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The last bishop of Dublin in the year MCXXII. was sent unto Anselm's next successor for his consecration; touching which I have seen this writ of king Henry the first, directed unto him:

"Henricus Rex Angliae, Radulpho Cantuariensi archiepiscopo, salutem. Mandavitp mihi rex Hiberniae per breve suum, et burgenses Dubliniae, quod elege- runt hunc Gregorium in episcopum, et eum tibi mittunt consecrandum. Unde tibi mando, ut petitioni eorum satisfactions, ejus consecrationem sine dilatione expleas. Teste Ranulpho Cancellario apud Windelsor."

"Henry king of England, to Ralph archbishop of Canterbury, greeting. The king of Ireland hath intimated unto me by his writ, and the burgesses of Dublin, that they have chosen this Gregory for their bishop, and send him unto you to be consecrated. Wherefore I wish you, that satisfying their request, you perform his consecration without delay. Witness Ranulph our chancellor at Windsor."

All the burgesses of Dublin likewise, and the whole assembly of the clergy, directed their joint letters to the archbishop of Canterbury the same time: wherein among other things they write thus: "Knowq you for verity, that the bishops of Ireland have great indignation toward us, and that bishop most of all that dwelleth at Armagh: because we will not obey their ordination, but will always be under your government." Whereby we may see, that as the Ostmans were desirous to sever themselves from the

P Ut apud Grcecos Ki\ivia, non est semper ItoiroTiKt) \iiie, quemadmodnm ad Iliad. X. notatum estab Eustathio (pag. 884. et 831. edit. Roman.) sed aliquando respondet Tip d£ioui4 Kal Ri£ aTifialvuv. ita etvox Mando, apud Latinos mediae actatis scriptores; ut apud Vincentium, verbi gratia, lib. 30. Specul. Hismanal, cap. 130. " humiliter ei mandaverunt." et hoc in loco.

Sciatis vosrevera, quodepiscopi Hiberniae maximum zelumerganos habent, etmaximeille episcopus qui habitat Ardimachs: quia nos nolumus obedire i drum ordinationi, sed semper sub vestro dominio esse volumus. MS. ad calcem collectionis Isidori Mercatoris, in bibliotheca Cottoniana.

Irish, and to be esteemed Normans rather: so the Irish bishops on the other side, howsoever they digested in some sort the recourse which they had to Lanfranc and Anselm (who were two of the most famous men in their times, and with whom they themselves were desirous to hold all good correspondence) yet could they not well brook this continuation of their dependance upon a metropolitan of another kingdom, which they conceived to be somewhat derogatory to the dignity of their own primate. But this jealousy continued not long, for this same Gregory being afterwards made archbishop of Dublin, and the bishopricks here settled by Johannes Paparo, as well they of Dublin, as the others of Waterford and Limerick (for they also had one Patrick consecrated bishop unto them by Theobald archbishop of Canterbury) did ever after that time cease to have any relation unto the see of Canterbury.

And now to go forward : as the kings and people of this land in those elder times kept the nomination of their archbishops and bishops in their own hands, and depended not upon the pope's provisions that way: so do we not find by any approved record of antiquity, that any visitations of the clergy were held here in the pope's name, much less that any indulgences were sought for by our people at his hands. For, as for the charter' of St. Patrick, by some entitled, De antiquitate Avalonica, wherein Phaganus* and Deruvianus are said to have purchased ten or thirty years of indulgences from pope Eleutherius; and St. Patrick himself to have procured twelve years in his time from pope Celestinus, it might easily be demonstrated (if this were a place for it) that it is a mere figment, devised by the monks of Glastenbury. Neither do I well know, what credit is to be given unto that straggling sentence, which I find

'Charta S. Patricii, in Gulielmi Malmesburiensis libello, de antiquitate Glastoniensis Ecclesise. MS.

* In scriptis recentioribus inveni, quod sancti Phaganus et Deruvianus perquisierant ab Eleutherio papa, qui eos miserat, X. (al. XXX.) annos indulgentis. Et ego frater Patricius a pise memorise Celestino papa XII. annos tempore meo acquisivi. Ibid.

ascribed unto the same author. "If any questions do arise in this island, let them be referred to the See apostolic;" or that other decree, attributed to Auxilius, Patricius, Secundinus and Benignus. "Whensoever" any cause that is very difficult, and unknown unto all the judges of the Scotish nations, shall arise; it is rightly to be referred to the See of the archbishop of the Irish, (to wit, Patrick) and to the examination of the prelate thereof. But if there, by him and his wise men, a cause of this nature cannot easily be made up, we have decreed, it shall be sent to the see apostolic: that is to say, to the chair of the apostle Peter, which hath the authority of the city of Rome." Only this I will say, that as it is most likely that St. Patrick had a special regard unto the Church of Rome, from whence he was sent for the conversion of this island: so if I myself had lived in his days, for the resolution of a doubtful question I should as willingly have listened to the judgment of the Church of Rome, as to the determination of any church in the whole world; so reverend an estimation have I of the integrity of that church, as it stood in those good days. But that St. Patrick was of opinion, that the Church of Rome was sure ever afterward to continue in that good estate, and that there was a perpetual privilege annexed unto that see, that it should never err in judgment, or that the pope's sentences were always to be held as infallible oracles, that will I never believe; sure I am, that my countrymen after him were of a far other belief, who were so far from submitting themselves in this sort to whatsoever should proceed from the see of Rome, that they often

1 Patricius ait . Si quse questiones in hac insula oriantur, ad sedem apostolicam referantur. Vet. Collect, canonum, bibliothecae Cottonianae, cujus mitiumSynodicorum exemplariorum innumerositatem conspiciens.

"Quscunque causa valde difficilis exorta fuerit, atque ignota cunctis Scotorum gentium judiciis; ad cathedram archiepiscopi Hibernensium (id est, Patricii) atque hujus antlstitis examinationem recte referenda. Si vero in ilia, cum suis sapientibus, facile sanari non poterit talis causa praedicts negotiationis: ad sedem apostolicam decrevimus esse mittendam; id est, ad Petri apostoli cathedram, auctoritatem Roma e urbis habentem. Hi sunt qui de hoc decreverunt: id est, Auxilius, Patricius, Secundinus, Benignus. Vet. Codex Ecclesis Armachanae.

times stood out against it, when they had little cause so to do. For proof whereof I need to seek no further than to those very allegations which have been lately urged for maintenance of the supremacy of the pope and Church of Rome in this country.

First, Mr. Coppinger cometh upon us, with this wise question: "Waswnot Ireland,among other countries, absolved from the Pelagian heresy by the Church of Rome, as Caesar Baronius writeth?" then he setteth down the copy of St. Gregory's epistle1, in answer unto the Irish bishops that submitted themselves unto him; and concludeth in the end, that "the bishops of Ireland being infected with the Pelagian error, sought absolution first of Pelagius the pope; but the same was not effectually done until St. Gregory did it." But in all this, he doth nothing else but betray his own ignorance. For neither can he shew it in Caesar Baronius or in any other author whatsoever, that the Irish bishops did ever seek absolution from pope Pelagius; or that the one had to deal in any business at all with the other. Neither yet can he shew that ever they had to do with St. Gregory in any matter that did concern the Pelagian heresy, for these be dreams of Coppinger's own idle head. The epistle of St. Gregory dealeth only with the controversy of the three chapters, which were condemned by the fifth general council, whereof Baronius writeth thus: "Ally the bishops that were in Ireland, with most earnest study, rose up jointly for the defence of the three chapters. And when they perceived that the Church of Rome did both receive the condemnation of the three chapters, and strengthen the

"Copping. Mnemosynum to the Catholicks of Ireland, lib. 2. cap. 3. » Gregor. lib. 2. epist . 51. op. tom. 2. pag. 614.

» Ardentissimo studio pro trium capitulorum defensione, junctis animis omnes qui in Hibernia erant episcopi, insurrexere. Addiderunt et illud nefas, ut cum percepissent Romanam Ecclesiam sque suscepisse trium damnationum capitulorum, atque suo consensu quintam synodum roborasse: ab eadem pariter resilierint,atque reliquis qui vel in Italia, vel in Africa, aliisve regionibus erant schismaticis inhaeserint; fiducia ilia vana erecti, quod pro fide catholica starent, cum quae essent in concilio Chalcedonensi statuta defenderent. Baron. Annal. tom. 7. ann. 566. num. 21.

fifth synod with her consent; they departed from her, and clave to the rest of the schismatics that were either in Italy, or in Africa, or in other countries; animated with that vain confidence, that they did stand for the Catholic faith, while they defended those things that were concluded in the council of Chalcedon." And "soz much the more fixedly (saith he) did they cleave to their error, because whatsoever Italy did suffer by commotions of war, by famine or pestilence, all these unhappy things they thought did therefore befall unto it, because it had undertaken to fight for the fifth synod against the council of Chalcedon."

Thus far Baronius: out of whose narration this may be collected, that the bishops of Ireland did not take all the resolutions of the Church of Rome for undoubted oracles; but when they thought that they had better reason on their sides, they preferred the judgment of other churches before it. Wherein how peremptory they were, when they wrote unto St. Gregory of the matter, may easily be perceived by these parcels of the answer, which he returned unto their letters: "The* first entry of your epistle hath notified, that you suffer a grievous persecution: which persecution indeed, when it is not sustained for a reasonable cause, doth profit nothing unto salvation;" and " thereforeb it is very unfit that you should glory of that persecution, as you call it, by which it is certain you cannot be promoted to everlasting rewards." "Andc

* Sed eo lixius inhserent errori, cum quaecunque Italia passa sit bellorum motibus, fame, vel pestilentia, ea ex causa illi cuncta infausta accidisse putarent, quod pro quinta synodo adversus Chalcedonense concilium prtclium suscepissct. Baron. annal. tom. 7. ann. 566. num. 21.

* Prima itaque epistolse vestrse frons, gravem vos pati persecutionem innotuit. Quae quidcm persecutio dum non rationabiliter sustinetur, nequaquam proficit ad salutem. Gregor. Regist. lib. 2. epist . 51. op. tom. 2. pag. 605.

Dum igitur itasit, incongruum nimis est de ea vos, quam dicitis, persecu- tione gloriari, per quam vos constat ad aeterna praemia minime provehi. Ibid.

c Quod autemscribitis, quia ex illo tempore inter alias provincias maxime flagelletur Italia; non hoc ad ejus debetis intorquere opprobrium: quoniam scriptum est; Quem diligit Dominus, castigat, flagellat autem omnem filium quem recipit. Ibid.

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