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insulting and senseless pretension of Chiva. Might I in the flight of time be permitted once more to address you, I should pursue the course of this inquiry, through the four questions with which I have begun. But the solution of them all is involved in the germinating element of the first, the Justice of the cause. This I have sought in the patural rights of man. Whether it may ever be my good fortune to address you again is in the disposal of a higher power ; but with reference to the last of my four questions, What are the duties of the Government aud People of the United States, resulting from the existing war between Great Britain and China ? I leave to your meditation, the last event of that war, which the winds have brought to our ears, the ransom of Canton. When we remember the scornful repulse from the gates of Canton in July, 1834, of Mr. Astell bearing the letter of Peace and Friendship from Lord Napier to the Governor of the two Provinces, and the contemptuous refusal to receive that letter itself, and compare it with the ransom of that same city in June, 1841, we trace the whole line of connection between cause and effect. May we not draw from it a monitory lesson, written upon a beam of phosphoric light - of preparation for war and preservation of peace."

1 In less than two years after, the President of the United States commissioned Caleb Cushing to be Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of China. In the instructions, dated May 8, 1843, the Secretary of State, Webster, said:

"It is of course desirable that you should be able to reach Pekin, and the court and person of the Emperor, if practicable. You will, accordingly, at all times signify this as being your purpose and the object of your mission; and perhaps it may be well to advance as near to the capital as shall be found practicable, without waiting to announce your arrival in the country. The purpose of seeing the Em. peror in person must be persisted in as long as may be becoming and proper. You will inform the officers of the government, that you have a letter of friendship from the President of the United States to the Emperor, signed by the President's own hand, which you cannot deliver except to the Emperor himself, or some high officer of the court in his presence. You will say, also, that you have a commission conferring on you the highest rank among representatives of your government; and that this, also, can only be exhibited to the Emperor, or his chief officer. You may expect to encounter, of course, if you get to Pekin, the old question of the Ko-low. In regard to the mode of managing this matter, much must be left to your discretion, as circumstances may occur.

All pains should be taken to avoid the giving of offence, or the wounding of the national pride; but, at the same time, you will be careful to do nothing which may seem, even to the Chinese themselves, to imply any inferiority on the part of your gov. ernment, or any thing less than perfect independence of all nations. . . . Taking care thus in no way to allow the government or people of China to consider you as tribute-bearer from your government, or as acknowleilging its inferiority, in any respect, to that of China, or any other nation, you will bear in mind, at the same time, what is due to your own personal dignity and the character which you bear.” – Webster, Works, vi. 470.

In July, 1844, a treaty of peace, amity and navigation, between the United States and China, was concluded at Wang Hiya. Alexander H. Everett was ap

JONATHAN Smith read the following letter of Caleb Cushing addressed to Dr. Francis Amory Holman:

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Houston, Texas, February 5th, '47.
Dear Sir, - In the hurry of my departure from New England I
neglected to attend to an important matter connected with my friend
Ching-bang-whang-ching-fu, Emperor of China.

You know, perhaps, that during my visit to China I resided at his
court in Pekin, and became familiarly acquainted with him and the
different members of his family, as well as his most distinguished offi-
cers of State.

He is a man of liberal views and pursues an enlightened policy with his people although he is a Despot.

He is very anxious to establish an Asylum for the Insane, near Pekin, as some of the members of his family have become lunatics, He therefore wished me to secure, if possible, for him, the services of some young physician of promise ; one who would be capable of superintending the erection of the buildings, the laying out and embellishing of the grounds and the medical department of the Institution.

I promised to do so, and after making enquiries I am persuaded you are precisely the person he wishes. Your known benevolence of character, your fine tall person, and your refined taste in the arrange ment of trees, shrubs etc., the peculiar advantages you have enjoyed by being so long with Dr. Rockwell; all these circumstances and qualities combined eminently fit you to become extremely popular with this most fastidious Emperor and his fastidious Court.

I regret to hear you have been so much indisposed of late with the

pointed “ commissioner” to China, and Buchanan, in this first despatch to him, of
April 13, 1845, sends a letter of credence to the Emperor, “ to be communicated
or delivered to the Sovereign in such manner as may be most agreeable to His
Majesty to receive it.” — Buchanan, Works, vi. 139.

In 1859, Buchanan, then President, wrote in his annual message: "On the ar-
rival of Mr. Ward at Peking, he requested an audience of the Emperor to present
his letter of credence. This he did not obtain, in consequence of his very proper
refusal to submit to the humiliating ceremonies required by the etiquette of this
strange people in approaching their sovereign. ... It is but simple justice to the
Chinese authorities to observe that throughout the whole transaction they appear
to have acted in good faith and in a friendly spirit toward the l'nited States. It
is true this has been done after their own peculiar fashion; but we ought to re-
gard with a lenient eye the ancient customs of an Empire dating back for thou.
sands of years, so far as this may be consistent with our own national honor.”

Works, x. 347.

Not until 1873 were the foreign representatives received, and with the under. standing that it was not to be a regular occurrence. In 1891 the visit was repeated, and in 1898 the wives of the foreign ministers were received by the Empress Dowager. – Moore, Digest of International Law, iv. 774.

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prevalent Fever of Bratt. But I feel quite confident of your recovery in the hands of Dr. Rockwell; and the experience you will gain by this attack will be of immense advantage to you, for the Disease is by no means peculiar to our Country. I think it far more malignant in its character and fatal in its effects in China than any other portion of the Globe I have ever visited.

The fame of Dr. Rockwell bas reached the ears of Ching-bang-whangching-fu, and it was his desire that I should procure the services of Dr. Rockwell in this project, because of his remarkable success in his treatment of the Matrimonial Fever, but I told him it would be impossible, that America would never let him leave her Shores. He then made the request that the Doctor's Portrait should be sent out to him. If you conclude to accept the appointment I would propose that you take it out to him. It will be a passport to his most distinguished favors.

I would also advise you at once to take up your residence at the Chinese Museum, and remain there until the ship arrives which he will send out for you, as soon as he knows I have succeeded in getting your services. You will there become quite familiar with the language, manners and customs of the people, which will be of immense advantage to you. Indeed, my dear Sir, I think I see a most splendid career before you. I think your prospects quite superior to those of Daniel at the Court of Belshazzar,

I would advise you to write to Ching-bang-whang-chivg-fu, immediately. It will take less time than to write me first, as I am now so far from the States, or rather shall be before your letter should reach me. Believe me, my dear Sir, you have my best wishes for your success in this most delightful enterprise. It is not improbable we may meet in China, as I intend, as soon as we have conquered Mexico, and I am established there as Viceroy, to open a communication with China by way of Steam Ships.

Believe me, with sentiments of the most profound esteem, your obedient, humble servant,


Mr. Shaw presented to the Society the originals of ten letters from Samuel Adams to Samuel Phillips Savage, President of the Massachusetts Board of War. Of these letters, one dated November 1, 1778, is printed in Wells, " Life and Public Services of Samuel Adams," III. 56; and two, of August 11 and September 14, 1778, are in Cushing, “ Writings of Samuel Adams," iv. 49, 61. The other letters are now printed for the first time, and to them have been added three letters from Mr. Savage, copies of which were obtained from


the Samuel Adams papers, through the courtesy of the New York Public Library.


PHILADEL. July 23, 1776. MY DEAR FRIEND, I must plead the Want of Leisure as an Apology for not acknowledging your very obliging Letter, which came to my hand several Months ago. I assure you there is no one with whom I would chuse to keep up an epistolary Correspondence, rather than with you.

The long Acquaintance I have had with you, and the unsuspected Sincerity of your Friendship, are strong Inducements to me to write to you very frequently, but I cannot give you any Reason to expect it. I would [therefore) beg you to favor me with your letters as often as (your) Leisure will allow. I shall receive them gratefully. You have before this time heard of the success of the Continental Arms in South Carolina. This happy event has, I hope, given such a Check to the Power of the Enemy as to prevent their doing us any material Injury in that part of America. I do not say any thing of our Affairs in Canada, the Subject is too mortifying. We must at all times submit to the Determination of Providence, “whose ways are ever gracious, ever just.” We now look towards N. York. May Heaven prosper our Arms there! The Express which brought the Carolina News, will return in a few days. I shall take that opportunity to forward your

Son. He was in health last Spring, as one of the Gentle. men of this Colony inform[ed) me. The Post is this moment going. Present my friendly regards to Mrs. Savage, &c. and be assured that I am affectionately Your Friend.

[No signature.]

letter to your


Weston, 22 August, 1776. MY DEAR Sır, - A few days ago I received your very obliging Letter. I particularly thank you for the Intelligence about my son at So Carol,and for your promise of forwarding my Letter to him. At present I seem almost childless, one is at Barnstable, another at So Carol, a third in the Army at Albany or Fort Stanwyx, and the young

i Charles Lee's defence of Sullivan's Island.

2 Samuel Phillips Savage, born April 27, 1718, was son of Arthur and Faith (Phillips) Savage, of Boston. Samuel married, November 11, 1742, Sarah Tyler, and had four sons: Samuel, born August 11, 1748; William, born June 14, 1750; Josephi, born June 14, 1756; and Henry, born December 18, 1758. Samuel was the son at Barnstable ; William was in South Carolina ; Joseph, a captain lieutenant at Albany; and Henry was at New York. The service of those in the Continental army is given in “ Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors in Revolution," XIII. 830, 839.

est at New York with Mr. Park D. Q. M. G., or a private in the Regiment to which he belongs. With what Rapidity has the Storm arose in America, and how many thousand unforeseen events have taken place to bring on the important Scenes that are now acting among us? the ways of Heaven are misterious.

We can almost weekly look back and see how far we bave sbot ahead, like a Vessell with a strong tide under foot, and a leading Gale, passing down a River. I pity and honor those who sett at helm, and they had need be carefull as the fate of all America is onboard, and one blow Day distroy the Bark; Many are the Dangers unto which we are exposed, but none so great as those which lie unseen. I dread the gold of Brittain more than her lead. Happy for America, Heaven hath hitherto guided our pilots, and done that for us which nothing but almighty power, under the direction of infinite Wisdom could have effected. How many States ever discordant till lately, are now uited; Prejudice in favor of Brittain, which, but lately, was that by some too inveterate ever to be overcome, now subdued; difficulties almost insuparable, that lay in our way, removed, and an Army of our own sons, which were so fond of home, willingly offering themselves to the Ser'vice of their Country, jeoparding their Lives abroad. We yet, my dear Sir, have our Fears, and one of mine is when the present Army in December is disbanded, how we shall collect a new one.

I bave just now said, our Sons willingly offered themselves, and it was true until our late misfortunes at Canada, since which the troops raised for that Service have had from 50 to 100 Dollars ahead given them as a bounty by the Colony, Towns and individuals together, and if some plan is not early adopted, and methods taken to perswade those now in the service to enter again (for others there are not) we shall yet be in the Suds. Another of my Fears is, supporting the public Credit of our paper Currency. Would it not be well if all the money emitted on the Continent, had the Credit of all the Continent stampt on it? Otherwise it may be, some Goverments may emit nore than their neighbours chuse to give a Credit to, wbich at this very critical Season may bring on some disagreable and perhaps dangerous disputes. But when I reflect I am no Statesman and that you know it, I feel the concious blush which for this once let attone for the fault. I only add in this subject that every one must be sensible that ten thousand difficulties are to be encountered and as many evils avoided in forming a new and a large State, and tho I have the highest opinion of the Wisdom and Virtue of the present Members of the Congress and think they have proved themselves equal to their Appointments, yet they must remember that neither Wisdom or Virtue are heriditary. I smiled on reading Genl. Carlton's orders; in the beginning he seems to be in a dire passion, but before be finishes

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