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The apostles on this set of spoons are somewhat worn, and the stems and bowls have been altered by the silversmith in conformity with the prevailing fashion of the present day; to the eye of the antiquary, therefore, they are not so interesting as they were before they underwent this partial modernization: yet in this state they are objects of regard. Their size in the print is exactly that of the spoons theniselves, except that the stems are necessarily fore-shortened in the engraving to get them within the page. The stem of each spoon measures exactly three inches and a half in length from the foot of the apostle to the commencement of the bowl ; the length of each bowl is two inches and nine-six
teenths of an inch; and the height of
each apostle is one inch and one-sixteenth : the entire length of each spoon is seven inches and one-eighth of an inch. They are of silver; the lightest, which is St. Peter, weighs 1 oz. 5 dwts. 9 gr. ; the heaviest is St. Bartholomew, and weighs 1 oz. 9 dwts. 4 gr. ; their collective weight is 16 oz. 14 dwts. 16 gr. The hat, or flat covering, on the head of each figure, is usual to apostles-spoons, and was probably affixed to save the features from effacement. In a really fine state they are very rare. It seems from “the Gossips,” a poem by Shipman, in 1666, that the usage of giving apostle-spoons' , at christenings, was at that time on the decline: “ Formerly, when they us’d to troul, Gilt bowls of sack, they gave the bowl; Two spoons at least; an use ill kept; 'Tis well if now our own be left.” An anecdote is related of Shakspeare and Ben Jonson, which bears upon the usage: Shakspeare was godfather to one of Jonson's children, and, after the christening, being in deep study, Jonson cheeringly asked him, why he was so melancholy? “ Ben,” said he, “I have been considering a great while what should be the fittest gift for me to bestow upon my godchild, and I have resolved it at last.” “I prithee, what?" said Ben, “I' faith, Ben,” answered Shakspeare, “I’ll give him a dozen good latten spoons, and thou shalt translate them.” The word latten, intended as a play upon latin, is the name for thin iron tinned, of which spoons, and similar small articles of household use, are sometimes made. Without being aware of the origin, it is still a custom with many persons, to present suoqns at christ
enings, or on visiting the “lady in the straw;" though they are not now adorned with imagery.
Floral Di Rectory. Winter hellebore. Helleborus hyemalia.
On winter comes—the cruel north
O'er solid streams that never flow,
His tears all ice, his locks all snow, Just crept from some huge avalanche. Incog
BEA R5 A N id in Ers.
M. M. M. a traveller in Russia, communicates, through the Gentleman's Magazine of 1785, a remarkable method of cultivating bees, and preserving them from their housebreakers, the bears. The Russians of Borodskoe, on the banks of the river Ufa, deposit the hives within excavations that they form in the hardest, strongest, and loftiest trees of the forest, at about five-and-twenty or thirty feet high from the ground, and even higher, if the height of the trunk allows it. They hollow out the holes lengthways, with small narrow hatchets, and with chisels and gouges complete their work. The longitudinal aperture of the hive is stopped by a cover of two or more pieces exactly fitted to it, and pierced with small holes, to give ingress and egress to the bees. No means can be devised more ingenious or more convenient for climbing the highest and the smoothest trees than those practised by this people, for the construction and visitation of these hives. For this purpose they use nothing but a very sharp axe, a leathern strap, or a common rope. The man places himself against the trunk of the tree, and passes the cord round his body and round the tree, just leaving it sufficient play for casting it higher and higher, by jerks, towards the elevation he desires to attain, and there to . his body, bent as in a swing, his eet resting against the tree, and preservins; the free use of his hands. This done, he takes his axe, and at about the height of his body makes the first notch or step in the tree; then he takes his rope, the two ends whereof he takes care to have tied very fast, and throws it towards the top of the trunk. Placed thus in his rope by the middle of his bodv. and resting
from these voracious animals, but for their destruction. The method inost in use consists in sticking into the trunk of the tree old blades of knives, standing upwards, scythes, and pieces of pointed iron, disposed circularly round it, when the tree is straight, or at the place of bending, when the trunk is crooked. The bear has commonly dexterity enough to avoid these points in climbing up the tree; but when he descends, as he always does, backwards, he gets on these sharp hooks, and receives such deep wounds, that he usually dies. Old bears frequently take the precaution to ben down these blades with their fore-paws as they mount, and thereby render all this offensive armour useless. Another destructive apparatus has some similitude to the catapulta of the ancients. It is hyed in such a manner that, at the instant the bear prepares to climb the tree, he pulls a string that lets go the machine, whose elasticity strikes a dart into the animal's breast. A further mode is to suspend a platform by long ropes to the faithest extremity of a branch of the tree. The platform is disposed horizontally before the hive, and there tied fast to the trunk of the tree with a cord made of bark. The bear, who finds the seat very convenient for proceeding to the opening of the hive, begins by tearing the cord of bark which holds the platform to the trunk, and hinders him from executing his purpose. Upon this the platform immediately quits the tree, and swings in the air with the animal seated upon it. If, on the first shock, the bear is not tumbled out, he must either take a very dangerous leap, or remain patiently in his suspended seat. If he take the leap, either involuntarily, or by his own good will, he falls on sharp points, placed all about the bottom of the tree; if he resolve to remain where he is, he is shot by arrows or musketballs. f Lor AL DIRECTony. White butterbur. Tressilago alba.
often finely varnished to protect them from
“Buds possess a power analogous to
John Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf, a celebrated printer, letter-founder, and bookseller of Leipsic, died on this day, in the year 1794: he was born there November 23, 1719. After the perusal of a work by Albert Durer, in which the shape of the letters is deduced from mathematical principles, he endeavoured to fashion them according to the most beautiful models in matrices cut for the purPose. His printing-office and letterfoundery acquired very high reputation. It contained punches and matrices for 499 alphabets, and he employed the types of Baskerville and Didot Finding that engraving on wood had given birth to Printing, and that the latter had contributed to the improvement of engraving, he transferred some particulars, in the o: ... engraver, to that of the
Inter; and represented, by typograph all the marks . lines '...". ; the modern music, with all the accuracy of engraving, and even printed maps and mathematical figures with movable types; though the latter he considered as a mat: * of mere curiosity: such was also anothe attempt, that of copying portraits by movable types. He likewise printed, ** ingyable types, the Chinese characo ters, which are, in general, cut in pieces **ood, so that a whole house is "often ** to contain the blocks employed
for a single book. He in proved typemetal, by giving it that degree of hardness, which has been a desideratum in founderies of this kind; and discovered a new method of facilitating the process of melting and casting. From his touriderv he sent types to ltussia, Sweden, Poland, and even America. He also improved the printing-press. Besides this, his inquiries into the origin and progress of the art of printing, furnished the materials of a history, which he left behind in manuscript. He published in 1784, the first part of “An Attempt to illustrate the origin of playingcards, the introduction of paper made from linen, and the invention of engraving on wood in Europe;” the latter part was finished, but not published, before his death. His last publication was a small “Treatise on Bibliography,” &c. published in 1793, with his reasons for retaining the present German characters. With the interruption of only five or six hours in the twenty-four, which he allowed for sleep, his whole life was devoted to study and useful employment. Flor A. L. D. I. RECTORY. Double Daisy. Hellis perennis plenus Dedicated to St. Margaret of IIungary.
Martina, that if she would conform to the edict, he would make her his empress,
Lord Orford says, “one can scarce conceive a greater absurdity than retain
but on her being taken to the temple, “by ing the three holidays dedicated to the a sudden earthquake the blockish idol of house of Stuart. Was the preservation of
Apollo was broken in pieces, a fourth part of his temple thrown down, and, with his ruins, were crushed to death; his priests and many others, and the emperor himself, began to fly.” Whereupon St. Martina taunted the emperor; and the devil, in the idol, rolling himself in the dust, made a speech to her, and another to the emperor, and “fled through the air in a dark cloud; but the emperor would not understand it.” Then the emperor commanded her to be tortured. The jesuit’s stcries of these operations and her escapes, are wonderfully particular. According to him, hooks and stakes did her no mischief; she had a faculty of shining, which the pouring of hot lard upon her would not quench; when in gaol, men in dazzling white surrounded her; she could not feel a hundred and eighteen wounds; a fierce lion, who had fasted three days, would not eat her, and fire would not burn her; but a sword cut her head off on 228, and at the end of two days two eagles were found watching her body. “That which above all confirmeth the truth of this relation,” says Ribadeneira, “ is, that there is nothing herein related but what is in brief in the lessons of the Roman Breviary, commanded by public authority to be read on her feast by the whole church.”
On this day, in the year 1649, king Charles I. was beheaded. In the Common Prayer Book of the Church of England, it is called “The Day of the Martyrdom of the Blessed King Charles I. ;” and there is “A Form of Prayer, with Fasting, to be used yearly” upon its recurrence. The sheet, which received the head of Charles I. after its decapitation, is carefully preserved along with the communion plate in the church of Ashburnham, in this county; the blood, with which it has been almost entirely covered, now appears nearly black. The watch of the unfortunate monarch is also deposited with the linen, the movements of which are still perfoct. These relics came into the possession of lord Ashburnham immediately after the death of the king.—Brighton Herald.
James, I. a greater blessing to England