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attorney-general, they gave him express orders to bring writs of scire facias against the charters or patents of the York-building's company. Lustring company, English copper, Welsh copper, and lead, and also against other charters or patents which had been, or should be made use of, or acted under, contrary to the intent or meaning of an act passed the last session of parliament, &c.

They likewise instructed the attorneygeneral to prosecute, with the utmost severity, all persons opening books for public subscriptions; or receiving money upon such subscriptions; or making or accepting transfers of, or shares upon, such subscriptions; of which they gave public notice in the Gazette, as "a farther caution to prevent the drawing of unwary oersons,for the future, into practices contrary to law." This effectually frustrated the plans of plunder, exercised or contemplated at that period. How necessary to vigorous a resistance was must be obvious from this fact, that innumerable bubbles perished in embyro; besides an incredible number which could be named that were actually set in motion, and to support which the sums intended to be raised amounted to about 300,000,000/. The lowest advance of the shares in any of these speculations was above cent, per cent., most of them above 400/. per cent.; and some were raised to twenty times the price of the subscription. Taking these circumstances into account, the scandalous projects would have required seven hundred millions sterling, if such a sum could have been realized in the shape of capital. To such a height of madness had the public mind been excited, that even shares were eagerly coveted, and bargained for, in shameless schemes which were not worth the paper whereon their proposals were printed, at treble the price they nominally bore. From a list of only a part of those that the air of 'Changealley teemed with, the names of a few are here set forth:

Projects

For supplying London with cattle.
For supplying London with hay.
For breeding and feeding cattle.
For making pasteboards.
For improving the paper manufacture
For dealing in lace, hollands, 8cc.
For a grand dispensary.
For a royal fishery.
For a fish pool.

For making glass-bottles.
For encouraging the breed of horses.
For discovering gold mines.
For an assurance against thieves.
For trading in hair.
For loan offices.
For dealing in hops.
For making of china ware.
For furnishing funerals.
For a coral fishery.
For a flying machine.
For insuring of horses.
For making of looking-glasses.
For feeding of hogs.
For buying and selling estates.
For purchasing and letting lands.
For supplying London with provisions
For curing the gout and stone.
For making oil of poppies.
For bleaching coarse sugar.
For making of stockings.
For an air-pump for the brain.
For insurance against divorces.
For making butter from beech-trees.
For paving London streets.
For extracting silver from lead.
For making of radish oil.
For a perpetual motion.
For japanning of shoes.
For making deal boards of sawdust.
For a scheme to teach the casting of na-
tivities.

Joint Stock Companies Of 1825.

The large quantity of surplus capital and consequent low rate of interest- during the last, and in the present, yea>, induce its possessors to embark their money in schemes for promoting general utility. One of the advantages resulting from a state of peace is the influx ot wealth that pours forth upon the country for its improvement. Yet it behoves the prudent, and those of small means, to be circumspect in their outlays; to see with their own eyes, and not through the medium of others. The premiums that shares in projects may bear in the market, are not even a shadow of criterion whereon to found a judgment for investment. This is well known to every discreet man who has an odd hundred to put out; and he who cannot rely on his own discrimination fora right selection from among the various schemes that are proffered to his choice, will do well to act as if none of them existed, and place his cash where the principal will at least be safe, and the interest, though small, be certain. This month presents schemes for Twenty Rail Road Companies, Twenty-two Banking, Loan, Investment,

and Assurance Companies, Eleven Gas Compj lies, Eight British and Irish Mine Companies, Seventeen Foreign Mine Companies, Nine Shipping and Dock Companies, and

Twenty-seven Miscellaneous Companies,

Including
A London Brick Company,
A Patent Brick Company,
A London Marine Bath Company,
A Royal National Bath Company,
A Great Westminster Milk Company,
and

A Metropolitan Water Company.
An Alderney Dairy Company,
A Metropolitan Alderney Dairy Com-
pany,

A South London Milk Company,
An East London Milk Company,
A Metropolitan Milk Company.

A correspondent in the " London Magazine " declares, that" if we named the several divisions of the year after the French revolutionary fashion, by the phenomena observable in them, we should, from our experience of January, 1825, call it Bubblote—it has been a month of most flagitious and flourishing knavery." He pleasantly assumes that Mr. Jeremiah Hop-the-twig, attorney at law, benevolently conceives the idea of directing I 'surplus capital " to the formation of " a joint stock company for the outfit of j air-balloons, the purchase of herds of swine, and the other requisites for a flourishing lunar commerce; Capital One I Million, divided into 10,000 shares of 100/. each." The method is then related of opening an account with a respectable banking-house, obtaining respectable directors, appointing his son-in-law the respectable secretary, the son of a respected director the respectable standing counsel, and the self-nomination of the respectable Mr. Jeremiah H. and Co. as the respectable solicitors. Afterwards come the means of raising the bubble, to the admiration of proper persons who pay a deposit of 5/. per share; who, when the shares " look down," try to sell, but there are "no buyers," the "quotations are nominal;" a second instalment called for, the holders hesitate; "their shares are forfeited;" the speculation is conse

quently declared frustrated; and there being only £10,000 in the bankers'hands to pay "Mr. Hop-the-twig's bill ot 10,073/. 13*. Ad. that respectable solicitor is defrauded of the sum of 73/. 13t.Ad. This is the rise and fall of a respectable bubble."

Undoubtedly, among these various schemes afloat, some will be productive of great benefit to the country; but it is seriously to be considered whether the estimation of some of them in a money view be not too high, and forced to an undue price by the arts of jobbing:

Haste instantly and buy, cries one
Refil Del Monte shares, fur none

Will hold a richer profit;
Another cries—No mining plan
Like ours—the Anglo-Mexican ■

As for Del Monte, scoff it.
This grasps my button, and declares
There's nothing like Columbian shares,

The capital a million ;—
That, cries La Pla'a's sure to pay;
Or bids me buy without delay

Hibernian or Brazilian.

"Scaped from the torments of the mine
ltivfls in Gas, an endless line.

Arrest me as I travel;
Each sure my suffrage to receive,
If I will only give him leave,

His project to unravel.

By Fire and Life insurers next
I'm intercepted, pester'd, vex'd,

Almost beyond endurance;
And though the schemes appear unsound,
Their advocates are seldom found

Deficient in assurance.

Last I am worried, shares to buy
in the Canadian company.

The Milk Association,
The Laundry-men who wash by steam,
Rail-ways, Pearl fishing, or the scheme,

For Inland Navigation.

New Monthly Mag.

FLORAL DIRECTORY,

Gtalkless moss. Phascum muticum.

3anuarp 25.

Holiday at the Public Officea i except the Excise, Stamps, and Customs.

Conversion Of St. Paul. St*. Juventinns and Maximinut, A. D. 363. St. Projectui, A. D. 674. St. Poppo, A. D 1048. St. Apollo, A. u. 393. St. Publiut, A. D. 369.

The Conrenion nf St. Paul.

This is a festival in the calendar of the ehuich of England, as well as in that of the Romish church.

St. paul'0 Sap.

On this day prognostications of the months were drawn for the whole year. If fair and clear, there was to be plenty; if cloudy or misty, much cattle would die; if rain or snow fell then it presaged a dearth; and if windy, there would be wars:

If Saint Paul's Day be fair and clear.
It does betide a happy year;
But if it chance to snow or rain,
Then will be dear all kinds of grain:
If clouds or mists do dark the skie.
Great store of birds and beasts shall die;
And if the winds do fly aloft,
I hen wars shall vex the kingdome oft.

WilhftirtVs SatuTes Secrets.

These prognostications are Englished from an ancient calendar: they have likewise been translated by Gay, who enjoins,

Let no such vulgar tales debase thy mind, Nor Paul nor Swithin rule the clouds and wind,

The latter lines are allusive to the popular superstitions, regarding these days, which were before remarked by bishop Hall, who observes of a person under such influences, that " St. Paule's day, and St Swithine's, with the twelve, are his oracles, which he dares believe against the almanacke.'' It will be recollected that "the twelve" are twelve days of Christmastide, mentioned on a preceding day as believed by the ignorant to denote the weather throughout the year.

Concerning this day,Bourne says. " How it came to have this particular knack of foretelling the good or ill fortune of the following year is no easy matter to find out. The monks, who were undoubtedly the first who made this wonderful observation, have taken care it should be handed down to posterity; but why, or for | what reason, they have taken care to conceal. St. Paul did indeed labour more abundantly than all the apostles; but never that I heard in the science of astrology: and why this day should therefore be a standing almanac to the world, rather than the day of any other saint,

will be pretty hard to find out." In an ancient Romish calendar, much used by Brand, the vigil of St. Paul is called "Dies JEgyptiacus;" and he confesses his ignorance of any reason for calling it "an Kgyptian-day." Mr. Fosbroke explains, from a passage in Ducange, that! it was so called because there were two unlucky days in every month, and St. Paul's vigil was one of the two in January.

Dr. Forster notes, that the festival of the conversion of St. Paul has always been reckoned ominous of the future weather of the year, in various countries remote from each other.

According to Schenkius, cited by Brand, it was a custom in many parts of Germany, to drag the images of St. Paul and St. Urban to the river, if there was foul weather on their festival.

Apostlf.-spooss.

St. Paul's day being the first festival of an apostle in the year, it is an opportunity for alluding to the old, ancient, English custom, with sponsors, or visitors at christenings, of presenting spoons, called apostle-spoons, because the figures of the twelve apostles were chased, or carved on the tops of the handles. Brand cites several authors to testify of the practice. Persons who could afford it gave the set of twelve; others a smaller number, and a poor person offered the gift of one, with the figure of the saint after whom the child was named,or to whom the child was dedicated, or who was the patron saint of the good-natured donor.

Ben Jonson, in his Bartholomew Fair, has a character, saying, " And all this for the hope of a couple of apostle-spoons, and a cup to eat caudle in." In the Chaste Maid of Cheapside, by Middleton, "Gottip " inquires, " What has he given her 1 What is it, Gossip?" Whereto the answer of another" Gottip" is, " A faire high-standing cup, and two great 'postlespoons—one of them gilt." Beaumont and Fletcher, likewise, in the Noble Gentleman, say:

"I'll be a Gossip. Bewford,
I have an odd apostle-spoon."

The rarity and antiquity of apostlespoons render them of considerable value as curiosities. A complete set of twelve is represented in the sketch on the opposite page, from a set of the spoons themselves on the writer'* tabie

[graphic]

The apostles on this set of spoons are somewhat worn, and the stems and bowls have been altered by the silversmith in conformity with the prevailing fashion of the present day; to the eye of the antiquary, therefore, they are not so interesting as they were before they underwent this partial modernization: yet in this state they are objects of regard. Their size in the print is exactly that of the spoons themselves, except that the stems are necessarily fore-shortened in the engraving to get them within the page. The stem of each spoon measures 'exactly three inches and a half in length from the foot of the apostle to the commencement of the bowl; the length of each bowl is two inches and nine-sixteenths of an inch; and the height of each apostle is one inch and one-sixteenth: the entire length of each spoon is seven inches and one-eighth of an inch. They are of silver; the lightest, which is St. Peter, weighs 1 oz. 5 dwts. 9 gr.; the heaviest is St. Bartholomew, and weighs 1 oz. 9 dwts. 4 gr.; their collective weight is 16oz. 14 dwts. 16gr. The hat, or flat covering, on the head pf each figure, is usual to apostles-spoons, and was probably affixed to save the features from effacement. In a really fine state they are very rare.

It seems from " the Gossips," a poem by Shipman, in 1666, that the usage of giving apostle-spoons' at christenings, was at that time on the decline: "Formerly, when they us'd to troul, Gilt bowls of sack, they gave the bowl; Two spoons at least; an use ill kept t 'T is well if now our own be left." An anecdote is related of Shakspeare and Ben Jonson, which bears upon the usage: Shakspeare was godfather to one of Jonson's children, and, after the christening, being in deep study, Jonson cheeringly asked him, why he was so melancholy?" Ben," said he," I have been considering a great while what should be the fittest gift for me to bestow upon my godchild, and I have resolved it at last." "I prithee, what U said Ben, "I' faith, Ben," answered Shakspeare, " I'll give him a dozen good latten spoons, and thou shalt translate them." The word latten, intended as a play upon latin, is the name for thin iron tinned, of which spoons, and similar small articles of household use, are sometimes made. Without being aware of the origin, it is still a custom with many persons, to present suoons at christ

enings, or on visiting the "lady in the straw;" though they are not now adorned with imagery.

FLORAL DIRECTORY.

Winter hellebore. Helleboms hyemalit.

3amiaip 26.

St. Polycarp. St. Paula. St. Conan.

THE SEASON.

On winter comes—the cruel north
Pours his furious whirlwind forth
Before him—and we breathe the breath
Of famish'd bears, that howl to death:
Onward he comes from rocks that blanch
O'er solid streams that never flow,
His tears all ice, his locks all snow,
Just crept from some huge avalanche. Incog

BEARS AND DEES.

M. M. M. a traveller in Russia, communicates, through the Gentleman's Magazine of 1785, a remarkable method of cultivating bees, and preserving them from their housebreakers, the bears. The Russians of Borodskoe, on the banks of the river Ufa, deposit the hives within excavations that they form in the hardest, strongest, and loftiest trees of the forest, at about five-and-twenty or thirty feet high from the ground, and even higher, if the height of the trunk allows it. They hollow out the holes lengthways, with small narrow hatchets, and with chisels and gouges complete their work. The longitudinal aperture of the hive is stopped by a cover of two or more pieces exactly fitted to it, and pierced with small holes, to give ingress and egress to the bees. No means can be devised more ingenious or more convenient for climbing the highest and the smoothest trees than those practised by this people, for the construction and visitation of these hives. For this purpose they use nothing but a very sharp axe, a leathern strap, or a common rope. The man places himself against the trunk of the tree, and passes the cord round his body and round the tree, just leaving it sufficient play for casting it higher and higher, by jerks, towards the elevation he desires to attain, and there to place his body, bent as in a swing, his feet resting against the tree, and preserving the free use of his hands. This done, he takes his axe, and at about the height of his body makes the first notch or step in the tree; then he takes his rope, the two ends whereof he takes care to have tied very fast, and throws it towards the top of the trunk. Placed thus in his rope by the middle of his body, and resting

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