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dividing the country on the line of the forty-ninth parallel as far as the channel separating the continent from Vancouver's Island, thence south by the middle of that channel to the Straits of Fuca and thence to the ocean. The proposed treaty was accepted by Mr. Polk and Mr. Buchanan, the treaty was ratified by the Senate, and the long controversy was over. Great Britain did not want war, but even the certainty of war would not have moved her but for the fact that her hope of sovereignty had been swept away by the tide of American settlement and the genius for government and the free and independent spirit displayed by the American settlers. She wisely gave up what it was certain she could not retain, even without the opposition of the United States. The latter gave up nothing to which it had any just claim. Cook's exploration of the coast in 1778 antedated anything in that line on our part. McKenzie's overland expedition in 1793 antedated the first American expedition (that of Lewis and Clark) by twelve years. The mouth of the Frazier River, to which McKenzie descended, is almost intersected by the fortyninth parallel. The English settlements on that river preceded the Astor settlement on the Columbia by many years. Our rights were predicated wholly on Gray's discovery of the Columbia and the Astor settlement. The head waters of the Columbia, to which we might have had some claim, rise some distance north of the forty-ninth parallel, but to push our claim to the coast that far would have been to take in the mouth of another great river, to the discovery of which Great Britain had as incontestible a claim as ours to the discovery of the Columbia. Moreover, we had never explored the head waters of the Columbia and the nearest American settlement was hundreds of miles to the southward. Great Britain had explored those waters and had settlements on them. It was not possible on this state of facts, under the law of nations, to push our rights north of the mouth of the Frazier River. On the other hand, the doctrine of contiguity would have given Great Britain a claim of right to some extension of territory south of the mouth of that river. On the whole the settlement was most advantageous to the United States. It was one which Mr. Gallatin had offered to accept in 1818, an offer repeated by Mr.

Rush in 1824, by Mr. Clay in 1826, and by Mr. Calhoun in 1844. Mr. Polk disappointed the country by its acceptance, since it was a departure from the platform on which he had been elected; but he was a mere candidate when that platform was made. In 1846 he was President, acting under his oath of office, and was compelled to bow to the logic of incontestible facts, and to yield to the wisdom of a long line of predecessors, as able and patriotic as himself, who had foreclosed the case against us beyond the fortyninth parallel. Undoubtedly it would be very desirable to possess the coast up to the line of fifty-four degrees and forty minutes. We now possess everything north of that, and have rounded out our possessions to the southward by the acquisition of California, thus making our north and south lines across the continent approximately parallel lines. But our neighbors to the north are friendly and live with us in peace and amity, and we might be much worse off.

The treaty which completed the settlement came almost as near leading to war as the question which it settled. The islands of the San Juan archipelago lie between the continent and Vancouver's Island, and, unfortunately, there are two channels extending southward from the forty-ninth parallel to the Straits of Fuca, and touching these islands, one of which channels, if the channel meant by the treaty, would give the islands to Great Britain and the other would give them to the United States. Both countries claimed sovereignty over the group, and the people of both countries occupied the islands. The dispute was settled in our favor by the award of Emperor William I of Germany, in 1872; but until that award the military of the two nations held joint occupancy of San Juan, the larger of the islands. This situation was brought about by an episode of a most serious character. A Hudson's Bay official threatened to arrest an American citizen on San Juan Island for an alleged offense committed there, and take him to Victoria for trial before the British courts. This was in 1859. The matter being reported to General Harney, then in command of the coast, he sent Captain George E. Pickett, with a company of regulars, to garrison the island and protect American citizens resident there. The English responded by

sending three war vessels with an overwhelming force of marines to ocuupy the island on their part. But Captain Pickett declined to permit them to land or to listen to any proposition of joint occupancy, saying that his orders required him to hold the island, and that come what would he proposed to obey his orders. While the English admiral was considering Pickett's challenge Harney reinforced Pickett with the remainder of the regiment under Col. Silas Casey; whereupon the English vessels withdrew. Subsequently General Scott agreed with the English authorities on a joint military occupancy and the threatened clash was averted. The Captain Pickett who displayed so much intrepidity on this occasion was the Confederate General Pickett who led the charge up Cemetery Ridge at Gettysburg, where Southern valor dashed itself impetuously against the rock of Northern courage, and receded in a crimson tide, bearing on its bosom the flower of Southern manhood. General Pickett was one of the few survivors of that memorable charge. A majority of those who followed him so gallantly fell to rise no more, but all know and recognize, both North and South, that in falling they raised up an ideal of soldierly duty and courage which is and ever will be, an inspiration to the people of the entire nation, now so happily reunited.

I trust that I have not wearied you by this rapid and naked sketch. My design has been to present some of the international questions involved in the struggle for northwestern supremacy, and to show how American enterprise, character and courage, guided by American patriotism and American genius for government, acting spontaneously and without official direction, anticipated and overbore all those questions and finally forced a happy and a glorious issue for the American people. It was an exhibition of the same American spirit which forced the hand of Mr. Jefferson in 1803, and led him with many misgivings, to inaugurate the negotiations which gave us all of Louisiana, the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico. There does not seem to be much room for its further display on this continent. There is doubt in the minds of many if it can be advantageously displayed on another. But expansion of territory and the spread of American institutions is but one manifestation of the unconquerable Ameri

can spirit. The avenues for its display are illimitable. In war and in peace, through all the coming ages, in the great part which we are to play in the affairs of the world, we may be assured that the American spirit will be adequate to every emergency, and will safely carry us forward, into and through every new path which interest or honor may require the republic to tread.

NATIONAL PROGRESSION AND THE INCREASING RESPONSIBILITIES OF OUR NATIONAL

JUDICIARY.

BY

CORNELIUS H. HANFORD,

OF SEATTLE, WASHINGTON.

In the year 1880, President Hayes, in a tour of the West, visited Seattle. It was the first time that a President had come here, and the people welcomed him with Western cordiality. He was escorted to Seattle's best hotel, where he was received with cheers, and where the speech making occurred.

This is a picture of the hotel.' It was Seattle's pride when it was new, and, as I have said, it was the best one here in 1880. By contrast with what may be seen to-day, a fair estimate can be formed of the progress made in the building of this city, and it is the centre of a trio of fine cities. Tacoma, thirty miles southward, was on the map in 1880, but, although it was then the terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad, the city comprised only one saw mill, two detached groups of shacks, two small churches and two small school houses. Everett, thirty miles northward, was founded in the year 1891, and it has grown and improved so that now it will bear comparison with any city of 25,000 population. These three will grow together, and will become one of the world's greatest cities. Their development up to the present time is emblematic of our national progression.

When the constitution of the United States was adopted the Mississippi River constituted the western boundary of our national domain. At the beginning of President Jefferson's administration, it was his hope and ambition to secure concessions from a foreign power which would make that great river a free highway, and to him credit is justly due for the adoption of the policy of expansion to which our government has constantly

1 When the paper was read a picture of the hotel was exhibited.

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