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The Religious Sect of the Sandemanians. 323
to do so until 1867. These independents were the Wesleyan Association Methodists, who seceded from the Wesleyan body in 1834. Gill Street Chapel was no doubt their branch; the minister in 18494 was the Rev. William Jones, 107, Mill Street. The original congregation worshipped in Brick Street Chapel, St. James' Street.
Another change followed in 1868, when the building was called the United Presbyterian Church, and again, shortly after, the Christadelphian Meeting House. Since 1878, the building has been closed for public devotion, and latterly Mr. Bartlett, the owner of the property, converted it into a private museum.
According to Mr. James Stonehouse, once a member of this Society,5 the Sandemanians " were "locally called beefeaters, from the custom of the "congregation, who were few in number, and some "of whom lived at a distance, having beefsteaks "cooked on the premises, which were consumed "between the morning and afternoon service." This assertion may or may not be correct; Mr. Stonehouse assumes that because the Gill Street congregation were called " beefeaters" they must be Sandemanians. It is just as likely that one of the other denominations, who used the chapel as a meeting house, may have been entitled to the soubriquet; for I have it from an eye-witness that the Methodists held love feasts in the building, and occasionally dined there, the food being cooked in an apartment or ante-room at the back, and passed through a small square aperture into the chapel.
(The late) J. Harris Gibson.
♦ Gore's Directory. 5 Streets of Liverpool, p. 123.
DISCOVERY OF ROMAN COINS AT
THE PARISH OF KIRKBY, LANCASHIRE.
SOME interesting "finds" have taken place in the township of Simonswood, which possess especial features of interest for the members of this Society, and for historical students generally. In July, 1893, during somewhat extensive operations connected with the cleaning of what is known as the Simonswood Brook, three most interesting Roman coins were found in the brook, near what is known as Basford's farm.
Each of the coins is a Roman " first brass"; two being of the Emperor Trajan, one of these, well preserved, has on the obverse the Emperor's head and the inscription, Traiano Aug. Ger. P.p.; the reverse bearing a figure of Mars standing. The third coin is of the Emperor Hadrian, but, being in a very poor state of preservation, it is difficult to make anything of it. As specimens, the coins are, no doubt, of very little intrinsic value. They were found about 18 inches below the bed of the brook, embedded in a wet, peaty soil. Every precaution was taken to secure the complete inspection of the bed of the brook, but no other discoveries were made.
Small as the "find" is, it presents a field for inquiry. In a map of 1769, kept in the Estate Office at Croxteth, the course of the brook appears to be very similar to that which it now takes, and there is no local tradition of its having taken any other. Long after the Roman era, the township of Simonswood was mostly a marshy forest, and no doubt this brook is a relic of a once extensive Discovery of Roman Coins at Simonswood. 325
carr. As early as 1700 the moss-land, near the spot where the coins were found, was being brought into cultivation; and the field names in the neighbourhood, such as " Great," and " Little" " Sand Hey," "The Rushy Meadows," "Water Meadows," "Wet Car," and innumerable instances of " Moss Hey," indicate its former condition.
It is, however, interesting to note that in the adjoining township of Kirkby there were discovered some years ago the remains of a (supposed) Roman pavement, and a crock. Unfortunately, the beneficial influence exercised by the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire was wanting in those days, and the pavement was ruthlessly broken up, while an inquisitive farm labourer destroyed the crock, in the hopes of finding some coins inside. The " little knowledge " in his case proved, if not a " dangerous," a delusive " thing," for none were found. Probably some member of the Society may be able to say how these coins found their way into Simonswood Brook. Are they the sole remains of some belated Roman, swallowed up, as others have been since, in the treacherous mosses of Simonswood? And how came they to be found so far from any known Roman road or station?
W. E. Hill, F.r.h.s.
[Was there ever a Roman road in this neighbourhood ? asks Mr. Thompson Watkin in Roman Lancashire (p. 215). An amphora, and a vessel of Samian ware were found at Downholland in 1721. A straight line drawn from Downholland to the ferry over the Mersey, at Widnes, to the camp at Halton, would pass through a place called " Windy Harbour," near Cunscough, by Tarbock, where a "find" of coins occurred, and through Ditton, where, too, coins have also been found. So far the late Mr. Watkin. The spot where these three coins were found in Simonswood Brook would not be far out of the same line.—Editor.]
ARE THE "MARKS" IN CERTAIN
GUIDES TO MEASUREMENTS?
UPON the walls of various churches in Cheshire, and possibly elsewhere, are to be seen certain scorings,1 which are not mason marks, and for which it has hitherto been difficult to find any explanation. These consist of vertical lines, crossed by horizontal ones, and occasionally bounded by, or combined with, diagonal lines. In some cases these are carefully incised, so as to give exact spaces, in others they are rough and inexact. Examples exist on the exterior north wall of Eastham Church, in the belfry of Backford Church, near the porch and in the tower of Thornton-le-Moors; and at Birkenhead Priory there are traces on the refectory wall of a space that seems to have been carefully drawn, with both vertical, diagonal, and horizontal lines. If the theory of the spacing of the plans of churches into proportioned rectangular figures, derived from a geometrical basis, should be a correct one, a probable explanation of these curious markings is suggested. They are possibly plans for the guidance of the masons in constructing portions of the building. If the measure of each unit of space is known to the workmen, it would be immaterial whether such plans were carefully or roughly drawn; they would use, in working out the masonry in hand, so many units of known measure, according to the arrangement shown by these plans.
E. W. Cox.
1 See page 189.
PEW-HOLDERS 1n CHILDWALL CHURCH,
THE names of such as claim Titles unto Chapels, Pews, Seats and Forms within the Parish Church of Childwall, set down the 17th of June, 1609, viz.:—
On The South Side.
1. The next seat unto the chancel, belonging to David Griffith.
2. On that side, to Mrs Brettarge.
3. To Childwell House and Grange.
4. Hamlett Johnson, contr' [opposite side] Tho5 Whitfteld.
5. Henry Moseck. & \Vm Mercer of Thingwell.
6. Mr Houghton, John Butterforth, John Holland.
7. Thos Orme of Lee claimeth of right 2 new seated Pews or
seats, fixed to the pillar, on the south side of the alley, over against and next adjoining to the Corner of the Chapel of Sir Wm Norres, of the Hone order of the Bath, Kt., following in rank next to the form of Mr Rich'd Houghton of Wavertree.
8. Richd Bolton, Wm Woodward, Wm Bushell, Rob' Hunt,
James Pendleton. These all claim the Forms next below
9. Thos Knowles, Henry Whitfield, Elizh Gudicar, widow, contr
10. Thos Plumb, Edward Hunt, Tho5 Baxter, conf.
11. Thos Plumb for this his wife's life, Robert Hearne, Rob'
12. Thos Miller, Wm Fazakerley, Richd Atherton.
13. Henry Howard, Roger Dawber, Ales Prior, the late House
of Richd Catton, now in the hands of Mr Secome of Liverpool.
14. Henry Dennet, Junr, wants on 1 life.
15. Tho5 Orme of Lee claimeth two parts of one form next
beneath the Font, which he lately purchased from Tho5 Orme, son of Wm Orme, and Richd Orme, and were in times past their sole Inheritance.
16. Richd Abbott, Alice Sutton, Alice Orme, Mary Catton, John
Shillington, P Clay.
17. \Ym Graves & hrs, wants ij.
18. Rob' Williamson wants ij.
19. John Posnage, Wm Halwood de Gateacre.