 9. Jer. v. 3. Hos. vii. 14. Amos iv. 6. See too and Anglo-Saxon (probably an old York form), in Procter, p. 231, the remarkable case of Ahaz, 2 Chron. xxviii, 22, and the awful and Hermann. Mabillon's Anglican, or Arinorican, Hereford, picture in Rev. xvi. 11.] Suffering often hardens, instead of Utrecht, Carthusian, Cistercian, Dominican, have “ Passion and softening the heart; and therefore “not without reason has the Cross;" so Sarum for the Dying. This is the more natural Church taught all her faithful children to say, Suffer us not... order. Sarum Primer, “ Thy holy Passion.” The Tours omits for any pains of death to fall from Thee !” [Mill, Univ. Sermons, “ Thy Cross," which forms the only obsecration in the Corbey | p. 332.] The trials of prosperity [Deut. viii, 14. Jer. v. 24; and MS. Litany [Menard, note 380], and in the Litany of the ninth Uzziah's case, 2 Chron. xxvi. 16, &c.] are more commonly recog. century, in Muratori, i. 76. The Golden Litany dwells with nized. Even the Greeks knew, as an ethical common-place, that intense tenderness on all the details of the Crucifixion, and on it was hard to bear success without insolence and moral deprava. some points which are traditional or legendary. Parisian of the tion. [Ar. Eth. iv. 8.] It is the Christian's wisdom and hapHoly Name, “ Thine Agony and Passion, Thy Cross and for piness to learn the secret of strength against both these forms saking,- languores tuos.

of trial, as St. Paul learned it. [Phil. iv. 12.] Precious Death] Sarum. So in Sarum Litany for the Dying, In the hour of death] So Sarum and Hereford, adding, as the “piissimam mortem tuam.” Sarum Primer, “most piteous response, “Succour us, O Lord.” This suffrage, for which York death.” Ordo Romanus mentions the Cross, Passion, Death. substitutes “from the pains of hell,” comes before the obsecra

Burial] Not in Sarum ; but in Sarum Primer, “ Thy blessed tions in Benedictine of M. Cassino. burying.” “ Thy Death and Burial," in Roman, Utrecht, Stras In the day of judgment] Sarum, York, Hereford, Roman, burg, for Easter Eve, Primer of 1535, Hermann, Parisian.

Ordo Romanus, Utrecht, Dominican, &c. The vernacular Thy glorious Resurrection] So Sarum, Hereford, Narbonne, Litanies in Maskell have, “In the day of doom.” Golden Moisac, Cistercian, Carthusian, Dominican, Sarum and Parisian Litany, “Succour us, most sweet Jesu, in that fearful day of the Litanies for the Dying. Anglo-Saxon, York, Strasburg, Utrecht, strict judgment.” Compare the Dies Iræ. The following is a Roman, and ordinary Parisian, “ holy Resurrection."

tabular view of the Deprecations and Obsecrations of the Sarum Ascension] Anglo-Saxon, Sarum, York, Hereford, Roman, / and Roman Litanies.

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