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The number is legion of the warmly appreciative and admiring letters and articles at his death, both from friends and bitter political foes, all testifying to his strict rectitude and high sense of duty.

In numerous issues of its paper, the partisan and at that time politically hostile “ News and Courier" testified to his uprightness and ability. In January, 1875, it said he sent to his legislature a special message full of “ wise, prudent, and just” recommendations; also, in May of the same year, that he “is as true as steel, in the fight against public dishonesty. ... It is due to Mr. Chamberlain that, for the first time in six years, there was no considerable stealing during the legislative session, and that not one swindling bill became a law.” It spoke of “his scholarly messages, his patriotic utterances, bis unfailing tact and courtesy.” It also said:

In the light of his acts, since he has been governor, we say now that, however much appearances were against him, it is morally impossible that he should have been either facile or corrupt. ... Governor Chamberlain, therefore, richly deserves the confidence of the people of this State. The people of South Carolina, who have all at stake, who see and hear what persons outside of the State cannot know, are satisfied of Governor Chamberlain's honesty. When he determined to oppose a square front to corruption in whatsoever guise, he knew that he must, on that, cut loose from the rogues who ruled the Republican party up to the time of his election, and that upon him would be poured out the seventy and seven vials of wrath. It would have been supreme folly to provoke their hate if there was anything in his previous conduct that would expose him to ignominy and public shame. . . . By and with the aid of the Conservatives, Governor Chamberlain and the small band of honest Republicans defeated the thieves in every engagement. But the men whom he has thrown down, and who did not want or expect reform, are wild with rage and despair. And in an editorial two days after Governor Chamberlain's death it said:

Once the judgment of the country was rendered against him Mr. Chamberlain never sought to reinstate himself as a political factor in the control of his State, but he never lost his interest in South Carolina and in the welfare of its people. ... Though born in Massachusetts and reared and educated in the New England school of thought, he was loyal to South Carolina in the broadest way until the end came to him. Mr. Chamberlain was a very remarkable man. He was a scholar of the truest temper, a lover of his country of the broadest views, and at bottom he was always true, as we believe, to the highest welfare of his adopted State. New Englander by birth, he was a South Carolinian in spirit. . . . When he lay dying of an incurable malady, his thoughts were with the white people of South Carolina in the great honor which they paid to his successful antagonist of 1876. We sincerely deplore his death.

A Georgia paper, also politically hostile, has said, in summing up his administration, “ He was sincere in trying to evolve good government out of the impossible elements with which he was yoked.”

In Professor Dunning's “ Reconstruction, Political and Economic," the twenty-second volume of Professor Hart's “American Nation,” the writer says of him : In 1874 Daniel H. Chamberlain, a Massachusetts man of great

eloquence and ability, had been elected governor to succeed the unspeakable Moses. By bold and spectacular proceedings he effected very considerable reforms in the State administration, incurring thereby the vindictive animosity of the shameless crew in his own party whose vicious practices were interfered with. ... Chamberlain was the only carpet-bagger governor in the South who had shown both the will and the ability to secure any measure of purity in State administration.

Our associate Mr. Rhodes, while dwelling upon the universal corruption of the time, speaks of him in his “ History of the United States” (New York, 1906, VII. 147, 167) as “an honest man who was Attorney-General of the State during the four years of Scott's administration,” and later writes :

My highest ambition as governor,” Chamberlain said, “ has been to make the ascendancy of the Republican party in South Carolina compatible with the attainment and maintenance of as high and pure a tone in the administration of public affairs as can be exhibited in the proudest Democratic State of the South.” With the majority of his party against him, with its brutal rank and file blindly or selfishly tolerating their corrupt representatives, such a consummation could not be, as he himself years afterwards admitted. During his canvass in 1874 he had said : “ The work of reform will be a constant struggle. . If in my two years as Governor I can even “turn the tide,' I shall be more than rewarded.” This indeed he accomplished. He began the redemption of South Carolina; it was completed under Democratic auspices.

The most beautiful tribute of all, however, coming as it does from a once bitterly hostile political opponent, is the letter of


Colonel A. C. Haskell, of Columbia, South Carolina, to the President of this Society, made a part of the paper already referred to as read at the May (1907) meeting. This letter, therefore, need not be quoted from here. None the less it makes duly apparent both the great difficulty of the times in which Governor Chamberlain labored, and the deep impression his character made upon the writer.

Governor Chamberlain's espousal of the policy of reconstruction as inaugurated was sincere, and he strove with all his might to carry out its purpose ; but the policy itself and the tools with which he had to work were both impossible, as he himself subsequently realized. In the later years of his life he was an ardent civil-service reformer and anti-imperialist; and it may well be that his unfortunate and trying experience in administering the laws honestly over a hostile and politically alien people with instruments thoroughly corrupt and unscrupulous almost without exception, gave him, or at least intensified in him, a strong conviction of the absolute need of an honest civil service and of the utter impracticability and futility of our so-called imperialistic ventures.

Of a nature that once having put his hand to the plough he could not turn back, in his adininistration in South Carolina he followed his line firmly and unswervingly unto the point where his position became impossible; and then, in a quiet, dignified manner, he withdrew.

He never forgot nor forgave the withdrawal of support from him by the national government in March, 1877, and truthfully maintained that if he was not elected governor of South Carolina in 1876, then the Hayes presidential electors were not chosen, and President Hayes clouded his own title to the presidency by withdrawing his support.

Although forced to curtail his energies in the more strenuous channels of life, he always maintained his interest in public affairs, and a constant comment thereon in the public prints showed to the last his great power of clear and trenchant criticism. He became a publicist.

His scholarship was deep and genuine; and, long after college days, he read Demosthenes’orations and other classics, and Professor Lane's Latin Grammar, purely for mental pleasure and stimulus. President Woolsey, in a letter he gave young Chamberlain on leaving college, to be used in aiding him to gain a commission in the army, used the expression regarding him, “ a born leader of men.” The University of South Carolina gave him the degree of LL.D. in 1873; and upon the foundation of the Law School of Cornell University he was appointed non-resident professor of constitutional law there.

He retained his mental vigor to the end. During the last six months of his life, while facing sudden and inevitable death by hemorrhage, he never allowed his physical weakness and pain to overwhelm or diminish his intellectual activity, or dim the clearness of expression in his last utterances. In these closing months he composed several things that, under the circumstances, can only be called remarkable. He wrote a fine appreciation of his old friend Walter Allen, and, in a wellknown letter to the New York “World ” of November 30, 1906, scathing attack on District Attorney Jerome for his failure to proceed with the indictment of life insurance officials. Opinions may differ as to the correctness of the strictures and denunciations in the article referred to, but it is certain that “no philippic ever proceeded in more orderly movement from beginning to end."

It has been the good fortune of the writer of this memoir to see a production from the pen of Governor Chamberlain during this last period, not yet published, dealing with the problems of religion and immortality from his own point of view of that of one brought up in the extreme strictness and narrowness of the Calvinistic creed, who had come, after a long period of thought and study upon such subjects, to a radical and advanced position towards them.

The articlel much exceeds the limits of this memoir, but its simple and clear forms of expression and the painful and exhausted condition of the writer emphasize again his great activity and clearness of mental processes; as also the indomitable will and irresistible impulse of his high moral fibre, that caused him in those final days to rise superior to bodily ills, and forced him, having once become convinced of the truth, to proclaim it as he saw it.

In closing this memoir, perhaps no higher characterization can be given of Governor Chamberlain's intensity of purpose, keenness of intellect, and high sense of public duty, than to describe in his own words, taken from a letter to his brother, the circumstances under which the Jerome letter was written:

1 The paper has since been published in The North American Review” (Vol. 186, No. 2, pp. 174–1994) for October, 1907, under the title “ Some Conclusions of a Free-thinker.” – Eds.

I did not let you know what I was doing, for I felt that you would think me foolhardy, and could not blame you if you did. But I simply could n't give up my purpose. I little cared whether or not it killed me, and I was actually so weak that when I had partially raised myself on my pillow and had my pencil in my hand, I could only write a dozen or twenty words, and then give up exhausted and panting. I thus wrote during five long days, and then from my notes, undecipherable to any one but myself, I dictated it to a stenographer. What I did now seems incredible to myself. Considering the circumstances, I must think it the greatest feat of my life. I reckon that it shows how the spirit can triumph over the flesh.

Mr. Chamberlain's strict integrity, his high ideals, and his untiring endeavor to attain them, raising him high among men, constitute his crown.

The writer of this memoir wishes to acknowledge the great help he has received in its preparation from the writings of others, and the information given, especially by Rev. L. T. Chamberlain and Messrs. Paul C. Chamberlain, Charles Francis Adams, James Green, and, above all, the late Walter Allen, from whose book the sketch of Governor Chamberlain's life has been almost bodily taken.

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