Abbildungen der Seite


Still difficult then, if we carefully sist,

Very difficult task, as one cannot deny, [it by. Is the vulgar account of the Pentecost gift; When there's nothing more plain to demonstrats Which the learned advance, and establish thereon What the vicar has built his ideas upon,

But if-“ two and two, four,"--am thinking With additions thereto, which, as far as I see,

bas claim Not one of the learned has added, but he;

To self-evident truth, bas this comment the same! For example if some, very few 1 presume,

The new tongues, which are mention'd in proHave describ'd the disciples as quitting the room.

mising page

Are the old ones, subsisting for many an age:"But let them be many—what reason, what trace, Is it really as plain, as that four is twice two, Do we find of their leaving the sanctify'd place? That in no other sense they could ever be new, Of a wind from above did they fear at the shake? But as new to the speaker, John, Peter, or Paul; And the house, thro, a doubt of its falling, forsake? While the tongues in themselves had no newness Or did they go forth to the gathering quirc, (fire? at all? Lest the many bright flames should have set it on If a thought could have enter'd of going away,

Were this a true thesis, and right to maintain, What circumstance was not strong motive to stay? Yet-two halves are one whole-is bowever more


(pear Then again--that the foreigners, all of them, Till the proof, which is wanted, shall make it apo The language then us'd at Jerusalem too [knew How the two propositions are equally clear : For the miracle's sake one would here have de- This proof may be had from the chapter, you say, murr'd,

Which relates what was done on the Pentecost Which is render'd so needless, improper, absurd, dayThat Jerusalem mockers would really have had The best of all proofs-but, to do the fair thing, A pretence, to allege-that the pious were mad; Give me leave to examine what reasons you bring. For of speaking strange tongues what accountable aim,

(same? That yaworat is languages oft, if you seek Or of hearing fifteen--when they all knew the In the Septuagint, or the New Testament Greek,

Acknowledge you must.”—Yes; 'tis really the Add to this the disciples, the hundred and twenty,

(like plenty; ταις ημετεραις γλωσσαις-in this very place Spake, amongst one another, strange tongues, in Must mean, in our languages; sense, you must " One by one,” says the vicar, who very well saw Is the same as in-Indianextw huwa [own, What confusion would rise without some such a In our languages, or in our dialecta;"_Yes, law,

[gan Two and two making four is not plainer than this, As the text has no hint of; which says—they beTo speak by the Spirit-not-man after man:

But how it flows hence, that in cited St. Mark Could time have suffic'd for so doing, yet why

It has no other meaning, I'm quite in the dark: Speak the tongues of such men-as were none of Few words of a language are always confin'd them by?

To a meaning precisely of just the same kind:

For the roots of tbe Hebrew, in Hutchinson's The vicar saw too, that this could not attract school, Any multitude thither--supposing it fact- I remember they had such a kind of a rule; And so he conceiv'd that a rumour was spread But the reach of its proof has been out of my By the men of the house, of whom nothing is said. pow'r,

hour. Now when men of his learning are forc'd to find Tho' I've talk'd with their master full many an Such unchronicl'd salvos to dissipate doubt, [out One is apt to infer a well grounded suspense;

I believe, that by grace, which the Spirit in. And the more to look out for more natural sense. stiilid,

(actly fulfilled

“ They shall speak with new tongues” was exI wish my old friend would consider the case, In our Saviour's disciples; that, grace being got, And how ill it consists with effusion of grace

They did so speak in tongues, as before they could To speak Parthian, and Median, and so of the rest,

not. To none but themselves being present address'd. Unless he can grant, on revolving the point, That indeed there is something not rightly in they then knew not? is, No. This is doing things

disciples they should speak with, such languages as joint, Or solve one's objections, or show one the way

to the purpose—a bold Alexandrine stroke and I

am put upon the difficult task of showing, that How to clear up the matter—what can a man say?

two and two make four."--Mr. L's Letter,

2“ You cannot but own that the word yaworal in EPISTLE IV.

several places of the Old Testament, according to

the seventy, and in many places of the New 1 gave with attention, dear vicar, repass'd Testament, signifies languages. And that it does Your obliging reply to the lines in my last;

so in the above cited (St. Mark 16. 17.) may be Am sorry 'tis final; yet cannot but say (way, fully proved from the very chapter (Acts 2) in That your patience to hear me has gone a great which, what was done on the day of pentecost And extinguish'd all right to require any more, is related. In v. 11. the signification of Tale If I put you to prove two and two to make four '; petepaus yhworais-is evidently, in our languages,

the same as is otherwise expressed in v. 6. by1 « Your answer to the query_Were the tongues amido doadextw, and in v. 8. by on diadextw nuwe." which our Saviour (St. Mark 16. 17.) promised bis

Mr. L's. Letter.


With respect to good strangers, partaking of | Or whether your patience can bear to excuse grace;

A reply to your hints on the sense that I choose For =" speak with new tongues”-with new lan- In the mean time I thank you for favours in hand; guages place,

And speaking or silent-am And the promise fulfill'd we may very well call,

Yours to command. By one spirit-form'd tongue, which instructed

them all. if the bold Alexandrian stroke of a no Had been yes, in my last (and it would have been AN EPISTLE TO J. BL-K-N. ES2. If the facts bad requir'd it) what could it have shown,

OCCASIONED BY A DISPUTE CONCERNING THE Tho' the text had this meaning, if not this alone?

For how do all languages, spoken in one,
Disagree with the promise insisted upon?

The point, Mr. El-k-n, disputed upon, (John, I allow it fulfil'd; let the ricar allow

Whether insects or herbs were the food of St.

Is a singular proof how a learned pretence The fulfilling, itself, to determine the how.

Can prerail with some folks over natural sense, God's wonderful works, when disciples display'd, So consistent with herbs, as you know was allow'd; And spake by the Spirit's omnipotent aid, But the dust that is rais'd by a critical crowd Ev'ry one understood, in a language bis own, Has so bliuded their eyes; that plain simple truth Loquentibus illis-Madrytuv avtu [good sense, Is obscurd by a posse of classics forsooth! While they spake at the first; for good Greek, and Forbid us to form an unwritten pretence

Diodorus and Strabo, Solinus and Ælian, For dividing of tongues; when the Spirit's descent And authorities down from the Aristotelian, Gave at once both to speak, and to know what Have mention'd whole clans that were wont to was meant.


In the East, upon locusts as big as your fist: But thus to interpret 3, it seems you forbid, Ergo, so did the Baptist now were it all true By placing the stop as old Gregory did;

That reporters affirm, but not one of them knew; Who thought as you think; tho' you bring, 1 What follows, but hearsay how savages eat? At least a more plausible reason than he; (agree, And how locusts sometimes are necessity's meat? From a passage that suits with your meaning alone, Acts the 10th-for they heard_"ov yeep artwy

If, amongst their old tales, they had chanc'd to

determine harrutuk-them speaking (&)gawodaismintongues,

(vermin, W bere, indeed, to that Greek that construction That the Jews were accustom'd to feed on these

It would have been something; or did they produce belongs.

Any one single hermit that stor'd them for use, By transposing two words the grammatical lot Having pick'd 'em, and dri'd 'em, and smok'd in Shows when they are absolute; when they are not; But be it—" them speaking” as you would collect, (For this before eating they tell us was done;) " In our languages" still, it will never affect The example were patter than any they bring, The force of those reasons, from which 'tis in. To support such an awkward improbable thing. ferr'd,

(heard; That at once they were spoken, at once they were

Hermitical food the poetical tribe Nor of those, which deny that tongues, quatenus of classics have happen'd sometimes to describe; Mean always precisely what languages do. [new, Aud their native descriptions are constantly found

To relate in some shape to the fruits of the That evidence", vicar, which here


have ground; brought,

If exception occurs, one may venture to say, Cross examined, will certainly favour this thought; That the locust conceit never came in their way; For Cornelius converted, and company too, Or let its defender declare if he knows Without intervention of languages new,

Any one single instance in verse or in prose. How can any one think, but from prejudice bred.

But the word which the text has made use of Tho' honest, from what he has often heard said,

'tis said, That then they were all on a sudden inspir'd To speak with strange tongues, when no reason

Means the animal locust, wherever 'tis read, requird?

Of a species which Jews were permitted to eat;

There is therefore no need of a plantal conceit, But now being got to the end of a tether, Of tops, summits, or buds, pods, or berries of Prescrib'd to your trouble-l leave to you, whether trees, Tongues, any where else, in the sense you assert, For to this, the sole proof įs, no classic agrees ; Were spoken to purpose, that is to convert? And the Latin locustæ came, only from want

Of attention, to signify tops of a plant, 3“ Let me observe that the words--anyowy RUTW(v.11.) are not as you would have them It would take up a volume to clear the mistakes, put absolutely, but are governed of axsoplev; as Which, in this single case, classic prejudice makes, λαλαντων αυτων (v. 6.) are of ηκοον and as αυτων Thru' attachment to writers, who pass a relation, hohen Toy yaworais are of the same verb (Acts 10. Which others had sign'd without examination; v. 46.)"

Mr. L's Letter. As the authors have done, who have read and 4 See the last reference, where the vicar points have writ, to Acts 10. v. 46.

That locuste are food, which the law did permit;

the sun,

bines the mules.

are men.

And the place, which they quote for a proof that | Tells how it began, and who suffer'd the first, it did,

When his ill-treated priest the whole army

had Is one that will prove them expressly forbid.


Or rather what sufferd; for custom computes I appeal to the Hebrew, and for the Greek word, To the twenty-third niad, where once it occur'd;

That Apollo's first shafts fell amongst the poor

brutes; And where the old prince of the classics one sees, Never once thought of insects, but branches of Instructing botlı critics to construe, and schools, As the context evinces; tho' all to a man, (trees,

Κυνας agros

the dogsmand Translators adopt the locustical plan:

Now, observing old Homer's poetical features, How the Latin locustæ should get a wrong sense

I would put in one word for the guiltless dumb Is their busin( ss to prove who object the pretence.

creatures, But the classical Greck, tho'it often confirm, And the famous blind bard; for, as far as I see, Cannot always explain, a New Testament term, The learn'd, in this case, are much blinder than he: Any more than an Old one; and therefore to pass At the mules, and the dogs, in his versify'd Greek, All authorities by of a paganish class,

Nor Phæbus, nor priest, had conceird any pique; Let them ask the Greek fathers, who full as well And I doubt, notwithstanding the common consent, knew

[is true?

That the meaning is mist which Mæonides meant. Their own tongue, and the gospel, which meaning But for insects to find a plain proot in their Greek

Why the brutes were first plagu'd, an EustaWill cut a librarian out work for a week.

thius, and others,


Have made a great rout with their physical For herbs here is one, which unless it is matchd,

Of the nature, and causes, and progress of plague; Ought to carry this question as fairly dispatch'd;

And all, to the purpose, quite foreign and vague: Isidorus, Gireek father of critical fame,

But be medical symptoms whatever they will, Has a letter concerning this very Greek name, Such matters I leave to friend Heberden's skill, Dismissing the doubt, which a querist had got,

And propose a plain fact to all cunninger ken If the Baptist did eat animalcules or not,

-That the mules and the dogs, in this passage, “ God forbid,” says the father, “ a thing so ab

surd! The sumınits of plants is the sense of the word.” Just then, as they rise, to explain my ideas

Let the lexicon tell what is meant by ognias; · Sueh an ancient decision, so quite a propos,

In plain, common sense, without physical routs, Disperses at once all the classical show

The Grecian outguards, the custodes, or scouts: Of a learning, that builds upon Africa's east,

The word may be mules too, for aught that I know, And the traunts, how wild people were fabl’d to

For my scapula says, 'tis, Ionice, so; feast Upon fancied buge locusts, which never appear,

And refers to the lines above quoted from Homer,

Where mules, I conceive, is an arrant misnomer. Or huge, or unhuge, but five months in the year: To be hoarded, and pickld in salt and in smoke:

If a word has two meanings, to critical test, How Saint John is employ'd by these critical folk! That which makes the sense better is certainly Where the locust could feed such an abstinent The plague is here plainly describ'd to begin (best; saint,

In the skirts of the camp, then to enter within; Of found for his purpose, could never have want: To rage, and occasion, what Iliad styles, If the desc'st was sandy, and made such a need, Incessantly burning their funeral piles; (fools How account for the locusts descending to feed? Which the Gree!s, I conjecture, were hardly sach In short, Mr. Bl-k, they cannot escape As to burn or erect for the dogs and the mules. The charge of absurd, in all manner of shape;

The common Greek word, the Homerical too, If they can, let them do it-mean while I conclude That St. Jobn's was the plantal, not animal food.

For mules is 'muborus, where it will do; coerce

And there was, as it happened, no cause to Thus, sir, I have stated, as brief as I'm able,

Its use in this place, for it suited the verse: The friendly debate that we had at your table;

Whereas a plain reason oblig'd to discard, Where the kind entertainer, I found, was inclin'd, If this was the point to be shown by the bard, And acknowledge the pleasure, to be of my mind:

That first to the parties about the main camp Having only to add, now I make my report,

Apollo dispatch'd the vindicative damp.
That bowe'er we may differ in points of this sort,
Our reception at Orford, all pleas'd we review, Thus much for bine s— the meaning of XU15S
And rejoice in the health of its master-Adieu. Is attended, I own, with a little more newness;

For the sense, in this place, will oblige us to plant
A meaning for sures, which lexicons want:

And if that be a reason for some to reject, [pect; THREE EPISTLES TO G. LLOYD, ES2.

"Tis no more than correction, tho' just, may ex. ON THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE IN IIOMER. But if it be just, the true critics will add,

'Tis a meaning that lexicons ought to have had. Ουρηας μην πρωτον επωγετο, και κυνας αγγες, Αυταρ επειτ' αυτοισι βελος εχεπευκες εψιεις

Both canes in Latin, and xuves in Greek, Βαλλ', αιει δη πυραι νεκνων καιοντο θαμείαι.

And the Hebrew word for them, if critics would Iliad. A. lin. 50.

seek, EPISTLE I.

Should be rendered soinetimes in prose writers or Thus Homer, describing the pestilent lot

bards, That amongst the Greek forces Apollo had shot, By slaves or by servants, attendants, or guards:

Ouques and tuvas have here, in my thought, Where the wise commentatorg confess in their
Much a like kind of meaning, as really they ought, rules,
The difference, perhaps, that for cainp preserva- | That—here it is guards, not miscovoi mules:

[tion. Being join'd with staipou companions, they knew One mov'd, or patroll'd; while the other kept sta- As

& TOPO were men, that egnes were too:

Now let us illustrate the combated place,
A785, which is white, in the commonest sense,

As near as we can, by a parallel case.
To describe the dogs here, has no sort of pretence;
Nor here will the lexicons help a dead lift,

Plain sense, as I take it, if once it is shown
That allow the odd choice too of slow, or of steist: That Homer opposes to-being alone-
If the dogs were demolish'd, 't will certainly follow Having two xuves agyos along with an hero,
That white, slow, or swift, was all one to Apollo; Will call 'em companions, pot dogs, in Homero:
Whose fam'd penetration was rather too deep Turn then to his Odyssey, Beta, line ten,
Than to take dogs for soldiers, as Ajax did sheep. Where dogs, as they call 'em, are certainly men;
Why them? or why mules? for description al- | Telemachus went to a council of Greeks.

Attended by whom (he will second who seeks) lows That he shot at no horses, bulls, oxen, or cows; With his sword buckl’d on, and a spear in his With a vengeance selecting, from all other classes, hand,

[band; Poor dogs of some sort, and impeccant half-asses; He went (having summon'd) to meet the whole Now granting what poem shows plainly enough, So bravely set forth, so equipt, and so shod, That Homer abounds with nonsensical stuff,

That, as Homer bas phras'd it, he look'd like a Yet it should, for his sake, if it can, be contin'd god; To the pagan, and not the poetical kind.

Not alone to enhance the description of song, The mules and the dogs, being shot at, coheres Two swift footed dogs! yes--two puppies no

But he took with him two xuyas apyas along; No better with sense, than the bulls and the bears:

doubt, To exculpate old Homer, my worthy friend, Lloyd: That Apollo had sav'd from the general rout! Some sort of correction should here be employ'd; And, for languages sake, in which matters are One can but reflect how we live in an age spread

That scruples the sense of all sensible page; Of a greater concern, if old writers are read, Any kind of old nonsense more pleas'd to admit, Where it seems to be wanting, the critics should If in Homer, or Virgil, or Horace, 't is writ; To make out fair English for Latin or Greek. (seek But yet, to do justice to these, and the rest If the words have a meaning both human and That time, and transcribing, and critical note

Of the poor pagan poets, it must be confest, brute, Where Homer describes his Apollo to shoot,

Have father'd much on them, which they never

wrote. Tho' brute, in the Latin, possesses the letter, I take it for granted that human is better:

This place is a proof how the critics made bold Do you think this a fair postulatum? _“I do; To foist their own sense into verses of old; Put you only affirm that the human is true,"

For instead of two Greeks here, attending their That's all that I want in this present epistle;

master, In the next I shall prove it-as clear as a whistle, And footing a pace neither slower nor faster;

They have made in some places, to follow hiş

track, EPISTLE II.

Of their swift-footed dogs, an indefinite pack; Your consent, I made bold to suppose, in my The son of Ulysses unskilfully forcing To a fair postulatum had readily pass'd; [last, To go to a council, as men go a coursing. That a mulish distemper, or that a canine, Neither suited Apollo's, nor Homer's design, O:%0105-Yx0b1for master and dame, Like making the subjects, who felt its first shock,

Not alone—to interpret by Homer's true aim, To be men like their masters, tho’ baser of stock: There are places enoo to evince that attendants

Were men, or were maidens, were friends or de Now proof, at the present, comes under the pen, That goes and xuves, may signify men,


Thus Achilles--Y40103—Omega rehearses, You'll draw the conclusion, so fair, and so just, Had two Socce TOUTEç both nam'd in the verses, That if they may do it, they certainly must; Automedon-Alcimus—whom, it is said, It would look with an unphilosophical face, He valued the most, for Patroclus was dead. And anti-Rawthmelian', to question the case: Tho' the proofs of this point, which I formerly

Penelope thus, in first Odyssey strain, noted,

Two auditoos follow'd—two women, 'tis plain, Have slipt my remembrance, and cannot be quoted; When the dame was 8x017and mention'd anon, From Homer himself it may chance to appear,

How they stood to attend her, on either side one. As I promis'd to make it, no whistle more clear.

Had ajmo nono. signify'l cats in the Greek, (seek?

Would not sense have oblig'd us new meaning to That xpnes are guards, in Iliadal lore,

And two dogs as unfit as two cats, you will own, You may see in book Kappa, line eighty and four; To describe man, or woman—not being alone.

Alluding to Rawthmel's coffee-house, where To close the plain reasons, that rise in one's several members of the Royal Society usually mind, spent their evenings.

Take an instance from Virgil of siunilar kind;

Where, in fair imitation of Homer, no doubt, For the mules went before 'em the Latinists He describes king Evander to dress, and march say

(way: out;

Which, a man may presume, was to show 'em the And discern, by the help of his Mantuan pen, Or, since there was danger, the mules going first How custodes and canes were both the same men; Might, perhaps, be because the men none of 'em Where canes are dogs, as all custom opines

durst; See Virgil's eighth book-come I'll copy the For they all were to pass, in their present employ, lines

To the woods of mount Ida, belonging to Troy;

And if Trojans fell on them, for stealing their fire, Nec non et gemini custodes limine ab alto

The men in the rear might the sooner retire. Procedunt, gressumque canes comitantur herilem.

However, both malish, and well booted folks

Came safe to the mountain, and cut down its oaks; Kures agyo. in Homer were then in his view,

And, with more bulky pieces of timber cut out, When Virgil, in Latin, thus painted the two; They loaded such mules, as were mules without And the canes in him are the very custodes,

doubt: Most aptly repeated, dignissime sodes:

When you found in the Latin, so certain a place, Did ever verse yet, or prose ever, record

Where the loading description show'd mules in Any literal dogs, that kept pace with their lord ?

the case, Proceeding-attending-how plain the suggestion Your eyes to the left, I saw rolling, to seek That dogs, in the case, are quite out of the ques. If the word for these mules was egrwy in Greek. tion!

And had they discover'd that really it was, Aud now I appeal to all critical candour,

Conjecture had come to more difficult pass; If Homer's young hero, or senior Evander, But since it was not, since nu corwy came, Had dogs for companions, to honour their gressus, What else but the meaning could vary the name? As translators in verse, and in prose, would pos- Why should Homer, so fond, as you very well sess us:


[quoted, The moderns I think (tho' a lover of metre) Of repeating the words which his Muse had once Should manage with judgment a little discreeter, Make so awkward a change; without any pretence Than to gape and admire what old poets bave of a reason suggested by metre, or sense? sung,

(tongue. If it will not make sense in their own mother 'Hplovos, mules, tho’a masculine ender,

Is always in Greek of the feminine gender;

But opnes, you'll find, let it inean what it will, EPISTLE III.

Nerer is of that gender, but masculine still; HAVING shown you the passage, one cannot should become, by their loading mouvoi, Shees?

How ridiculous then, that ximes the Hees, avoid

In Latin description would poetry pass, An appendix so proper, kind visitant Lloyd, To the mules and the dogs, which a little while That should call 'em mulos, and then load 'em since


sevince: Were guards and piqnets, as verse sought to Both the word, and the sense, which is really Whether xuyis attended, two footed, or four,

the bard's, Upon heroes or kings, let the critics explore; Show the masculine mules to be certainly guards: But

opres for mules, in old Homer's intent, Any mules I desire any critic to pame, I suspect that his rhapsodies never once meant. If Jacks in the gender, that are not the same: The word is twice us'd in the twenty-third book, May be offer'd, perhaps, as a masculine plea;

One place, which I hinted at, over our tea, In the space of five lines; where I made you to look;

But if folks were unbiass'd, they quickly would find

A mistake to be there of the very same kind. I'll refresh your attention-Achilles, know then, Had desir'd Agamemnon, the monarch of men, The Trojans met Priam at one of their gates, To exhort 'em to bring, when the morning ap- With the corps of his Hector-Omega relatespear'd,

Whom they would have lamented there, all the And prepare proper wood, for a pile to be reard, day long, For the purpose of burning, as custom instill’d, Had not Priam, addressing himself to the throng, The remains of Patroclus, whom Hector had Made a speech“Let me pass with the mules"kill'd.

and so on


For mules drew the hearse 'which the corps lay When the Morning appeard, with her rosyfy'd Now the words that he said, at the entrance of fingers,

Were- -Ουρευσι διελθομεν ειξατε μοι. [Troy, Agamemnon obey'd; and exhorted the bringers, The mules and the men;-as translation pre- Priam said to the people, still hurrying down, sents

“ Let me pass thro' the guards"(to go into the Exhorted them all to come out of their tents:

town) So the men and the mules lay amongst one an- This is much better sense, by the leave of the other,

schools, If this be the case, in some hammocs or other; Than for Priam to say," Let me pass with the And the men, taking with 'em ropes, hatehets, mules." and tools,

(mules. Por-Idæus directed the mulish machine, Were conducted, it seems, to the wood by the While horses drew that in which Priam was seens

« ZurückWeiter »