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St. Matthias, A p Mile. St: Afontanut, Lucius, FUn>it<i, Julian, Victoricut, Primolus, Rhenus, and Donation, A. D.259. St. Lelhard, or Luidhurd, Bp. A. D. 566. B. llotiert of Arbrissel, *. D. 1116. St. Pretexlatus, or Prix, Abp. A. D. 549. St. Ethelbert, King.
He was king of Kent, and, according to Butler, the first cluistian king. It was under him that St. Augustine found favour when he landed in England with his monks, and is said to have introduced Christianity to the English people; an assertion wholly unfounded, inasmuch as it had been diffused hither centuries before. Augustine established nothing but monasteries and monkery, and papal domination.
Bertha, the queen of Ethelbert, was a convert, and her spiritual director officiated, before Augustine's arrival, in the little church of St. Martin, situated just without Canterbury on the road to Margate; the present edifice is venerable for its site and its rude simplicity.
Ethelbert's power is said to have extended to the Humber, and hence he is often styled king of the English. He was subdued to the views of the papacy by Augustine. Ethelbert founded Can leibtiry cathedral, and built without the walls of the city, the abbey and church of St. Peter and St. Paul, the ruins of which are denominated at this duy St. Augustine's monastery and Ethelbert's lower. The foundation of the cathedral of Rochester, St. Paul's at London, and other ecclesiastical structures, is ascribed to him. He died in 616. Sometimes he is called St. Albert, and churches are dedicated to him under that name.
Chronology. On the 24th of February, 1809, diea Mr. Jennings of Galley-lane, near Ha met, Herts. A few days previous to his decease he called on Mr. Wm. Salmon, his carpenter, at Shenley-hill, to go with him and fix upon a spot for his vault. On the Sunday before his death he went on horseback to Shenley-hill, and stopped at the White Horse to have a glass of warm wine, with the same intention of going to Ridge; and afterwards, seeing the rev. Mr. Jefferson, endeavoured to buy the ground, but differed with him for two guineas. On the Monday, he
applied to Mr. Mars, of Barnet, for a vault there, but Mr. Jefferson sending him a note acceding to his terms, he opened it before Mr. Salmon and Dr. Booth, and after he had read it, showed it them, with this exclamation—" There, see what these fellows will do I" The day before he died he played at whist with Dr. Rumball, Dr. Booth, and his son, in bed: in the course of the evening he said, "The game is almost up." He afterwards informed his son, he had lent a person some money that morning, and desired him to see it repaid. To some friends he observed, that he should not be long with them, and desiring them to leave the room he called back his son, for the purpose of saying to him, " I gave William money for coals this morning; deducting the turnpike, mind he gives you eleven and eightpence in change when he comes home. Your mother always dines at three o'clock, get your dinner with her, I shall be gone before that time—and don't make any stir about me." He died at half-past two. This account is from the manuscript papers of the late Mr. John Almon, in possession of the editor.
Regarding the season, there is an old proverb worthy noticing:
February fill dike, be it black or be it white But if it be white, it's the better to like.
Great Fern. Otmnnda regalii
St. Tarathu, A. D. 806. St. Victorimu, A.d. 284. St. Walburg, Abbess. St Cetsarius, A.d. 369.
St. fVatturg This saint, daughter of Richard, king of the West Saxons, also a saint, became a nun at Winburn in Dorsetshire, from whence, twenty-seven years after she had taken the veil, she went to Germany, and became abbess of a nunnery at Heidenheim in Suabia, where her brother governed an abbey of monks, which at his death, in 760, she also governed, and died in 779. His relics were distributed in the principal cities of the Low Countries, and the cathedral of Canterbuy. The catalogue of relics in the electoral palace of Hanover, published there in 1713, mentions some of them there in a rich shrine. Butler calls them *' rich particles." Part of her jawbone, at Antwerp, was visited and kissed by the archduke Albert and Isabella in 1615. An oily liquor flowed from her tomb, and was a sovereign remedy, till the chemists and apothecaries somehow or other got their simples and substances into superior reputation. Strange to say, these victors over relics have never been canonized, yet their names would not sound badly in the calendar: for instance, St. William Allen, of Plough-court; St. Anderson, of Fleet-street; St. Cribb, of High Holborn; St. Hardy, of Walworth; St. Fidler, of Peckham; St. Perfect, of Hammersmith; &c.
It is observed by Dr. Forster in the 'Perennial Calendar," that about this season the purple spring crocus, crocus vermis, now blows, and is the latest of our crocuses. "It continues through March like the rest of the genus, and it varies with purple, with whitish, and with light blue flowers. The flowers appear before the leaves are grown to their full length. The vernal and autumnal crocus have such an affinity, that the best botanists only make them varieties of the same genus. Yet the vernal crocus expands its flowers by the beginning of March at farthest, often in very rigorous weather, and cannot be retarded but by some violence offered; while the autumnal crocus, or saffron, alike defies the influence of the spring and summer, and will not blow till most plants begin to fade and run to seed.
On the Seasons of Flowering, by White. Say, what impels, amid surrounding snow, Congealed, the Crocus' flamy bud to glow] Say, what retards, amid the Summer's blaze, The autumnal bulb, till pale, declining days! The God of Seasons, whose pervading power Controls tne sun, or sheds the fleecy shower: He bids each flower his quickening word obey; Or to each lingering bloom enjoins delay.
We may now begin to expect a succession of spring flowers; something new will be opening every day through the rest of the season"
Flow i as
A writer urder the signature Ciuto in
the "Truth Teller" dilates most pleasantly in his fourth letter concerning flowers and their names. He says " the pilgrimages and the travelling of the mendicant friars, which began to be common towards the close of the twelfth century, spread this knowledge of plants and of medical nostrums far and wide. Though many of these vegetable specifics have been of late years erased from our Pharmacopoeias, yet their utility has been asserted by some very able writers on physic, and the author of these observations has himself often witnessed their efficacy in cases where regular practice had been unavailing. Mr. Abernethy has alluded to the surprising efficacy of these popular vegetable diet drinks, in h is book on the ' Digestive Organs.' And it is a fact, curiously corroborating their i utility, that similar medicines are used by the North American Indians, whose sagacity has found out, and known from time immemorial, the use of such various herbs as medicines, which the kind, hospitable woods provide; and by means of which Mr. Whitlaw is now making many excellent cures of diseases." He then proceeds to mention certain plants noted by the monks, as flowering about the time of certain religious festivals: "The SnowDrop, Galanthus nivalis, whose pure white and pendant flowers are the first harbingers of spring, is noted down in some calendars as being an emblem of the purification of the spotless virgin, as it blows about Candlemas, and was not known by the name of snowdrop till lately, being formerly called Fair Maid Of February, in honour of our lady. Sir James Edward Smith, and other modern botanists, make this plant a native of England, but I can trace most of the wild specimens to some neighbouring garden, or old dilapidated monastery; and I am persuaded it was introduced into England by the monks subsequent to the conquest, and probably since the time of Chaucer, who does not notice it, though he mentions the daisy, and various less striking flowers. The Ladysmock, Cardamine pratensis, is a word corrupted of' our lady's smock,' a name by which this plant (as well as that of Chemise de nStre Dame) is still known in parts of Europe: it first flowers about Lady Tide, or the festival of the Annunciation, and hence its name. Cross Flower, Polygalu fulgaris, which begins to flower about the Invention of the Cross, May 3, i
was also called Rogation flower, and was carried by maidens in the processions in Rogation week, in early times. The monks discovered its quality of producing milk in nursing women, and hence it was called milkwort. Indeed so extensive was the knowledge of botany, and of the medical power of herbs among the monks of old, that a few examples only can be adduced in a general essay, and indeed it appears that many rare species of exotics were known by them, and were inhabitants of their monastery gardens, which Beckmann in his 'Oeshiete der Erflndangen,' and Dryander in the 'Hortus Kewensis,' have ascribed to more modern introducers. What is very remarkable is, that above three hundred species of medical plants were known to the monks and
friars, and used by the religious orders flower, now passiflora; Lent lilly, now
in general for medicines, which are now daffodil; Canterbury belU, (so called in
to be found in some of our numerous honour of St. Augustine,) is now made
books of pharmacy and medical botany, into Campanula; cursed thistle, now
by new and less appropriate names; just carduus; besides archangel, apple of Je
as if the Protestants of subsequent times rusalem, St. Paul's betony, Basil, St
had changed the old names with a view flerbe, herb St. Barbara, bishopsweed,
to obliterate any traces of catholic science, herba Christi, herba Benedict, herb St.
Linnaeus, however, occasionally restored Margaret, (erroneously converted into
the ancient names. The following are la belle Marguerite^) god't flower, flos
some familiar examples which occur to Jovis, Job's tears, our lady's laces, our
me, of all medicinal plants, whose names lady's mantle, our lady's slipper, monk's
have been changed in later times. The hood, friar's cowl, St. Peter's herb, and
virgin's bower, of the monastic physi- a hundred more such.—Go into any gar
cians, was changed into flammula Jovis, den, I say, and these names will remind
by the new pharmaciens; the hedge every one at once of the knowledge of
hyssop, into gTatiola; the St. John's wort plants possessed by the monks. Most of
(so called from blowing about St. John them have been named after the festivals
the Baptist's day) was changed into and saints' days on which their natural
bypericum; fleur de St. Louis, into iris; time of blowing happened to occur; and
palma Christi, into ricinus; our mastc others were so called, from the tendency
xort, into imperatoria; sweet bay, into of the minds of the religious orders 01
launis; our lady's smock, into cardamine; those days to convert every thing into a
Solomon's seat, into convallaria; our memento of sacred history, and the holy
lady's hair, into trichomanes; balm, into religion which they embraced."
melissa; marjoram, into origanum; crour- It will be perceived that Crito is a
foot, into ranunculus; herb Trinity, into Catholic. His floral enumeration w
viola tricolor; avens into caryopliyllata; amusing and instructive; and as his bias
coltsfoot, into tussilago; knee holy, into is natural, so it ought to be inoffensive,
rascus; wormwood, into absinthium; Liberality makes a large allowance for
tsemary, into rosmarinus; marygold, educational feelings and habitual mis
Into calendula, and so on. Thus the an- take; but deceptive views, false reason
cient names were not only changed, but ings, and perverted facts, cannot be used,
In this change all the references to religi- by either Protestant or Catholic, with
ous subjects, which would have led people impunity to himself, or avail to the cause
to a knowledge ot their culture among he espouses,
the monastic orders, were carefully left _
out The thorn Apple, datura stramo- Leo the XII. the present pope, on the
*mm, is not a nath e of England; it was 24th of May, 1824, put forth a bull frt m
introduced by the friars in early times of St. Peter's at Rome. "We have resolved,"
pilgrimage; and heuce we see it on old he says, "by virtue of the authority given,
waste lands near abbeys, and on dunghills, &c. Modem botanists, however, have ascribed its introduction to gipsies, although it has never been seen among that wandering people, nor used by them as a drug. I could adduce many other instances of the same sort. But vain indeed would be the endeavour to overshadow the fame of the religious orders in medical botany and the knowledge of plants; go into any garden and the common name of marygold, our lady's seal, our lady's bedstraw, holy oak, (corrupted into holyhock,) the virgin's thistle, St. Barnaby s thistle, herb Trinity, herb St. Christopher, herb St. Robert, herb St. Timothy, Jacob's ladder, star of Bethlehem, now called omithogalum; stur of Jerusalem, now made eoatsbeard : musinn
to us Dy neaven fully to unlock the sacred treasure composed of the merits, sufferings, and virtues of Christ our Lord, and of his Virgin Mother, and of all the saints, which the author of human salvation has intrusted to our dispensation. Let the earth therefore hear the words of his mouth. We proclaim that the year of Atonement and Pardon, of Redemption and Grace, of Remission and Indulgence is arrived. We ordain and publish the most solemn Jubilee, to commence in this holy city from the first vespers of the nativity of our most holy saviour, Jesus Christ, next ensuing, and to continue during the whole year 1825, during which time we mercifully give and grant in the Lord a Plenary Indulgence, Remission, and Pardon of all their Sins to all the Faithful of Christ of both sexes, truly penitent and confessing their sins, and receiving the holy communion, who shall devoutly visit the churches of blessed Peter and Paul, as also of St. John Lateran and St. Mary Major of this city for thirty successive days, provided they be Romans or inhabitants of this city; but, if pilgrims or strangers, if they shall do the same for fifteen days, and shall pour forth their pious prayers to God for the exaltation of the holy church, the extirpation of heresies, concord of catholic princes, and the safety and tranquillity of christian people." The pope requires "all the earth'' to " therefore ascend, with loins girt up, to holy Jerusalem, this priestly and royal city."—He requires the clergy to explain " the power of indulgences, what is their efficacy, not only in the remission of the canonical penance, but also of the temporal punishment," and to point out the succour afforded to those "now purifying in the fire of Purgatory." However, in February, 1825, one of the public journals contains an extract from the French Journal det Debatt, which states that there was "a great falling off in the devotion of saints and pilgrims," and it proves this by an article from Rome, dated January 25, 1825, of which the following is a copy:
"The number of pilgrims drawn to Jerusalem (Rome) by the Jubilee is remarkably small, compared with former Jubilees. Without adverting to those of 1300 and 1350, when they had at least a million of pilgrims; in 1750, they had 1,300 pilgrims presented on the 24th of December, at the opening of the holy gate. That number was increased to
8,400 before the ensuing New Year's day. This time (Christmas, 1824) they had no I more than thirty-six pilgrims at the open- I ing of the holy gate, and in the course of Christmas week, that number increased only to 440. This is explained by the strict measures adopted in the Italian states with respect to the passports of pilgrims. The police have taken into their heads, that a vast number of individuals from all parts of Europe wish to bring about some revolutionary plot. They believe that the Carbonari, or some other Italian patriots, assemble here in crowds to accomplish a dangerous object. The passports of simple labourers, and other inferior classes, are rejected at Milan, and the surrounding cities of Austrian Italy, when they have not a number of signatures, which these poor men consider quite unnecessary. They cannot enter the Sardinian states without great difficulty. These circumstances are deplorable in the eyes of religious men. We are all griered at this place."
On this, the Journal det Debuts re. marks, " Notwithstanding the excuse for so great a reduction of late years in the number of these devotees, it has evidently been produced by the diffusion of knowledge. Men, in 1825, are not so simple as to suppose they cannot be saved, without a long and painful journey to Jerusalem (Rome.)"
St. Alexander. St. Porphyriut, Bishop of Gaza, A. D. 420. St. Victor, or Vittre, 7th Cent.
St. Alexander. Th is is the patriarch of Alexandria so famous in ecclesiastical history for his opposition to Arius whom, with St. Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra, as his especial colleagues, he resisted at the council of Nice, till Arius was banished, his books ordered to be burnt, and an edict issued denouncing death to any who secreted them. On the death of St. Alexander in 420, St. Athanasius succeeded to his patriarchal chair.
The fogs of England have been at all times the complaint of foreigners. Goudomar, the Spanish ambassador, w'uen some one who was going to Spain waited on him to ask whether he had any commands, replied, "Only my compliments to the sun, whom I have not seen since I came to England."—Carraccioli, the Neapolitan minister here, a man of a good deal of conversation and wit, used to say, that the only ripe fruit he had seen in England were roasted apples! and in a conversation with George II. he took the liberty of preferring the moon of Naples to the run of England.
On seeing a Lady walking in the Snow.
I saw fair Julia walk alone,
When feather'd rain came softly down.
Twas Jove descending from his tower,
To court her in a silver shower,
A wanton flake flew on her breast,
As happy dove into its nest,
But rivail'd by the whiteness there,
For grief dissolv'd into a tear,
And falling to her garment's hem,
To deck her waist, froze to a gem.
Lesser Periwinkle. Vinca minor. Dedicated to St. Victor.
St. Leander, Bishop, A. D. 596. St. Julian, Chronion, and Betas. St. Thalilteus. St. Galmier, or Baldomerus, A. D. 650. St. Nestor, A. D. 250. St. Alnoth.
St. Thalilaeus. This saint was a weeper in Syria. He hermitized on a mountain during sixty years, wept almost without intermission for his sins, and lived for ten years in a wooden cage.
St. Galmier Was a locksmith at Lyons, and lived in great poverty, for he bestowed all he got on the poor, and sometimes his tools. An abbot gave him a cell to live in, he died a subdeacon about 650, and his relics worked miracles to his fame, till the Hugonots destroyed them in the sixteenth century.
Was bailiff to St. Wereburge, became an anchoret, was killed by robbers, and had his relics kept at Stow, near Wedon, n Northamptonshire.
'Time is the stuff that life is made of,' says Young.
"Begone about your business," says the dial in the Temple: a good admonition to a loiterer on the pavement below.
The great French chancellor, d'Aguesseau, employed all his time. Observing that madame d'Aguesseau always delayed ten or twelve minutes before she came down to dinner, he composed a work entirely in this time, in order not to lose an instant; the result was, at the end of fifteen years, a book in three large volumes quarto, which went through several editions.
Martyrs to the Pestilence in Alexandria, 261, &c. St. Proterius, Patriarch of Alexandria, Mr. Sts. Romanus and Lupicimts.
Sts. Romanus and Lupicinus. These saints were brothers, who founded the monastery of Condate with a nunnery, in the forest of Jura. St. Lupicinus prescribed a hard regimen. He lived himself on bread moistened with cold water, used a chair or a hard board for a bed, wore no stockings in his monastery, walked in wooden shoes, and died about 480.
Purple Crocus. Crocus vermis.
Five Sundays in February.
The February of 1824, being leap-year, consisted of twenty-nine days; it contained five Sundays, a circumstance which cannot again occur till another leap-year, wherein the first of February shall fall on Sunday.
FOR THE MEMORY
Old Memorandum of the Months.
Thirty days hath September,