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took far more effectual means of strengthening English influence in the Duchy. The complaints so loudly and so justly made of the want of protection to life and property in the other provinces, where the troops were never employed against the bands of freebooters, and often found joining in their devastations, did not extend to Normandy. There all means were used to repress violence, and make the peaceable inhabitants secure. Trade was encouraged by the enforcement of the late King's excellent edict forbidding the levy of toll, or anything under pretence of toll, by public functionaries, upon goods carried from place to place. A determination to enforce the laws was shown in all the departments of the administration; and the college, which has been mentioned as founded by Bedford, had for its object the teaching of civil and canon law, for which purpose it was judiciously made independent of the University of Paris.

The view of his position in France which suggested this course was not by any means too desponding. His only remaining chance of success depended upon the continuance of the Burgundian alliance, the commencement of which had alone made the conquest a possible event. But the course of submitting to England, pursued under the influence of the Bourguignon party, was not more unnatural in the French than in Philip, though it wanted the excuse of his resentment against the authors of his father's death. Nor was the union of the two crowns in the English monarch more contrary to the interests of France {and of England too) than to those of a Burgundian prince, who must have lost even the shadow of independence in the neighbourhood of a monarchy so enormously extended. The personal feelings under which he had so long acted, and which the quarrel with Gloster had weakened, began to give way before the sense of what his own safety and that of his dominions required. Charles spared no pains to court him in every way, and particularly to soothe those feelings. Acknowledgments, apologies, expressions of deep concern, protestations of innocence, affirmations of his powerless condition at a tender age in the hands of others, promises of pursuit and vengeance against the guilty, as well as pious foundations for the victim —these were the assurances unsparingly made to the son, while the prince was to be won over by lavish offers of release from feudal subjection and the cession of considerable territories. Against the influence thus exerted Bedford's only hold was in the honourable feelings of Philip, and the relationship of brother-inlaw through the Duchess Anne. Those ties, with the offer of the Regency two years before, had prevailed over the attempts of Charles in the negotiations at Compiegne. But this intercourse had since the coronation been renewed; it had ended Sept. 8, m a *w0 years' truce; and there imme1431. diately followed the significant absence of Philip from that solemnity. He had, however, very fairly given such previous indications as left no doubt


of his determination to retire from the war. He had sent a formal remonstrance both to the Council in London and to the Court at Rouen, the burthen of his complaint being the inadequate exertions of England, which threw upon him the whole weight of the contest. It was well known that his subjects had always disapproved of the alliance, and that his nobles and States had refused their oaths to the Treaty of Troyes. The position in which he found himself between his interest, according with his duty to his people, on the one hand, and his feelings of honour towards Bedford on the other, was the source of great pain to a man whose nature had gained for him the appellation of " The Kind;" and he is said to have exclaimed immediately before the remonstrance, on receiving the tidings of his infant son's death, "Would to Heaven it were my own; I should deem it a blessing!"—These details respecting the approach of the Burgundian alliance to its close are of great importance both for their bearing upon the judgment which we may pronounce on Bedford's conduct, and for the evidence which they afford that the failure of the invasion was not accidental, but inevitable.

During these two years nothing of any moment occurred in the field. Some places of little account were taken on either side; but the allies suffered much more in being forced to raise the siege of Compiegne than they gained by any other advantage. The truce did not prevent the Burgundian troops from occasionally acting with Bedford under the cover of the operation being his and not theirs, the object of the soldiers in both armies being indeed the same, rather to plunder the country than press the objects of the war, which was carried on with diminished April 20, spirit and little success. In the following 1432. year Chartres was taken by surprise. A friar, the favourite preacher of the place, had in league with the Armagnacs collected all the inhabitants and most of the soldiers at a great display of his gifts, while a body of Charles's troops contrived to enter in the disguise of waggoners conveying goods to the traders of the town, who also favoured the King's Aug. 10, Party- Some time after the allies were com1432- pelled to raise the siege of Lagny, before which they had lain for three months. But an event soon followed which put an end to all hope of the alliance continuing even in name or in form. The Duchess of Bedford died after a short illness, and the influence which alone had of late maintained it was at an end. Within six months the Duke married again; and the object of his choice was Jacquetta of Luxembourg, daughter of Count de St. Pol, and niece of Therouanne, Bedford's Chancellor of France —a match which Philip represented as giving him great displeasure, both because he had not been consulted, and because, St. Pol being his vassal, his consent ought to have been asked. Bedford has been generally blamed for this step, as if it had put an end to the alliance by causing the estrangement of his brother-in-law; but it seems certain that it only at

most gave Philip a pretext for the course he had resolved to pursue more openly, now that the last link which bound him was broken by his sister's death. That Bedford should have sacrificed great public interests to his personal views or feelings is a supposition repugnant to the whole course of his life; and if he may be thought to have shown too little respect towards his ally in the manner of his proceeding, surely we are far too ill-informed of all its details to pronounce an opinion upon such a point. The Burgundian plainly availed himself of the breach of feudal etiquette to make out a case of grievance; for as to the second marriage being contracted so soon after the first wife's decease, in the families of princes, especially in those times, such matches were far from being uncommon. The fact undoubtedly is that the alliance had long come to its natural close. Formed originally in direct opposition to the public duty of one party, and to his own true interests, it had been continued by the influence of personal feelings; when those feelings no longer acted, there was an end of the connexion, and of the accident which alone had ever given a chance of success to the English invasion.

The operations of the war seemed now to have terminated with the virtual dissolution of the alliance; and as Charles could gain little by a renewal of his negotiation with Philip, nothing was done for some time towards a formal and final settlement, which, it was believed, might include England as well as Burgundy. But after some discussions at Nevers,

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