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The Scotish that professed no subjection to the Church of Rome, were they that sent preachers for the conversion of these countries, and ordained bishops to govern them; namely, Aidan", Finan and Colman successively for the kingdom of Northumberland; forp the East-Saxons, Cedd brother to Ceadda the bisbop of York before mentioned; forq the middle Angles, which inhabited Leicestershire, and the Mercians, Diuma (for "ther paucity of priests, saith Bede, constrained one bishop to be appointed over two people") and after him Cellach and Trumhere. And these with their followers, notwithstanding their division from the see of Rome, were for* their extraordinary sanctity of life and painfulness in preaching the Gospel (wherein they went far beyond those of the other side, that afterwards thrust them out and entered in upon their labours) exceedingly reverenced by all that knew them: Aidan especially, who " although1 he could not keep Easter (saith Bede) contrary to the manner of them which had sent him; yet he was careful diligently to perform the works of faith and godliness, and love, according to the manner used by all holy men. Whereupon he was worthily beloved of all, even of them also who thought otherwise of Easter than he did, and was had in reverence not only by them that were of meaner rank, but also by the bishops themselves, Honorius of Canterbury, and Felix of the East Angles." Neither did Honorius and Felix any other way carry themselves herein, than their predecessors Laurentius, Mellitus and Justus had done before them: who writing unto the bishops of Ireland, that dis

"Bed. hist . lib. 3. cap. 3. 5. 17. 25. 26. <" Ibid. cap. 22. 25.

i Ibid. cap. 21. 24.

"Paucitas enim sacerdotum cogebat unum antistitem duobus populis praefici. Ibid. cap. 21.

• Ibid. cap. 3. 4. 5. 17. 26.

1 Etsi Pascha contra morem eorum qui ipsum miserant, facere non potuit; opera tamen fidei, pietatis et dilectionis, juxta morem omnibus sanctis consuetum diligenter exequi curavit . Unde ab omnibus etiam his qui de Pascha aliter sentiebant, merito diligebatur: nec solum a mediocribus, verum ab ipsis quoquc cpiscopis, Honorio Cantuariorum ct Felice Orientalium Angloruui, vcnerationi habitus est. Ibid. cap. 25.

sented from the Church of Rome in the celebration of Easter and many other things, made no scruple to prefix this loving and respectful superscription to their letters: "To" our Lords and most dear brethren, the bishops or abbots throughout all Scotland; Laurentius, Mellitus and Justus bishops, the servants of the servants of God." For howsoever Ireland at that time received" not the same laws wherewith other nations were governed: yet it so "flourished in the vigour of Christian doctrine, (as abbot Jonas testifieth) that it exceeded the faith of all the neighbour nations;" and in that respect was generally had in honour by them.

"Dominis charissimis fratribus, episcopis vol abbatibus per universam Scotiam; Laurentius, Mellitus, et Justus episcopi, servi servorum Dei. Bed. lib. 2. cap. 4.

"Gens quanquam absque reliquarum gentium legibus; tamen in Christiani vigoris dogmate florens, omnium vicinarum gentium fidem prsepollet. Jon. vit. Columban. cap. 1.


Of the temporal power, which the pope's followers would directly entitle him unto over the kingdom of Ireland: together with the indirect power which he challengeth in absolving subjects from the obedience which they owe to their temporal Governors.

It now remaineth that in the last place we should consider the pope's power in disposing the temporal state of this kingdom, which either directly or indirectly, by hook or by crook, this grand usurper would draw unto himself. First therefore cardinal Allen would have us to know, that " the* see apostolic hath an old claim unto the sovereignty of the country of Ireland: and that before the covenants passed between king John and the same see. Which challenges (saith he) princes commonly yield not up, by what ground soever they come." What princes use to yield or not yield, I leave to the scanning of those unto whom princes' matters do belong: for the cardinal's prince, I dare be bold to say, that if it be not his use to play fast and loose with other princes, the matter is not now to do; whatsoever right he could pretend to the temporal state of Ireland, he hath transferred it, more than once, unto the kings of England; and when the ground of his claim shall be looked into, it will be found so frivolous and so ridiculous, that we need not care three chips whether he yield it up or keep it to himself. For whatsoever become of his idle challenges, the crown of England hath otherwise obtained an undoubted right unto the sovereignty of this country, partly by conquest, prosecuted at first upon occasion of a social war, partly by

'Allen. Answer to the Execution of Justice in England, pag. 140.

the several submissions of the chieftains of the land made afterwards. For " whereas" it is free for all men, although they have been formerly quit from all subjection, to renounce their own right: yet now in these our days (saith Giraldus Cambrensis, in his history of the conquest of Ireland) all the princes of Ireland did voluntarily submit, and bind themselves with firm bonds of faith and oath, unto Henry the second, king of England." The like might be said of the general submissions made in the days of king Richard the second and king Henry the eighth, to speak nothing of the prescription of divers hundreds of years' possession, which was the plea that Jephthah0 used to the Ammonites, and is indeed the best evidence that the bishop of Rome's own proctorsd do produce for their master's right to Rome itself.

For the pope's direct dominion over Ireland, two titles are brought forth, beside those covenants of king John (mentioned by Allen) which he that hath any understanding in our state, knoweth to be clearly void and worth nothing. The one is taken from a special grant supposed to be made by the inhabitants of the country, at the time of their first conversion unto Christianity: the other from a right which the" pope challengeth unto himself over all islands in general. The former of these was devised of late by an Italian, in the reign of king Henry the second; before whose time not one footstep doth appear in all antiquity of any claim that the bishop of Rome should make to the dominion of Ireland; no not in the pope's own records, which have been curiously searched by Nicolaus Arragonius, and other ministers of his, who have purposely written of the particulars

b Cum juri suo renuntiare liberum sit cuilibet (quanquam subjectionis cujuslibet hactenus immunes) his tamen hodie nostris diebus Anglorum regi Henrico secundo omnes Hibernis principes firmis fidei sacramentique vinculis se sponte submiserunt. Girald. Cambrens. Hibern. expugnat. lib. 3. cap. 7.

c Judg. chap. 11. ver. 26. TM Genebrard. Chronograph, lib. 3. in SylvesU I. Bellarmin. de Roman. pontif. lib. 5. cap. 9. in fine.

• Insulas omnes sibi speciali quodam jure vendicat. Girald. Cambr. Hibern. expugnat. lib. 2. cap. 1.

of his temporal estate. The Italian of whom I speak is Polydore Virgil; he that composed the book De inventoribus rerum, of the first inventers of things: among whom he himself may challenge a place for this invention, if the inventers of lies be admitted to have any room in that company. This man being sent over by the pope into England forf the collecting of his Peter-pence, undertook the writing of the history of that nation, wherein he forgot not by the way to do the best service he could to his lord that had employed him thither. There he telleth an idle tale, how the Irish being moved to accept Henry the second for their king, "didg deny that this could be done otherwise than by the bishop of Rome's authority: because (forsooth) that fromthe very beginning, after they had accepted the Christian religion, they had yielded themselves and all that they had into his power, and they did constantly affirm (saith this fabler) that they had no other lord beside the pope, of which also they yet do brag."

The Italian is followed herein by two Englishmen, that wished the pope's advancement as much as he: Edmund Campian and Nicholas Sanders; the one whereof writeth, that" immediately1' after Christianity was planted here, the whole island with one consent gave themselves not only into the spiritual, but also into the temporal jurisdiction of the see of Rome;" the other in Polydore's own words, though he name him not, that "the1 Irish from the beginning, presently after they had received the

'Noshanc olim qusesturam aliquot per annos gessimus; ejusque muneris obeundi causa primum in Angliam venimus. Polydor. Virgil. Anglic, histor. lib. 4.

"Id Hiberni posse fieri, nisi autoritate Romani pontificis negabant; quod jam inde ab initio, post Christianam religionem acceptam, sese ac omnia sua in ejus ditioncm dedidissent: atque constanter affirmabant, non alium habere se Dominum, prater ipsum pontificem: id quod etiam nunc jactitant. Id. lib. 13. ejusd. histor.

h Camp. History of Ireland, lib. 2. cap. 1.

iHiberni initio statim post Christianam religionem acceptam, se suaque omnia in pontificis Romani ditionem dederant; nec quenquam alium supremum Hibernis principem ad illud usque tempus prater unum Romanum pontificem agnoverunt. Sander, de schism. Anglican. lib. 1. ad ann. 1S42.

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