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because a miracle is to no purpose shewed outwardly, if that be wanting which it should work inwardly. For according to the saying of the Master of the Gentiles, languages1 are for a sign, not to the faithful but to infidels." Thirdly, that the working of miracles is no good argument to prove the holiness of them that be the instruments thereof: and therefore " when" the Lord doth such things for the convincing of infidels, he yet giveth us warning that we should not be deceived thereby, supposing invisible wisdom to be there, where we shall behold a visible miracle. For he saith: Manyb shall say unto me in that day, Lard, Lard, have we not prophesied in thy name, and in thy name cast out devils, and in thy name done many miracles?" Fourthly, that " hec tempteth God, who for his own vain glory will make shew of a superfluous and unprofitable miracle;" such as that (for example) was, whereunto the Devil tempted our Saviourd to come down headlong from the pinnacle of the temple unto the plain, "everye miracle being vain, which worketh not some profit unto man's salvation." Whereby we may easily discern what to judge of that infinite number of idle miracles, wherewith the lives of our saints are every where stuffed: many whereof we may justly censure, as Amphilochiusf doth the tales that the poets tell of their gods, for

Mv0ov£ yt\uroe d^iovt Kai SaKpviav,
Fables, of laughter worthy, and of tears.

• 1 Cor. cap. 14. ver. 22.

* Qualia propter infideles cum fecerit Dominus, monuit tamen ne talibus decipiamur, arbitrantes ibi esse invisibilem sapientiam, ubi miraculum visibile viderimus. Adjungit ergo et dicit, multi dicent mihi in ilia die, Domine, Domine: nonne in nomine tuo prophetavimus, et in tuo nomine dsemonia ejecimus, et in tuo nomine virtutes multas fecimus ? Id. lib. eod.

h Matth. cap. 7. ver. 22. c Ille Deum tentat, qui jactantis suae vitio, superfluam et inutilem vult ostentare virtutem. Quid enim utilitatis habet, quid commodi confert, si prsceps hinc in plana descendero? dec. Id. lib. eod.

A Matth. cap. 4. ver. 6.

'Inane est enim omne miraculum, quod utilitatem saluti non operatur humans. Ibid.

1Amphiloch. in Iambis ad Seleucum.

Yea some of them also we may rightly brand, as

MvOovg dcc/tfouc, Sainovwv CUayfiara.
Unseemly fables, and devils' documents.

For what (for example) can be more unseemly, and tend further to the advancement of the doctrine of devils, than that which Cogitosus relateth in the life of St. Bridget? that she, for saving the credit of a nun that had been gotten with child, "blessed8 her faithfully," forsooth, for so the author speaketh, and so caused her conception to "vanish away, without any delivery and without any pain," which for the saving of St. Bridget's own credit, either Hen.h Canisius or the friars of Aichstad, from whom he had his copy of Cogitosus, thought fit to scrape out, and rather to leave a blank in the book, than to suffer so lewd a tale to stand in it. But I will not stir this puddle any further: but proceed on, unto some better matter.

And now are we come at last to the great point, that toucheth the head and the foundation of the Church. Concerning which Sedulius observeth, that the title of Foundation' is attributed both to Christ, and to the apostles and prophets; that where it is said, "Behold*, I lay in Sion a stone, &c, it1 is certain, that by the rock or stone Christ is signified;" that"1 "the apostles" are the foundation, or Christ rather the foundation of the apostles. For Christ (saith he) is the foundation, who is also

- Cogitos. vit. Brigid. in exemplaribus manuscripto antiquiss. bibliothec. Cottonianse, et Ecclesis Sarisburiensis.

h Tom. 5. Antiqu. lection. in lacuna, sub finem, pag. 629.

1 [Fundamental Christum, et apostolos, et prophetas. Sedul. in Hebr. cap. 11.

k Esai. cap. 28. ver. 16.

1 Compertum est in petra vel lapide Christum esse significatum. Id. in Rom. cap. 9. m Ephes. cap. 2. ver.<0.

n Apostoli fundamentum sunt, vel Christus fundamentum est apostolorum. Christus est fundamentum, qui etiam lapis dicitur angularis, duos conjungens et continens parietes. Ideo hie fundamentum et summus est lapis; quia in ipso et fundatur, et consummatur Ecclesia. Id. in Ephes. cap. 2.

called the corner stone, joining and holding together the two walls. Therefore is he the foundation and chief stone; because in him the Church is both founded and finished;" and we are to account the apostles "as" ministers of Christ, and not as the foundation." The famous placep, whereupon our Romanists lay the main foundation of the papacy, Claudius expoundeth in this sort: " Upon11 this rock I will build my Church, that is to say, upon the Lord and Saviour, who granted unto his faithful knower, lover, and confessor, the participation of his own name, that from petra (the rock) he should be called Peter. The Church is builded upon him: because only by the faith and love of Christ, by the receiving of the sacraments of Christ, by the observation of the commandments of Christ, we come to the inheritance of the elect and eternal life, as witnesseth the apostle, who saith, Other foundation can no man lay beside that which is laid, which is Christ Jesus."

Yetdoth the same Claudius acknowledge, that St. Peter1 received a kind "of primacy for the founding of the Church," in respect whereof he termeth him Ecclesiae* principem, and Apostolorum1 principem, the prince of the Church, and the prince or chief of the apostles, but he addeth withal, that " St. Paul also was chosen in the same manner, to have the primacy in founding the churches of the Gentiles;" and that he "received" this

° Ut ministros Christi: non ut fundamentum. Id. in 1 Cor. cap. 4. P Matth. cap. 16. ver. 18. Super hanc petram sedificabo Ecclesiam meam, id est, super Dominum Salvatorem, qui fideli suo cognitori, amatori, confessori, participium sui nominis donavit, ut scilicet a petra Petrus vocaretur. £dificatur Ecclesia: quia non nisi per fidem et dilectionem Christi, per susceptionem sacramentorum Christi, per observantiam mandatorum Christi, ad sortem electorum et aeternam pertingitur vitam, apostolo attestante qui ait; Fundamentum enim aliud nemo potest ponere praeter id quod positum est, qui est Christus Jesus. Claud. lib. 2. in Matth.

r Petrum solum nominat, et sibi comparat: quia primatum ipse accepit ad fundandam Ecclesiam: se quoque pari modo electum, ut primatum habeat fun dandis Gentium Ecclesiis. Id. in Gal. cap. 2.

■ Id. in Gal. cap. 5. 1 Id. in Gal. cap. 2.

"Ab his itaque probatum dicit donum quod accepit a Deo, ut dignus esset habere primatum in prsedicatione Gentium, sicut et habebat Petrus in prstdicatione rircumcisionis. Id. in Gal. cap. 2.

gift from God, that he should be worthy to have the primacy in preaching to the Gentiles, as Peter had it in the preaching of the Circumcision;" and therefore that "St. Paulv challengeth this grace as granted by God to him alone, as it was granted to Peter alone among the apostles;" and that he esteemed himself " notw to be inferior unto St. Peter, because both of them were by one ordained unto one and the same ministry;" and that writing to the Galatians, he did in the "title1 name himself an apostle of Christ, to the end that by the very authority of that name he might terrify his readers; judging, that all such as did believe in Christ, ought to be subject unto him."

It is furthermore also observed by Claudius, that as when our Saviour propounded the question "generallyy unto all the apostles, Peter did answer as one for all; so that our Lord answered unto Peter, in Peter he did answer unto all;" and therefore "howsoever1 the power of loosing and binding might seem to be given by the Lord unto Peter alone, yet without all manner of doubt it is to be known, that it was given unto the rest of the apostles also: as himself doth witness, who appearing unto them after the triumph of his passion and resurrection, breathed on them, and said unto them all, Receive the holy Ghost, whose sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them, and whose sins ye retain, they are retained" Gildas the

* Gratiam sibi soli primus vendicat concessam a Deo, sicut et soli Petro concessa est inter apostolos. Claud. in Gal. cap. 2.

"Non illi sum inferior; quia ab uno sumus ambo in unum miuisterium ordinate Id. ibid.

* Apostolum se Christi titulo pranotavit, ut ex ipsa lecturos nominis auctoritate terreret; judicans omnes, qui in Christo crederent, debere sibi esse subjectos. Id. in Gal. cap. 1.

y Nam sicut interrogatis generaliter omnibus, Petrus respondit unus pro omnibus: ita quod Petro Dominus respondit, in Petro omnibus respondit. Id. lib. 2. in Matth.

1 Quae solvendi ac ligandi potestas, quamvis soli Petro data videatur a Domino; absque ulla tamen dubietate noscendum est, quia et caeteris apostolis daim-: ipso teste, qui post passionis resurrectionisque suae triumphum apparens eis insufHavit, et dixit omnibus: Acipite Spiritum sanctum, quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis, et quorum retinueritis, retcnta sunt. Id. lib. eod.

Briton goeth further, affirming that " to" the true priest it is said, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church „•" that " tob Peter and his successors our Lord saith, And unto thee will I give the keys of the kingdom of heaven;' and consequently, that "unto0 every holy priest it is promised: Whatsoever thou shalt hind on earth shall be bound likewise in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed likewise in heaven." Whereupon he pronounceth of the good priests of Britain: that they " dod lawfully obtain the apostolical state," and "lawfully* sit in the chair of St. Paul;" and on the other side of the bad, that "withf unclean feet they usurp the seat of the apostle Peter, but by the demerit of their covetousness fall into the pestilent chair of the traitor Judas;" and so the ordainers of such, place "after6 a sort Judas the betrayer of our Lord, in the seat of Peter."

Lastly, as Claudius noteth, that "theh foundation of the Church was laid," not only upon St. Peter, but also upon St. John; so in a certain hymn supposed to be written by Secundinus (known in this country commonly by the name of St. Scachlin) in the year of our Lord CCCCXLVIII. St. Patrick also is thus commended, "He1 is constant in the fear of God, and immoveable in the

1Vero sacerdoti dicitur: Tu es Petrus, et super hanc petram sdificabo Ecclcsiam meam. Gild, epist.

b Petro ejusque successoribus dicit Dominus: Et tibi dabo claves regni ccelorum. Ibid.

c Itemque omni sancto sacerdoti promittitur: Et quaecunque solveris super terram, erunt soluta et in coelo; et quscunque ligavcris super terram, erunt ligata et in ccelo. Ibid.

d Apostolicam sedem legitime obtinent. Ibid.

'Si hunc vos apostoli retinetis in omnibus affectum; ejus quoque cathedrae legitime insidere noscatis. Ibid.

'Sedem Petri apostoli immundis pedibus usurpantes; sed merito cupiditatis in Judae traditoris pestilentem cathedram decidentes. Ibid.

t Ju lam quodammodo in Petri cathedra Domini traditorem statuunt. Ibid.

h Super ipsos Ecclesiae sit positum fundamentum. Claud. in Gal. cap. 2.

iConstans in Dei timore, et fide immobilis, super quem sed;ftcatur ut Petrum Ecclesia: cujusque apostolatum a Deo sortitusest, et inferni portae adversus eum non pra:valebunt. Hymn. in aud. S. Patricii.

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