« ZurückWeiter »
Beyond a mortal man impassion'd far
Flor AL Di Rectory.
0R, THE WATER BEAR F.R.
The sun enters Aquarius on this day, though he does not enter it in the visible todiac until the 18th of February.
Ganymede, who succeeded Hebe as cup-bearer to Jove, is fabled to have been changed into Aquarius. Canobus of the Egyptian zodiac, who was the Neptune of the Egyptians, with a water-vase and measure, evidently prefigured this constellation. They worshipped him as the God of many breasts, from whence he replenished the Niie with fertilizing streams. Aquarius contains one hundred and eight stars, the two chief of which are about fifteen degrees in height: His head, his shoulders, and his lucid breast, Glisten with stars; and when his urn inclines, Rivers of light brighten the watery track.
St. Agnes. St Fructuosus, &c. St.
wonderful miracles before her death,wnicl
chelor; “ and yet, as it is sayd, the rynge is on the synger of the ymage" In a Romish Missal printed at Paris, in 1520, there is a prayer to St. Agnes, reInarkably presumptive of her powers; it is thus englished by Bp. Patrick :
Agues, who art the Lamb's chaste spouse,
Not only lop the spreading boughs,
O, Lady, singularly great, After this state, with grief opprest Translate us to that quiet seat Above, to triumph with the blest. From Naogeorgus, we gather that in St. Agnes' church at Itome, it was customary on St. Agnes' Day to bring two snow-white lambs to the altar, upon which they were laid while the Agnus was singing by way of offering. These con
secrated animals were afterwards shorn, and palls made from their fleeces; for each of which, it is said, the pope exacted on the bishops from eight to ten, or thirty thousand crowns, and that the custom originated with Limes, who succeeded the apostle Peter: whereupon Naogeorgus inquires, But where was Agnes at that time? who offred up, and how, The two white lambes 2 where then was Masse, as it is used now 2 Yea, where was then the Popish state, and dreadfull monarchee? Sure in Saint Austen's time, there were no palles at Rome to see, &c. In Jephson’s “Manners, &c. of France and Italy,” there is one dated from Rome, February, 14, 1793. That this ceremony was then in use, is evident from the following lines:—
St. Agnes' Shrine. Where each pretty Ba-lamb most gaily appears, With ribands stuck round on its tail and its ears ; On gold fringed cushions they're stretch'd out to eat, And piously ba, and to church-musick bleat; Yet to me they seem'd crying, alack, and alas! What's all this white damask to daisies and grass? Then they're brought to the Pope, and with transport they're kiss'd, And receive consecration from Sanctity's fist.
- Blessing of Sheep
Stopford, in “Pagano-Papismus,” recites this ceremony of the Romish church. The sheep were brought into the church, and the priest, having blessed some salt and water, read in one corner this gospel, “To us a child is born,” &c. with the whole office, a farthing being laid upon the book, and taken up again; in the second corner he read this gospel, “’Ye men of Galilee,” &c. with the whole office, a farthing being laid upon the book, and taken up again; in the third corner he read this gospel, “ I am the good shepherd,” &c. with the whole office, a farthing being laid upon the book, and taken up again; and in the fourth corner he read this gospel, “In these days,” &c. with the whole office, a farthing being laid upon the book, and taken up again After that, he sprinkled all the sheep with holy water, saying, “Let the blessing of God, the Father Almighty, descend and remain upon you; in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.” Then he signed all the sheep with the sign of the cross. repeated thrice some Latin verses, with the Paternoster and Ave-Marias
sung the mass of the Holy Ghost, and at the conclusion, an offering of fourpence was for himself, and another of threepence was for the poor. This ceremony was adopted by the Romish church from certain customs of the ancient Itomans, in their worship of Pales, the goddess of sheepfolds and pastures. They prayed her to bless the sheep, and sprinkled them with water. The chief difference between the forms seems to have consisted in this, that the ancient Romans let the sheep remain in their folds, while the moderns drove them into the church.
F LORAL DIRECTORY.
St. Agnes. Christmas IRose. Helleborus niger for albo.
the crocus. Dainty young thing Of life —Thou vent'rous flower, Who growest through the hard, cold Of wintly Spring — Thou various-hued. Soft, voiceless bell, whose spire Rocks in the grassy leaves like wire In solitude :
Like Patience, thou At quiet in thy earth, lastructing Hope that Virtue's birth Is Feeling's vow. Thy fancied bride! The delicate Snowdrop, keeps Her home with thee; she wakes and sleeps Near thy true side. Will Man but hear ! A simple flower can tell What beauties in his mind should dwell Through Passion's sphere. J. R. Prior. Chronology. .1793. On the 21st of January, Louis WI. was beheaded at Paris, in the thirtyninth year of his age, and nineteenth of is reign, under circumstances which * in the recollection of many, and own to most persons. A similar in"ument to the guillotine, the machine
by which Louis XVI. was put to death,
** formerly used in England. It was first introduced into France, during the revolution, by Dr. Guillotine, a physician, and hence its name.
THE HALIFAx Gibb ET AND GIBRET-law.
The History of Halifax in Yorkshire, ** 1712, sets forth “a true account of their ancient, odd, customary gibbetlaw; and their particular form of trying and *ecuting of criminals, the like not .." on any other place in Great Britain.” *Halifax gibbot was in the form of the *illotine, and its gibbet-law quite as remarkable. The work referred to, which is "securious than rare, painfully endeao "Prove this law wise and salutary. Poaled only within the forest of
adwick, which was subject to the lord of the manor of Wakefield, a part of the duchy of Lancaster. If a felon were taken within the liberty of the forest with Cloth, or other commodity, of the value of
thirteen-pence halfpen h thre --" " penny, he was, after ... from his apprehension
- ation, to be carried to th o and there have his head cut o o * body. When first taken, he was w o to the lord's bailiff in Halifax, of th “Pt the town, had also the keeping a. * and was the executioner at the * This officer summoned a jury of den "ghers to try him on the evi. * of witnesses not upon oath: if ac*d, he was set at liberty, upon pay
ment of his fees; if convicted, he was set in the stocks on each of the three subse. quent market-days in Halifax, with the stolen goods on his back, if they were rtable; if not, they were placed before is face. This was for a terror to others, and to engage any who had aught against him, to bring accusations, although after the three market-days he was sure to be executed for the offence already proved upon him. But the convict had the satisfaction of knowing, that after he was put to death, it was the duty of the coroher to summon a jury, “and sometimes the same jury that condemned him,” to inquire into the cause of his death, and that a return thereof would be made into the Crown-office; “which gracious and sage proceedings of the coroner in that matter ought, one would think, to abate, in all considering minds, that edge of acrimony which hath provoked malicious and prejudiced persons to debase this laudable and necessary custom." So says the book. In April, 1650, Abrahan Wilkinson and Anthony Mitchell were found guilty of stealing nine yards of cloth and two colts, and on the 30th of the month received sentence, “to suffer death, by having their heads severed and cut of from their bodies at Halifax gibbet,” and they suffered accordingly. These were the last persons executed under Halifax gibbet-law. The execution was in this manner:— The prisoner being brought to the scaffold by the bailiff, the axe was drawn up by a pulley, and fastened with a pin to the side of the scaffold. “The bailiff, the jurors, and the minister chosen by the prisoner, being always upon the scaffold with the prisoner, in most solemn manner, after the minister had finished his ministerial office and christian duty, if it was a horse, an ox, or cow, &c. that was taken with the prisoner, it was thither brought along with him to the place of execution, and fastened by a cord to the pin that stay'd the block, so that when the time of the execution came, (which was known by the jurors holding up one of their hands,) the bailiff, or his servant, whipping the beast, the pin was pluck'd out, and execution done; but if there were no beast in the case, then the hailiff, or his servant, cut the rope.”
THE HALIFAX GIBBET.
But if the telon, after his apprehension, or in his going to execution, happened to make his escape out of the forest of Hardwick, which liberty, on the east end of the town, doth not extend above the breadth of a small river; on the north about six hundred paces; on the south about a mile; but on the west about ten miles;—if such an escape were made, then the bailiff of Halifax had no power to apprehend him out of his liberty; but if ever the felon came again into the liberty of Hardwick, and were taken, he was certainly executed. One Lacy, who made his escape, and lived seven years out of the liberty, after that time coming boldly within the liberty of Hardwick, was retaken, and executed upon his former verdict of condemnation
The records of executions by the Halifax gibbet, before the time of Elizabeth, are lost; but during her reign twentyfive persons suffered under it, and from
1623 to 1650 there were twelve executions. The machine is destroyed. The engraving placed above, represents the instrument, from a figure of it in an old map of Yorkshire, which is Taltogether better than the print of it in the work before cited
The worthy author of the Halifax gibbet-book seems by his title to be well assured, that the machine was limited to, and to the sole use and behoof of, his district; but in this, as in some other particulars, he is mistaken.
A small print by Aldegraver, one of the little German masters, in 1553, now lying before the writer, represents the execution of Manlius, the Roman, by the same instrument; and he has a similar print by Pens, an early engraver of that school. There are engravings of it in books printed so early as 1510. In Hollinshed's Chronicle there is a cut o.
- - - --- - - -