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Mal. i 14.
not in Vulg.
ejns for maceruni.
See Exhort, and
et Rex magnus super omnes deos :
fines terræ, et altitudines montium mont. ipsius suni. ipse conspicit.
[Invitatory, latter half.] The sea is his, and he made it : and Quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse his hands prepared the dry land. fecit illud ; et aridam fundaverunt siccam manus
O come, let us worship, and fall | manus ejus : venite, adoremus et pro- Vulg. down : and kneel before the Lord our cidamus ante Deum, ploremus coram Maker.
Domino qui fecit nos; Quia ipse est For he is the Lord our God : and Dominus Deus noster, nos autem popuwe are the people of his pasture, and lus ejus, et oves pascuæ ejus.
Vulg. as Eng. the sheep of his hand.
[Invitatory entire.] To day if ye will hear his voice, Hodie, si vocem ejus audieritis, nolite harden not your hearts : as in the pro- | obdurare corda vestra, sicut in exacer- irritatione. Vulg. vocation, and as in the day of tempta- batione, secundum diem tentationis in tion in the Wilderness;
deserto: ubi tentaverunt me patres When your Fathers tempted me: vestri, probaverunt, et viderunt opera proved me, and saw my works.
memoration of His rising from the dead shall be said or sung. 1 where the Apostle is showing the connexion between the two Priest, Christ is risen againe, &c. And upon the feast of Easter, dispensations, and the way in which all belief and worship centres Christ, our Passover, is offered up for us. Therefore, let us keep in our Divine High Priest and perpetual Sacrifice. the feast, &c., ut in die Pasch. Then shall be said or sung,” the In one of St. Augustine's sermons he plainly refers thus to the Venite as we now have it.
ritual use of the Venite : “This we have gathered from the AposThen shall be said or sung] This Rubric, as altered by tolic lesson. Then we chanted the Psalm, exhorting one another, with Bishop Cosin, has great historical value, for the illustration that one voice, with one heart, saying, 'O come, let us adore, and fall it gives of the mode in which the Psalms were intended to be | down before Him, and weep before the Lord who made us. In said or sung. It is as follows: “Then shall be said or sung this the same Psalm too, Let us prevent His face with confession, Psalme following (except on Easter Day, when another Anthem and make a joyful noise unto Him with psalms. After these is appointed), one verse by the priest, and another by the people ; | the lesson of the Gospel showed us the ten lepers cleansed, and one and the same order shall be observed in all psalmes and hymns of them, a stranger, giving thanks to his cleanser” (St. Aug. throughout this Book. But in colledges, and where there is a Serm. Ben. ed. 176, Oxf. trans. 126). Durandus, in his Rationale Quire, the same shall be sung by sides, as hath bin accustomed.” of Divine Offices, says that this psalm was sung at the beginning In the third series of his notes on the Prayer Book, there are also of the service to call the congregation out of the church-yard into these remarks on the response, “And our mouth shall shew forth the church ; and that it was hence called the Invitatory Psalm; Thy praise :” “This is the answer of all the people. In the but probably this was a local or temporary use of it, and does not second book of Edward VI. the word 'Choir' is every where put for represent the true spirit of its introduction into the Morning our word • Answer;' and by making this answer, they promise for Service. It is far more likely that its comprehensive character, themselves that they will not sit still to hear the psalms and as an adoration of Christ, was that which moved the Divine hymns read only to them, as matter of their instruction; but that Instinct wherewith the Church is endowed to place this psalm in they will bear a part in them with the priest, and keep up the the forefront of her Service of Praise. old custom still of singing, and answering verse by verse, as being | Until the translation of our Offices into English it was the specially appointed for the setting forth of God's praise; where custom to sing the Venite in a different manner from that now unto they are presently invited again by the minister, in these used; with the addition, that is, of Invitatories. These were words, • Praise ye the Lord.' So that our manner of singing by short sentences (varied according to the ecclesiastical season) sides, or all together, or in several parts, or in the people's answer which were sung before the first verse, after each of the five ing the priest in repeating the psalms and hymns, is here verses into which it was then divided, and also after the Gloria grounded; but if the minister say all alone, in vain was it for Patri at the end. Thus in Trinity Season, “ Laudemus Jesum God's people to promise God, and to say, that their mouth also Christum ; quia Ipse est Redemptor omnium sæculorum,” would should shew forth His praise.” [Works, v. 445.]
be sung before and after the first, and also after the third and VENITE EXULTEMUS.
fifth of the divisions indicated in the Latin version above. After
the second, fourth, and Gloria Patri, would be sung “Quia Ipse This Psalm has been used from time immemorial as an intro
est Redemptor omnium sæculorum” only; and at the conclusion duction to the praises of Divine Service; and was probably
the whole of the Response, as at the beginning. These Invitaadopted by the Church from the services of the Templel. It was
tories were altogether set aside, as regards the Venite, in 1549; perhaps such a familiar use of it in both the Jewish and the
and, as has been already shown, the “Sentences” were substiChristian system of Divine Service, which led to the exposition of
tuted for them at the commencement of Divine Service in 1552. it given in the third chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews,
Thus reduced to its psalter simplicity, the Venite Exultemus is I In the Eastern Church an epitome of the first three verses is used, but
used before the Psalms every morning, except upon Easter Day, in the Latin and English Churches it has always been used entire.
when a special Invitatory Anthem is substituted, which is printed
Heb. iv. 3.
[Invitatory, latter half.] Forty years long was I grieved with Quadraginta annis proximus fui offensus. Vulg. this generation, and said : It is a peo generationi huic, et dixi, Semper hi ple that do err in their hearts, for
errant corde: ipsi vero non cognovethey have not known my ways. | runt vias meas : quibus juravi in ira Ut juravi. Vulg.
Unto whom I sware in my wrath : mea, Si introibunt in requiem meam.
[Invitatory, (1) latter half, (2) entire.]
Psalter, p. 34.
standing up, turning to the Altar, shall each **
Glory be to the Father, and to the
Then shall be read distinctly with an audible Clericus primam lectionem legat hoc modo. Salisbury Use.
Psalter, p. 323.
by the Priest, without changing his place or P
(Advent Sunday, e. g.)
before the Collect for the day. On the nineteenth day of every in his day; and in a letter from Oxford in No. 630 of the month, it is sung in its place as one of the Mattins psalms, so as “Spectator.” Perhaps it may be accounted for by a Salis. not to be twice used at the same service, which is a continuation bury Rubric between the Psalms and Lessons, “ Deinde dicitur of the old English usage.
Paternoster et Credo in Deum a toto choro privatim.” So at An old custom lingers (especially in the North of England) of Durham a voluntary has also been substituted for the "Agnus making a gesture of reverence at the words, “O come, let us Dei,” which was once sung during the Communion of the Laity. worship and fall down ;" which is a relic of the custom of actual prostration as it was once made in many churches at these
THE LESSONS. words.
For notes relating to the ritual use of Lessons in Divine Service, The Rubrics between the Venite and the Te Deum were all re- the reader is referred to a note on “The Order how the rest of arranged in 1661 ; and the new arrangement, as we now have it, Holy Scripture is appointed to be read,” in the Calendar. appears in MS., in Bishop Cosin's Prayer Book. The only changes of importance were these. (1) “ He that readeth," and
THE CANTICLES. “He shall say," were substituted for “the minister that readeth,” The ritual use of Holy Scripture in Divine Service has always and “the minister shall say,” in the direction about the Lessons. | been connected with praise and thanksgiving. The short responds (2) This Rubric of the preceding books was erased, “And to the which were intermingled with the Lessons in the pre-Reformaend the people may the better hear in such places where they tion Services were very ancient in their origin, although, no doubt, do sing, there shall the lessons be sung in a plain tune, after the they had increased in number during the derelopment of the manner of distinct reading, and likewise the epistle and gospel.” Services for monastic use. Of a like antiquity is the “Glory be
to Thee, O Lord” before, and the “Thanks be to Thee, O Lord” THE PSALMS.
after the reading of the Gospel in the Communion Service. As For notes relating to the ritual use of the Psalms, the reader is will be seen in the account given of the Te Deum, the use of referred to the Introduction to the Psalter.
responsory hymns after the Lessons is also very ancient; and it After the Psalms have been sung it is customary in many probably arose out of the pious instinct which thus connected the churches to play a short voluntary on the organ: this is men idea of thanksgiving with the hearing of God's revelations to tioned by Archbishop Secker as having “long been customary" | man. The Council of Laodicea (A.D. 367) ordered, in its seven
Te Deum Lauda W E praise thee, O God • we
y acknowledge thee to be the Lord.
All the earth doth worship thee .
the Father everlasting. Rev. v. 11. 13. To thee all Angels cry aloud : the
as- Heavens, and all the Powers therein.
To thee Cherubin, and Seraphin •
Holy, Holy, Holy • Lord God of
Heaven and earth are full of the
The glorious company of the Apos-
The goodly fellowship of the Prophets : praise thee.
Te æternum Patrem : omnis terra veneratur.
Tibi omnes Angeli : tibi cæli et universæ potestates.
Tibi Cherubin et Seraphin : incessa- Cherubim etiss bili voce proclamant,
Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus : Dominus Deus Sabaoth;
Pleni sunt cæli et terra : majestatis gloriæ tuæ.
Te gloriosus Apostolorum chorus. St. Cyprian, de
Isa. vi. 3.
Col. i. 20.
Rev. iv. 10.
Rev. xviii, 20.
Te Prophetarum laudabilis numerus,
teenth Canon, that Psalms and Lessons should be used alternately; , Ambrosii et Augustini,” and in 1661 Bishop Cosin wished so far and this Canon doubtless refers to a custom similar to ours. to restore this title as to call it “The Hymn of St. Ambrose;"
A leading principle of all the Canticles appears to be that of but the ancient rubrical title was as it is at present. In the connecting the written with the personal Word of God; and that earliest mention that we have of it (i.e., in the rule of St. as much in respect to the Old Testament Lessons as to those | Benedict, framed in the beginning of the sixth century), it has taken out of the Gospel or other parts of the New Testament. the same title as in our present Prayer Book, the words of St. This is more especially true of those Canticles which are placed Benedict being “Post quartum Responsorium incipit Abbas Te first of the two in each case, the Te Deum, the Benedictus, the Deum Laudamus, quo prædicto legat Abbas lectionem de Magnificat, and the Nunc Dimittis. The three latter of these Evangelio ...." It is also named in the rule of St. Cæsarius were inspired hymns spoken at the time when the Eternal Word of Arles about the same date; being ordered to be sung at was in the act of taking our nature to redeem and glorify it; and Mattins every Sunday in both systems. There is no reason to the first is, if not inspired, the most wonderful expression of think that it was then new to the Church; but we may rather praise for the abiding Incarnation of our Lord that uninspired conclude that it was a well-known hymn which the great founder lips have ever uttered. It may also be observed that the Canl of the Benedictines adopted for the use of his order from the ticles are set where they are, not that they may apply to any par ordinary use of the Church at large. ticular chapters of the Holy Bible, though they often do so in a' But the authorship of this divine hymn has been assigned to striking manner, but with reference to Divine revelation as a several saints both by ancient and modern authors, the earliest whole, given to mankind by God in His mercy and love, and being St. Hilary of Poictiers, A.D. 355, and the latest, Nicetius, therefore a matter for deepest thankfulness, and most exalted Bishop of Treves, A.D. 535. Some ancient copies, in the Vatican praise.
and elsewhere, give it the titles of Hymnus S. Abundii, and The three New Testament Canticles are all taken from the Hymnus Sisebuti monachi. It has also been attributed to St. Gospel of St. Luke; the sacrificial and sacerdotal gospel, the Hilary of Arles, and to a monk of Lerins, whose name is not symbol of which is the “living creature like unto a calf” or “an known, the number of persons named showing how much ox;" and in which is chiefly set forth our Blessed Lord's relation uncertainty has always surrounded the matter. It is scarcely to the Church as her High Priest offering Himself for sin, and possible that so remarkable a hymn should have originated in so originating from His own Person all subordinate ministrations remarkable a manner as that first referred to, without some trace of grace.
of it being found in the works of St. Ambrose or St. Augustine,
especially the Confessions of the latter'. It may be that their TE DEUM LAUDAMUS.
names were connected with it because the one introduced it into This most venerable hymn has been sung by the whole Western
the Church of Milan, and the other (taught by St. Ambrose) into Church “ day by day” on all her feasts from time immemorial. It
the Churches of Africa, is found in our own Morning Service as far back as the Conquest;
For there is reason to think that the Te Deum Laudamus is and its insertion in the Salisbury Portiforium by St. Osmund was
much older than the time of St. Ambrose. So early as A.D. 252 doubtless a continuation of the old custom of the Church of
we find the following words in St. Cyprian's Treatise “On the England.
Mortality" that was then afflicting Carthage : " Ah, perfect and Very ancient ecclesiastical traditions represent the Te Deum
perpetual bliss ! There is the glorious company of the Apostles; as a hymn antiphonally extemporized by St. Ambrose and St.
there is the fellowship of the prophets exulting; there is the Augustine at the baptism of the latter, A.D. 386. The written
innumerable multitude of martyrs, crowned after their victory of authority for this tradition is traceable to an allegedl work of St.
strife and passion ;” and the striking parallel between them and Datius, & successor of St. Ambrose in the See of Milan, A.D.
the seventh, eighth, and ninth verses of the Te Deum seems 552. But this work has been proved by Menard, Muratori, and Mabillon, to be of much later date. There is also a Psalter in
1 In the latter we do indeed read ... "we were baptized, and anxiety the Vienna Librtry, which was given by the Emperor Charlemagne
for our past life vanished from us. Nor was I sated in those days with the to Pope Adrian I., A.D. 772, in the Appendix of which the Te wondrous sweetness of considering the depth of Thy counsels concerning Deum is found with the title “Hymnus quem Sanctus the salvation of mankind. How did I weep, in Thy Hymns and Caoticles, Ambrosius et Sanctus Augustinus invicem condiderunt :” and a
touched to the quick by the voices of Thy sweet-attuned Church!" (St.
Aug., Conf. IX. vi., p. 166, Oxf. Trans.) But this passage seems rather to similar title is found in other ancient copies. The title anciently
indicate the use of Canticles already well known than the invention of any given to it in the Psalter of our own Church was, “Canticum
Ps. exiii. 3.
The noble army of Martyrs • praise Te Martyrum candidatus, laudat
The Father • of an infinite Ma Patrem immensæ majestatis;
Thine honourable, true and only Venerandum tuum verum : et uni-
cum Filium ;
Thou art the everlasting Son : of Tu Patris sempiternus es Filius.
When thou tookest upon thee to Tu, ad liberandum, suscepturus hodeliver man • thou didst not abhor minem : non horruisti Virginis utethe Virgin's womb.
certainly more than accidental. There are several coincidences | ancient Eastern Liturgies ; the remaining portion has clearly a also between words in the Baptismal and other offices of the common origin with the Te Deum. Verses 8 and 9 are the Eastern Church and particular verses of the Te Deum, and the same as the 24th and 26th verses of the latter. The 11th is former are supposed to be of extremely ancient date. In the also identical with the last of the Te Deum, but it is taken Alexandrine MS. of the Scriptures, a work of the fourth or fifth from Psalm xxxiii. 22. Like the Te Deum, this ancient Morning century, preserved in the British Museum, there is moreover a Hymn of the Greek Church borrows largely from the Psalms in Morning Hymn which is written at the end of the Psalter, and its concluding portion, and the verses chosen are of a supplicatory which is still used in the daily services of the Greek Church. character in both, though otherwise they do not correspond. The following is a translation:
The most probable conclusion to arrive at is, that this noble Glory to Thee, the giver of light.
canticle, in its present form, is a composition of the fourth or fifth Glory to God on high, and on earth peace, good will towards
century; and that it represents a still more ancient hymn, of which men.
traces are to be found in St. Cyprian and the Morning Hymn of We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we worship Thee, we glorify
the Alexandrine Manuscript. Thee, we give thanks to Thee for Thy great glory. O Lord, heavenly King, God, Father Almighty: O Lord,
The Te Deum is only known as connected with the ritual of the only begotten Son Jesus Christ, and Holy Spirit.
Church. It seems also from the first to have been connected with O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest
the reading of the Morning Lessons, the expression “Keep us away the sin of the world; have mercy upon us, Thou
this day without sin,” being some evidence of this, though not conthat takest away the sin of the world.
vincing, as an analogous form is used in “Give us this day our Accept our prayer: Thou that sittest at the right hand of
daily bread.” In the Salisbury Use, which probably represents the Father, have mercy upon us.
the more ancient use of the Church of England, it was directed to For Thou only art holy; Thou only Lord Jesus Christ art in
be sung after the last lesson on Sundays and other Festivals, except the glory of God the Father. Amen.
during Advent and the Lenten season from Septuagesima to Easter. Day by day I bless Thee, and praise Thy name for ever, and
Quignonez, in his reformed Roman Breviary, directed it to be for ever and ever.
used every day even in Lent and Advent. The Prayer Book of Vouchsafe, O Lord, to keep me this day without sin.
1549 ordered it to be used every day, with the exceptions cus. Blessed art Thou, O Lord God of our fathers; and praised
tomary according to the older ritual; and as festivals were preand glorified be Thy name for ever. Amen.
viously almost of daily occurrence, this was practically a con. Lord, let Thy mercy be upon us, as our trust
tinuance of the old rule. In 1552 the exceptions were erased, and is in Thee.
Ps. xxxiii. 22.
have not since been restored; but as the alternative Canticle, Blessed art Thou, O Lord : 0 teach me Thy
Benedicite, remains, some ritualists conclude that it is to be used
in Lent and Advent as directed by the First Book of Edward statutes.
Ps. cxix. 12.
VI., and not the Te Deum'. Of ritual customs anciently conLord, Thou hast been our refuge, from one generation to another.
Ps. xc. 1. I said, Lord, be merciful to me, heal my
| This is not the ancient practice of the Church, it must be remembered. soul, for I have sinned against Thee.
Ps. xli. 4.
During Advent the following was sung instead of Te Deum on all Festivals Lord, I fly to Thee ; teach me to do Thy
when the latter would otherwise have been used. It is the last of nine
Responds (Responsoria) used after the nine Lessons respectively. will, for Thou art my God.
Ps, cxliii. 9, 10.
. Lætentur cæli, et exultet terra : jubilate montes laudem: quia For with Thee is the well of life; in Thy
Dominus noster veniet. Et pauperum suorum miserebitur. light shall we see light.
Ps. Xxxvi. 9.
♡. Orietur in diebus ejus justitia et abundantia pacis. Et pauperum Show forth Thy mercy to them that know
suorum miserebitur. Thee.
Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto:
Et pauperum suorum miserebitur."
The ancient ritual use of the Benedicite was entirely festive; though it have mercy upon us. Amen.
was not indeed set aside from its place in Lauds during Lent and Advent.
Admirable substitutes for the Te Deum in Lent and Advent might be The first division of this hymn is identical with the Eucharistic
found in two other of the discontinued Lauds Canticles, the Song of Gloria in Excelsis, and the last verse is the Trisagion of the Hezekiah (Isaiah xxxviii.) being exactly adapted for Lent, and that of
1 Pet. iii. 19. Rom. viii. 29.
Acts vii. 55.
Acts iv. 29. 1 Pet. i. 19.
When thou hadst overcome the Tu devicto mortis aculeo : aperuisti
Thou sittest at the right hand of Tu ad dexteram Dei sedes : in gloria
God in the Glory of the Father. Patris.
to be our Judge.
We therefore pray thee, help thy Te ergo quæsumus, famulis tuis servants : whom thou hast redeemed subveni : quos pretioso sanguine redewith thy precious blood.
misti. Make them to be numbered with Æterna fac cum sanctis tuis : glo- modem reading, thy Saints : in glory everlasting. ria munerari.
O Lord, save thy people and bless Salvum fac populum tuum, Dothine heritage.
mine : et benedic hæreditati tuæ. Govern them and lift them up for Et rege eos, et extolle illos usque in Vulgate, rege : ever.
culum et in sæculum sæculi.
| peccato nos custodire.
Eph. ii. 19. Rev. vii. 4. Wisdom v. 5.
* in gloria nume
(margin Psalm xxviii. 9.)
12. Heb. xiil. 21.
The Lord's Prayer.
nected with the singing of this hymn, one still retains a strong | laudamus that could not be otherwise rhythmically translated. hold upon English people, viz., that of bowing at the words “ Holy, That the English Church has always considered the earlier verses Holy, Holy," with the same reverent gesture that is used in the of it to be addressed to the First Person of the Blessed Trinity is Creed : a custom derived from the angelic reverence spoken of in evidenced by the ancient Salisbury Antiphon to the Athanasian Isaiah in connexion with the same words. “And for bycause Creed, which is “ Te Deum Patrem ingenitum, te Filium uniAngels praise God with great reverence, therefore ye incline when genitum, te Spiritum Sanctum Paracletum, sanctam et individuam ye sing their song,” says the Mirror.
Trinitatem toto corde et ore confitemur.” It has also been conBesides the use of the Te Deum in the Morning Service, there jectured that the 11th, 12th, and 13th verses have been interis a well-known custom of singing this triumphal hymn, by itself, polated, but there is not the slightest ground for this conjecture, arranged to elaborate music, as a special service of thanksgiving. all ancient MSS. in Latin, Teutonic of the ninth Century, and It is directed to be used in this manner, in “Forms of Prayer to English from the ninth to the fourteenth, reading precisely the be used at Sea, after Victory, or deliverance from an Enemy :" same : and the hymn being rendered imperfect by their omission. and at the conclusion of coronations it is always so used, as it has The first ten verses are an offering of praise to the Father been, time immemorial, over the whole of Europe. The Sovereigns Almighty, with the Scriptural recognition of the Blessed Trinity of England have been accustomed to go in state to the singing of implied in the Ter Sanctus which Isaiah heard the Seraphim sing the Te Deum after great victories, and Handel's “ Dettingen Te when he beheld the glory of Christ, and spake of Him. In the Deum” was composed for one of these occasions. Custom has three following verses this implied recognition of the Three in One also established this separate use of the Te Deum on other im is developed into an actual ascription of praise to each, the Pater portant occasions of thanksgiving.
immensæ Majestatis, the Unicus Filius, and the Sanctus PareThe most ancient Christian music known has come down to us cletus Spiritus. In these thirteen verses the Unity and Trinity in connexion with this Canticle; being that known as the “ Am of the Divine Nature is celebrated in the name of the whole brosian Te Deum,” which is found in a work on Music written by Church of God. The Militant Church, the various orders of holy Boëthius, a Roman Consul, in A.D. 487. This is, however, thought Angels with which it has fellowship in the New Jerusalem, the to be an adaptation of the Temple psalmody of the Jews, like the Apostles, Prophets, and Martyrs of the Old and New Dispensation other ancient Church tones.
now gathered into the Church Triumphant, all thus adore God
the Lord, the Lord God of Sabaoth, the Father Everlasting : and A very striking characteristic of this heavenly hymn is the | the holy Church gathers up its praises in a devout acknowledgstrictly doctrinal forın in which it is composed, which makes it ment of each Person of the Blessed Trinity as the Object of Divine a literal illustration of St. Paul's words, “I will sing with the worship. Then begins that part of the Hymn which glorifies God spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also" (1 Cor. xiv. for the blessing of the Incarnation : the latter sixteen verses ad. 15). It has been thought by some, from the singularity of the dressing themselves to our Lord and Saviour ; commemorating opening words, Te Deum, that it is throughout a hymn to Christ | His Divine Nature and Eternal Existence, His Incarnation, Sacri. as God, representing, or analogous to, that spoken of by Pliny infice, Ascension, and Session at the right hand of the Father. In his letter to Trajan. But the English version truly represents the the last verses, with a mixture of plaintiveness and triumph, the Latin form, in which a double accusative is joined to the verb hymn follows the line marked out by the angels at the Ascension,
looking to our Lord's Second Advent as the true complement of Habakkuk (Hab. iii.) being equally suitable for Advent. The Salisbury His First. This concluding portion is as well fitted to express the version of the latter (from the Vulgate) had two beautiful renderings of the
tone of a Church Militant as the initial portion is to express that 13th and 18th verses: "Thou wentest forth for the salvation of Thy
of a Church Triumphant: and the personal form of the last verse people : even for salvation with Thy Christ;" and " Yet I will rejoice in the Lord : I will joy in God my Jesus."
I is a touching reminder of the individual interest that each of us