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figures are laid down, that regular quadrilateral divisions of seven and five feet are evolved from these pentacles (which are marked on the Plan in darker lines), by a series of lines drawn parallel to their sides, which give lozenge-shaped spaces of 7 feet by 5 feet on their diagonals, and which bring out the quadrilateral divisions of the same area. So, it will be seen that all the details of the church, its windows, doors, the width of its chancel and tower arches, and the place of each feature in the church, are determined by these pentacles and the symmetrically arranged spaces and their diagonals. Even the deviation of the tower from the axis of the church, falls into harmony and calculated proportion to the other details, by the use of the lines of its constructive pentacle. A step, therefore, has been gained since the geometrical basis of Liverpool Castle was discussed, by thus showing how these figures were used in the plan of this simple little building, and how they evolved the harmonic proportions of five and seven.
A list of a few of the measurements and distances is given, to prove that these numbers rule the whole scheme of the design. The number three which prevails in other structures is here unused, its persistent absence being a further proof that it was designedly omitted, and that this map presents the actual method in which the mediaeval builder laid down his plan. A small deviation from complete apparent accuracy may be observed in these lines at T, also at the crossing of the diagonals of the nave, which is a few inches from the true centre. Were the axis of the nave deviated about a foot to the north, this apparent error would disappear. It is likely enough that there was actually such a deviation, which it is not at all unusual to find in ancient churches, that at Woodchurch being a example in which it is strongly marked. This inclination is said to symbolise the Saviour's position on the Cross, as handed down by tradition. The use of so great an amount of care and patient calculation in the design of an extremely simple structure, speaks volumes for the extent and thoroughness of high technical acquirements and knowledge current among mediaeval builders. Neither major nor minor details were left to chance ; but all was subject to a thoughtful and ordered system, such as modern art is too ignorant to understand, or too careless to practise. Hence the feeble and puerile failure of most modern work, its perpetual mimicry and changeful fashion, its lack of the guidance of a true, scientific basis; faults which the luxury of superfluous ornament quite fails to redeem. It is, therefore, the more incumbent upon us, when investigations like the present begin to throw some faint light on the skill that produced our ancient buildings, to see that we sacredly preserve intact such works, inasmuch as the present generation is apparently incompetent to construct buildings on equally scientific lines.
It remains for me to say a few words respecting the inscribed Saxon stone, found in the summer of 1887, when taking down the small whitewashed church, built within the old burial ground at Upton in the year 1813, and which had been used as a walling stone in the Norman reconstruction of Overchurch. When this church was taken down, in 1887, all stones taken out of the building, which showed any traces of carving, were bought by Mr. George Webster, a resident in the neighbourhood, the Saxon stone among the number. This Mr. Webster having carefully cleaned from the limewash and mortar adhering to it, the Runic inscription appeared. Its existence having been notified to the Reverend Wilfrid Dallow, of Upton,