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Acts xiii. 22.

1 Kings viii. 30. We sinners do beseech thee to hear | Peccatores: Te rogamus, audi nos. Salisbury Use.
Col. i. 18.
John X. 16.
Ps. cvii. 7. us, O Lord God; and that it may Ut [sanctam] Ecclesiam tuam [Ca- [York Use.]

(Salisbury Celebr. please thee to rule and govern thy holy tholicam] regere (et defensare) dig- ord.)

Church universal in the right way; neris : Te rogamus, audi nos.
Jonah i. 14. We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.
Prose vii.. That it may please thee to keep and Ut Regi nostro et principibus nos- Salisbury l’se.
2 Kings xvili. 5,6. strengthen in the true worshipping of tris pacem et veram concordiam atque

thee, in righteousness and holiness of victoriam donare digneris : Te roga-
life, thy Servant VICTORIA, our mus, audi nos.

most gracious Queen and Governor; Ps. v. 1, 2. We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to rule her heart in thy faith, fear, and love, and that she may evermore have affiance in thee, and ever seek thy honour and glory; We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

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Ps. liv. 2.

Roman.

Sarum.
From all evil (also in York and From all evil.

Hereford).
From the snares of the devil From all sin.
| (Y. H.).
From everlasting damnation From Thy wrath.

(H.). From perils imminent for our From sudden and unforeseen sins.

death. From assaults of demons. From the snares of the devil. From the spirit of fornication. From the scourge of earthquake. Froin the desire of vain-glory. From anger and hatred, and all

ill-will. From all uncleanness of mind From the spirit of fornication.

and body (Y. H.). From anger and hatred, and all From lightning and tempest.

ill-will (Y.). From unclean thoughts. From everlasting death. From blindness of heart. From lightning and tempest. From sudden and unforeseen From pestilence, famine, and death (Y. sudden).

war. By the mystery of Thy holy By the mystery of Thy holy InIncarnation (Y. H.).

carnation.
By Thy Nativity (H. holy). By Thine Advent.
By Thy holy Circumcision. By Thy Nativity.
By Thy Baptism.

By Thy Baptism and holy Fast

ing.
By Thy Fasting.
By Thy Cross and Passion (H. By Thy Cross and Passion.

Passion and Cross).
By Thy precious Death. By Thy Death and Burial.
By Thy glorious Resurrection By Thy holy Resurrection.

(H. Y. holy). By Thy wonderful Ascension By Thy wonderful Ascension.

(Y, H.). By the grace of the Holy Ghost By the coming of the Holy the Paraclete (Y. H.).

Ghost the Paraclete. In the hour of death, succoar

us, O Lord (H.). In the day of judgment, deliver in the day of judgment.

us, O Lord (Y. H.).

We sinners] Here begin the Petitions, or Supplications ; introduced by a confession of our sinfulness. So in Sarum, York, Hereford, Roman, Cistercian, Carthusian, Dominican, &c., “We sinners beseech Thee to hear us." In some the suffrage is, "We sinners," and the response, “Beseech Thee, hear us.” But the Dominican makes the reader say the whole, and the choir repeat the whole. As we have seen, the Sarum use was for the choir to repeat all after the reader, until after this petition. The

Litany of 1544, which joined this with the suffrage for the Church, added the word “God.” And this may be set against the substitution of “ Lord,” for the original “our God,” in “O Saviour of the world.” Afterwards, in Sarum, Hereford, Do. minican, come two suffrages, which remind us of the older"Pacificæ,” “That Thou wouldst give us peace ... That Thy mercy and pity may preserve us." York places the first of these here, the second further on. The Roman has three suffrages, “ That Thou spare us ... That Thou forgive us ... That it may please Thee to bring us to true repentance." Utrecht has two, for peace and pardon. Cistercian, for peace, only.

Thy holy Church universal] The Preces of Fulda pray for “deepest peace and tranquillity," and then for “the Holy Catholic Church, which is from one end of the earth to the other.” Sarum simply, “Thy Church.” So Hereford, Cistercian, Dominican. Procter's, York, and Roman, " Thy holy Church.” Sarum at Ordination, “ Thy Catholic Church.” Sarum reads, “ to govern and defend;" so Cistercian. Roman, “to govern and preserve.” The Ordo Romanus, “to exalt Thy Church.” The Primer of 1535, “to govern and lead Thy holy Catholic Church.” The Book of 1559 has “universally.” The Latin Book of 1560, “Catholicam.” The Scottish Book, “Thy holy Catholic Church universally."

In the right way] This expresses generally, what in the Sarum had a special reference to the ecclesiastical state and religious orders,—“in holy religion ... That it may please Thee to preserve the congregations of all holy persons in Thy service," or, as Hereford, in “Thy holy service.”

That it may please Thee to keep ...] To pray for the Sovereign before the Bishops was not absolutely a novelty at the time when our Litany was drawn up. The Sarum, indeed, before the separation from Rome, had prayed first for “ Domnum Apostolicum” (the Pope), “and all degrees of the Church," then for “our Bishops and Abbats," then for “our King and Princes.” York and Hereford had a like order (Hermann's Litany places “Sovereign ” after “Clergy,” and indeed after other classes). But the two vernacular Litanies printed by Maskell, place "our Kings,” or “our King ... and Princes," before “our Bishops." The York and Hereford read “our Kings." So the Dominican. The words "and strengthen .... of life" were first added in the Queen's Chapel Litany of 1558. Prayers for the spiritual good of the Sovereign had not been usual in old Litanies; that of 1544 prayed that Queen Catherine might be kept in the Lord's fear and love, with increase of godliness, &c. The present Roman prays generally, that Christian kings and princes may have peace and true concord. The Ambrosian Preces for First Sunday in Lent have," for Thy servants, the Emperor N., and the King N., our Duke, and all their army.” Fulda, “ for the most pious Emperor, and the whole Roman army."

May evermore have affiance] In 1549 and 1552 the reading

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Ezra vi. 10.
2 Sam. vii. 29.

Phil. i. l.
Deut. xxxiii. 8.

and perfection.)

2 Tim. ii. 7. 15. Matt. v. 14. Tit. ii. 1. 7, 8.

That it may please thee to be her
defender and keeper, giving her the
victory over all her enemies;
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to bless and i Chron. xxix. 19. preserve Albert Edward Prince of

Wales, the Princess of Wales, and all

the Royal Family ; Ps. Ixi. 1.

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to illuminate Ut Episcopos nostros [et Prælatos (Hereford Use.] (i. e. illumination all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, with nostros], in sancta religione [in tuo (Hereford Use.) John xvi. 13.s' true knowledge and understanding of sancto servitio), conservare digneris :

thy Word; and that both by their Te rogamus, audi nos.
preaching and living they may set it

forth, and shew it accordingly;
Ps. Ixxxiv. 8. We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.
1 Tim. ii. 1,2... That it may please thee to endue

the Lords of the Council, and all the
Nobility, with grace, wisdom, and
understanding;
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to bless and
keep the Magistrates, giving them
grace to execute justice, and to main-
tain truth;
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to bless and | Ut cunctum populum Christianum
keep all thy people ;

| (pretioso sanguine tuo redemptum) Ps. Ixxxvi. 1. We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. conservare digneris: Te rogamus .... Ps. xxix. 11. That it may please thee to give to [Ut pacem et concordiam nobis [York Use.) Ps. Ixxii, 7–9. all nations unity, peace, and concord; | dones.] Ps. xvii. 1. We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. |

Prov. viii. 1416.

xv. 22. 2 Chron, xix. 5, 6.

Deut. xvi. 18.
Ezra vii, 25, 26.
Rom. xiii. 3.

Ps. xvii. 6.

Ps. xxviii. 9.
John xvii, 11.

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was “always." Affiance, in the sense of trust, is found in Shake. | whole Clergy.The whole body of the Clergy were not detispeare. [2nd part of H. VI. iii. 1.]

nitely prayed for in our Church Litanies until 1544, when the Giving her the victory] So Sarum, York, Hereford, “peace, form ran, “ Bishops, Pastors, and Ministers of Thy Church” and true concord, and victory.” The thought probably came (after the pattern of the Primer of 1535), and so continued until from Psalm cxliv. 10. The Lyons has, “to preserve our King the last review, when the present form was adopted by way of ... That Thou grant him life and victory." Hermann has a more expressly negativing the ministerial claims of persons not in suffrage, “to give to our Emperor perpetual viotory against the Holy Orders. Hermann's has, “pastors and ministers," and enemies of God” (i. e. the Turks): Luther's, " his enemies." also, like the Primer of 1535, prays for the sending of "faithful

Royal Family] In our Mediæval Litanies, “our Princes” are labourers into the harvest." mentioned. In 1544, beside the suffrage for Queen Catherine, | Lords of the Council ... Nobility ... Magistrates] 1544. there is one for “our noble Prince Edward, and all the King's The Primer of 1535 has, “ That our ministers and governors may Majesty's children." The Primer of 1535 prayed for Queen virtuously rule Thy people;” and Hermann's prays for “princi. Anne, and the King's posterity. Under Edward and Elizabeth, pem nostrum cum præsidibus suis,” and for “magistratus." there was no suffrage of this kind. James I. inserted the present Palmer compares an ancient Soissons formula, “Life and victory suffrage, in this form, “... and preserve our gracious Queen Anne, to the Judges, and the whole army of the Franks." The Preces Prince Henry, and the rest of the King and Queen's royal issue." of Fulda apparently refer to magistrates in the words, “For all

Bishops, Priests, and Deacons] Sarum (after a suffrage for who are set in high place.” Our present form certainly points to the Pope, see above) prays for “our Bishops and Abbats." York, the Tudor government by the Sovereign in his Privy Council. “our Archbishop, and every congregation committed to him " “Truth” means the Faith held by the Church. (as in the York form of our collect for Clergy and People). | All Thy people] Sarum, York, Hereford, have “to preserve Hereford, “to preserve in Thy holy service our Bishop and our the whole Christian people redeemed by Thy precious blood.” Prelates” (which would include Abbats and Priors, Deans and So a Litany of the ninth century in Murat. i. 77, Carthusian, Archdeacons), “and us, the congregations committed to them." and Dominican. Tours is nearer to our form, “to preserve the Utrecht, “to preserve our Prelate in Thy holy service.” Com | whole Christian people.” The Corbey MS., “To remove Thy pare the Lyons, “ to preserve our Pontiff ... That Thou wouldest wrath from the whole Christian people.” grant him life and health ;" and it proceeds to pray for the To give to all nations unity, peace, and concord] This comes Clergy and People. So the Ambrosian Preces, “ for all their partly from the old suffrage, “peace and true concord to our Clergy ... and all Priests and Ministers ;” and Fulda, “our King and Princes," and partly from a shorter Sarum suffrage, father the Bishop, all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, and the l " That Thou wouldst give us peace;" or the York, “Give us

Deut. xxx. 6.
1 John v. 3.
Prov. viii. 13.
Deut. vi. 17.

2 Cor. ix. 8. Col. i. 9-11. James i. 21. Gal. v. 22, 23. John xv. 2.

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That it may please thee to give us an heart to love and dread thee, and diligently to live after thy command

ments; Ps. cxliii. 1. We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to give to all thy people increase of grace, to bear meekly thy Word, and to receive it with pure affection, and to bring forth

the fruits of the Spirit; Ps.cxix. 149. We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. Deut. xi. 16. That it may please thee to bring into 2 Tim. ii. 24–26. the way of truth all such as have erred

and are deceived ;
Ps. xxx. 10. We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.
Ps. cxxxviii. 3. That it may please thee to strengthen
John xiv. 18. such as do stand, and to comfort and
ps.cxlv, 14. help the weak-hearted, and to raise

up them that fall, and finally to beat
down Satan under our feet;
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to succour, Ut miserias pauperum .... relevare Salisbury Use.

help, and comfort, all that are in dan- digneris: Te rogamus, audi nos. 2 Cor. i. 3, 4. vii.

ger, necessity, and tribulation; Ps. cxxx. 1, 2. We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

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Rom. xvi. 20. viii.

37.

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peace and concord.” See above. ·Mabillon's Anglican or Ar. | word, and the fruit of the Spirit.” Litanies for the Sick have morican prays for peace and unity to be given to the whole similar topics, “ To pour into his heart the grace of the Holy Christian people; as the Roman does. In our present suffrage, Spirit ... to bestow on him grace;" and the Ordo Romanus, “unity” may be understood in a religious or spiritual sense, Utrecht, Carthusian, and Eucharistic Litany in Chigi's MS., while "peace” would mean freedom from external foes, and have, “to pour into our hearts,” &c. An exquisite Litany in the “ concord,” freedom from internal dissension.

| Breviary of the Congregation of St. Maur prays, “ That Thou To give us an heart to love, &c.] 1544. Similar prayers exist wouldest write Thy law in our hearts ... wouldest give Thy in ancient Litanies; thus, the Corbey MS., “right faith, and a servants a teachable heart ... that we may do Thy will with all sure hope in Thy goodness, Lord Jesus.” The Fleury, “to give our heart and mind ... that we may gladly take on us Thy as holy love ... right faith ... firm hope." So the Chigi MS., | sweet yoke," &c. in three suffrages for faith, hope, and love. Parisian, for the To bring into the way of truth] In 1544. After 1535, “ That same, in one suffrage. Compare also the Sarum, “ That Thou all which do err and be deceived, may be reduced into the way of wouldest make the obedience of our service reasonable ... That verity.” Hermann, “errantes et seductos reducere in viam Thou wouldest lift up our minds to heavenly desires." So the veritatis.” The Church has always prayed for this. “Thou Dominican. The Sarum Primer, “ordain in Thy holy will our hearest God's Priest at the altar, exhorting God's people to days and works." Roman has also, “to strengthen and keep us pray for the unbelievers, that God would convert them to the in Thy holy service.” The Anglican or Armorican, “Grant us faith.” [St. Aug., Ep. 217.] Compare the old Gelasian intercesperseverance in good works ... keep us in true faith and reli sion on Good Friday, for all heretics and all in error; the gion.” “Dread,” in the sense of holy and reverent fear; which Mozarabic Preces for the same day, “May forgiveness set right can never be dispensed with by faithful worshippers of the God those who err from the faith;” and, still more like our suffrage, Man, who will come to be their Judge. “If the Gospel be true, the Lyons form, “ That Thou wouldest bring back the erring into if this (Second) Psalm be true, we have great cause to fear Him” the way of salvation." Fuldan prays for preservation of the (Vaughan's “ Lessons of Life and Godliness,” p. 288]; but with holiness and purity of the Catholic Faith. “that one most holy and saving fear, the dread of His dis. To strengthen such as do stand] 1544. Hermann, "stantes pleasure.” [Arnold's “ Christian Life,” ii. 229.] Here again is confortare.” a thought much needed in times when our Lord's Divine Majesty The weak-hearted] 1544. Primer of 1535 prays for those who is often put out of sight.

are “weak in virtue, and soon overcome in temptation." Her. To give to all Thy people increase of grace] A beautiful com mann, “pusillanimes et tentatos consolari et adjuvare." bination of the passage about the good ground in the Parable of That fall] 1544. Compare the old Gelasian prayer at Absoluthe Sower, with James i. 21, and Gal. v. 22. Its date is 1544; tion of Penitents, “Succurre lapsis.” Hermann, “lapsos erigere." but the Sarum Primer has something like it, “ Vouchsafe to inform Beat down Satan) 1544. From Rom. xvi. 20; a text quoted us with right-ruled understandings," from “Ut regularibus dis in the Intercessory Prayer of St. Mark's Liturgy. Primer of ciplinis nos instruere digneris,” MS. Lit. of fifteenth century, 1535, “That we may the devil, with all his pomps, crush and Univ. Coll. The same form is in Cistercian and Dominican, and tread under foot.” Hermann, “Ut Satanam sub pedibus nostris has a monastic import. And the Primer of 1535 has the first conterere digneris.” Strasburg, “ That Thou wouldest grant us form of it, “ To give the hearers of Thy word lively grace to heavenly armour against the devil.” Ratold's, Remiremont, understand it, and to work thereafter, by the virtue of the Holy | Moisac, for the Sick, “That Thou wouldest drive away from him Ghost." So Hermann, “To give the hearers increase of Thy all the princes of darkness.”

1 Tim. ii. 15. Jaines y. 14, 15.

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Ps. cxxxi. 8. That it may please thee to preserve [Ut iter famulorum tuorum in salu- (Hereford Use.)
1 fim. ii. 15. ** all that travel by land or by water, all tis tuæ prosperitate disponas : Te ro-
Luke xviii. 15, women labouring of child, all sick per- gamus, audi nos.]
ps. lxxix. 11. sons and young children, and to shew [Ut fratribus nostris et omnibus fide- [York Use.]

thy pity upon all prisoners and cap- libus infirmis sanitatem mentis et cor-
tives;

poris donare digneris: Te rogamus,
audi nos.]

Ut miserias .... captivorum in- Salisbury Use.

tueri et relevare digneris: Te rogamus, We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. audi nos.

That it may please thee to defend Ps. cxlv. 19. and provide for, the fatherless children, ! Tim. ii. 1. 3, 4. and widows, and all that are desolate

and oppressed ;
Ps. cxi, 6. We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to have
mercy upon all men;
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to forgive
our enemies, persecutors, and slan-
derers, and to turn their hearts;
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to give and Ut fructus terræ dare et conservare
preserve to our use the kindly fruits of digneris : Te rogamus, audi nos.

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Matt, v. 44.
Acts vii. 59, 60,
Prov. xvi. 7.

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Gen. i. 29.
Ps. Ixv. 9. civ.

13-15. Matt, vi. 11.

To succour, help, and comfort] 1544. Primer of 1535 prays offered to Him who entrusted His Mother to His Apostle. It was for “all extreme poverty,” “ Thy people in affliction or in peril, | placed here in 1544 (the words being clearly suggested by such and danger by fire, water, or land.” Hermann, “afflictos et passages as Ps. cxlvi. 9; Jer. xlix. 11), but, like other passages of periclitantes.” Sarum and York have, “ to look upon and that date, is true to the old spirit of Church prayer. St. Mark's relieve the miseries of the poor." So Dominican.

Liturgy prays for the widow and the orphan. Hermann, “ut All that travel] 1544. Compare Hereford, “that Thou wouldest pupillos et viduas protegere et providere digneris." dispose the journey of Thy servants in salutis tuæ prosperi In "all that are desolate and oppressed,the Church seems tate" (as in the Collect, “ Assist us mercifully," originally a to sweep the whole field of the sorrow which comes from “man's prayer for one about to travel); and Dominican, “to bring | inhumanity to man," and which no civilization can abolish ; and to a harbour of safety all faithful persons, navigantes et itine invokes for every such sufferer the help of Him whose sympathy rantes.” York bas, “to give to our brethren and all faithful | is for all at once, and for each as if there were none beside. This people who are sick, health of mind and body;" and Sarum indeed is one of the most stupendous results of the Incarnation, and York add " captives” to “the poor," in the suffrage although perhaps but seldom faced in thought : that our Lord's above cited. Compare the entrenty in Primer of 1535, “that sacred Heart is, so to speak, really accessible at once to all who teeming women may have joyful speed in their labour," and for need its inexhaustible compassion : He cares for each, not only “ sick people.” So Hermann, " for pregnant women, infants, and as God, but as Man, with a special, personal, human tenderness, the sick, and captives.” Compare also this and the preceding to which His Godhead gives a marvellous capacity of extension. and following suffrages of our Litany, with intercessions in St. | Mercy upon all men] This also is of 1544: the Primer of Chrysostom's Liturgy, “for the young, for those that travel by 1535 had expressed the same all-comprehending charity: “that land or by water;" with St. Basil's, “Sail Thou with the voyagers, unto all people Thou wilt show Thy inestimable mercy.” The travel with the travellers, stand forth for the widows, shield the Church has ever prayed for all men. That her prayers do not orphans, deliver the captives, heal the sick, remember all who are arail for all, is not from any defect in her charity, or in the Divine in affliction or necessity .... be all things to all men;" with benignity, but from the bar which a rebellious will can oppose to the Gelasian prayer on God Friday, that God would “open pri the powers of the kingdom of grace. Bp. Duppa's note is, “The sons, loosen chains, grant a return to travellers, health to the objection against this is answered by what St. Paul saith, 1 Tim. sick, a safe harbour to those at sea ;” and with the Ambrosian | i. 4: the prayer being made in the same sense as God is said to Preces for first Sunday in Lent, " for orphans, captives, .... will that all men should be saved." voyagers, travellers, those placed in prisons, in mines" (at forced Forgive our enemies] 1544 : Primer of 1535, “ forgive all labour there), “in exile.” Probably, in these ancient interces warriors, persecutors, and oppressors of Thy people, and convert sions, what was specially before the Church's mind was unjust them to grace." Our present form (which is the same as Her. and cruel imprisonment, so common in hard and lawless times, or mann's) is certainly preferable, and more like the Anglo-Saxon, under a Cæsarean despotism. To visit Christian prisoners was the “ to bestow on our enemies peace and love." Compare St. Chrydelight of St. Leonard, the contemporary of Clovis I.; and St. sostom's Liturgy: “for those who hate and persecute us for Thy Bathildis, Queen of Clovis II., "remembering her own bondage" Name's sake; for those who are without, and are wandering in (she had been a Saxon captive), "set apart vast sams for the error" (compare a previous suffrage), “that Thou wouldest conredemption of captives.” [Milman's Latin Christianity, ii. 221.] vert them to what is good, and appease their wrath against us."

The fatherless children, and widows] One of the tenderest to give and preserve to our use the kindly fruits] “Kindly" petitions in the Prayer Book, and full of touching significance, as of course means natural, produced after their kind. See Abp.

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Acts v. 31.
2 Cor. vii. 10.

[Ut remissionem omnium peccato- [York Use.] rum nobis donare digneris.]

-20.
Ps. xix. 12.
John vi. 63.
Jer. xxvi. 13.
James i. 23-25.

the earth, so as in due time we may
enjoy them;
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to give us 2 Chron. XXX. 18 true repentance; to forgive us all our

sins, negligences, and ignorances; and Jer. xxvi. 13., to endue us with the grace of thy Holy

Spirit to amend our lives according to

thy holy Word; * Ps. xx. 7.

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

Son of God . we beseech thee to hear us.

Son of God : we beseech thee to hear

US.
John i. 29. 36. O Lamb of God • that takest away

the sins of the world; John xvi. 33.

Grant us thy peace.
Acts viii. 32. O Lamb of God • that takest away

the sins of the world; Luke xvii. 13. Have mercy upon us.

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Rev, vii 14.

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi : (Lyons.] [dona nobis pacem.]

Rev. v. 6.

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi : Salisbury Use. miserere nobis.

Trench, English Past and Present, p. 167. So, “a kindly Scot” | That Thou wouldest grant us veram pænitentiam agere.The meant a native Scot; and Ninian Wingate, an able opponent of ordinary Parisian has suffrages for true repentance, for remission Knox, calls Linlithgow his “kindly town," i. e. his native town. of all sins, for compunction of heart and a fountain of tears. This suffrage may represent to us the oldest Western use of Litanies for the Sick have several suffrages of this kind. Ratold's Litanies, to avert excessive droughts or rains, and to secure a good MS. [in Menard, note 923], “That Thou wouldest grant him comharvest. The substance of it is in Sarum, York, and Hereford, as punction of heart .... a fountain of tears .... space of rein Anglo-Saxon, Lyons, Roman, Cistercian, Dominican. York pentance, if possible.” Moisac, “To bestow on him fruitful and adds, “Ut aeris temperiem bonam nobis dones.” So Ordo Romanus saving repentance .... a contrite and humbled heart .... and Utrecht. So Tours, "give us the fruit of the earth, ... a fountain of tears." Salzburg, “compunction of heart .... serenity of sky.... good temperature of weather.” So the a fountain of tears." Narbonne, “ That Thou wouldest give him Fleury: for “abundance of fruits, serenity of sky, seasonable remission of all sins." Remiremont, "pardon, remission, forgiverain.” So in Ambrosian Preces : “ Pro aeris temperie, ac fructu, ness of all his sins," &c. So in the Sarum Litany of Commendaet fecunditate terrarum, precamur te.” The Sarum Primer asks tion of the Soul, and the Jumiéges Litany : "Cuncta ejus peccata for “wholesome and reasonable air.” Compare the anthems sung oblivioni perpetuæ tradere .... remember not the sins and processionally in Sarum for rain or fair weather. “O Lord, ignorances of his youth.” This, from the Vulgate of our Psalm King, God of Abraham, give us rain over the face of the earth, xxv. 7, has supplied our present “sins .... and ignorances.” that this people may learn that Thou art the Lord our God, Alle- | “Negligentiam” occurs in the Vulgate of Num. v. 6. “Negliluia. Is there any among the idols of the Gentiles that can give gences” mean careless omissions (compare Hammond's prayer, rain, but only Thou, O God ? or can the heavens give rain except “Lord, forgive my sins, especially my sins of omission”). “IgnoThou willest ?” [Jer. xiv. 22.] “ The waters are come in like a rances,” faults done in ignorance of our duty, such ignorance being flood, O God, over our heads :" then Psalm lxix. 1.

itself a fault, because the result of carelessness. So as in due time, &c.] Was added 1544. The whole suffrage Among the mediæval suffrages omitted in our present Litany was never more valuable than at a time like the present, when are, " That Thou wouldest repay everlasting good to our benefacthere is a tendency to substitute “laws of nature" for a Living tors-that Thou wouldest give eternal rest to all the faithful God, and to ignore the fact that behind, above, beneath, around departed—that it may please Thee to visit and comfort this all “laws" is the absolute sovereign Personality of Him who " is place:” and last of all the petitions came, “That it may please ever present with His works, one by one, and confronts every Thee to hear us ;" as now in the Roman. This was omitted in thing which He has made by His particular and most loving Pro 1544, as superfluous. vidence," at once the Lord of life and death, of health and sick Son of God] The Sarum rule, in the procession after the ness, of rain and drought, of plenty and famine. If men will not Mass “ for brethren and sisters," was that the choir should repeat pray for seasonable weather, they cannot logically pray for reco in full “Son of God,” &c., with the Agnus and the Kyrie. very from sickness, for escape from shipwreck, or any temporal Tallis' Litany shows that this practice was continued by our good whatever.

Choirs. To give us true repentance, to forgive us] This suffrage, as it O Lamb of God] The custom of saying Agnus Dei here is stands, was framed in 1544. Sarum, York, and Hereford have referred to in the Gelasian Rubric for Easter Eve. In Sarum, not this petition for repentance, but Roman has it, with prayers York, Hereford, as now in Roman and Parisian, Carthusian, Domifor pardon, before the suffrage for the Church : see above. York nican, the Agnus is thrice said. The Sarum responses are, has, “ That it may please Thee to give us remission of all our “Hear us, O Lord, Spare us, O Lord, Have mercy upon us :" the sins :" so the Ordo Romanus, which also asks for “spatium pæni. first and second of these are transposed in Roman and Parisian, tentiæ;" and Sarum has, “to bring again upon us the eyes of as in York, Hereford, Dominican. The responses in Tours were, Thy mercy." Carthusian, “ spatium pænitentiæ et emendationem “Spare us, Give us pardon, Hear us." The Ordo Romanus has a vitæ :” so the Chigi MS., “ That Thou wouldest grant us a place twofold Agnus. Lyons a fourfold, with “Spare us, Deliver us, of repentance';” and Utrecht asks for “compunction of heart Grant us peace, Have mercy upon us :" so that our present form and a fountain of tears;" so Tours; so Fleury, “ To give us for. is just the second half of Lyons. The Agnus comes but once in giveness of all our sins, Lord Jesus, we beseech Thee .... the Cistercian. “Grant us peace" is the third response in Utrecht,

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